10: Inter-Act,
th
13
Edition
Disclosure and
Privacy
1
Self-Disclosure
Revealing
confidential or
secret information
Privacy
Withholding
personal
information to
enhance
autonomy or
minimize
vulnerability
2
The Disclosure–Privacy
Dialectic
The tension between sharing personal
information and keeping personal
information confidential – also called
the openness and closedness dialectic
3
Communication Privacy
Management (CPM) Theory
• CPM: provides a framework for
understanding the decision-making
process people use to manage
disclosure and privacy
• Rules designed to maximize benefits of
disclosure while minimizing risks
4
Petronio’s 5 Disclosure Principles
1. Private information is “owned” and people believe they
have the right to control it.
2. Control is accomplished through privacy rules.
3. When private information is disclosed, the recipient
becomes co-owner of the information.
4. Third-party access concerns
• Permeability: how much can be told
• Linkage: who else can know
• Ownership: who makes third-party disclosure
5. We are likely to encounter boundary turbulence, privacy
violations, intrusions, and dilemmas.
5
Factors in CPM Theory Rules
• Culture
• Individualistic cultures value privacy more
than collectivist cultures.
• Americans tend to disclose more than most
cultures.
• Gender
• Men tend to disclose less: “strong and
silent” type.
• Women tend to disclose more: “nurturing
and sensitive” type.
6
Factors in CPM Theory Rules
• Motivation
• Disclose more to people we know or want
to know
• May disclose secrets of those we don’t like
• Risk–benefit analysis
• Weigh the advantages/disadvantages of
disclosing
• Context
• Disclose to a “professional”
• May “tell” when another is in danger
7
Social Penetration Theory
Over time relationships move from
lesser to greater intimacy based on the
increasing number of topics that
partners discuss and the degree of
personal information disclosed on
those topics (Altman and Dolman).
8
Effects of Disclosure and
Privacy on Relationships
• Disclosing secrets may damage/end
relationship.
• Partners don’t disclose at the same
time/rate.
• Disclosing to a third party may damage
trust.
• Some may choose to protect others by
not disclosing information.
9
Effects of Social Media on Privacy
• Social media and cell
phone use in public
blur the distinction
between public and
private
communication.
• Social media and the
Internet are changing
what people view as
private and public.
10
Warranting Theory
• We use Facebook pages to create
perceptions of others:
• Tags
• Posts
• Blog comments
• Warranting theory: We find behaviors of
others more credible when it cannot be
easily manipulated by the person whom
it describes.
11
Digitally Managing Your
Personal Information
• Do not carry on private phone
conversations in public places.
• Do not post information online that you
would not want your employers,
enemies, or identity thieves to see.
• Be aware that others can digitally alter
your digital image.
• Use social media privacy settings.
12
Appropriate Self-Disclosure
•Self-disclose the kind of
information you want
others to disclose to
you.
•Self-disclose more
intimate information only
when you believe the
disclosure represents an
acceptable risk.
•Continue intimate selfdisclosure only if it is
reciprocated.
•Move self-disclosure to
deeper levels gradually.
•Reserve intimate or
very personal selfdisclosure for ongoing
relationships.
13
Reciprocal
self-disclosure
has the greatest
positive effects.
14
Skills for Self-Disclosure
and Privacy Management
• Owning feelings and opinions
• Crediting yourself for feelings and
opinions
• Making “I” statements
• Describing behavior and feelings
• Recounting specific behaviors without
drawing conclusions
• Owning and explaining emotions
15
Describing
Feelings
Explaining
emotions one
feels in a precise
and unemotional
manner
Displaying
Feelings
Showing
emotions through
facial reactions,
body language, or
paralanguage
16
Protecting Privacy
Making a conscious decision to
withhold information or feelings from
others
• Change the subject.
• Mask feelings.
• Tell a “white lie.”
• Establish boundaries.
17
Giving Personal
Feedback
Describing
Behavior
Constructive
Criticism
Recounting
specific behaviors
of another
without commenting
on appropriateness
Describes the
negative
behaviors of
another
and their effects
18
Describing Behavior
• Identify the overall impression you are
experiencing.
• Recall the specific behaviors that led to
the impression.
• Form a message to report only what
you have seen or heard without drawing
a conclusion about the behaviors.
19
Giving Constructive
Criticism
• Begin by describing the behavior.
• Preface a negative statement with a
positive one.
• Be as specific as possible.
• Suggest how the person can change the
behavior.
20
Praising
Describing specific
positive behaviors
or accomplishments
of another and the
effects of the
behavior
21
Asking for Feedback
•
•
•
•
•
Think of feedback as in your best interest.
Be prepared for an honest response.
Specify the kind of feedback you are seeking.
Avoid loaded questions.
Try to avoid negative verbal and nonverbal
reactions to feedback.
• Paraphrase what you hear.
• Show gratitude for the feedback.
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Self-Disclosure and Privacy