ASSESSING
INTERCULTURAL
INSTRUCTION IN FL
TEACHING PRACTICES
Mª Elena Gómez Parra
University of Córdoba
Spain
Rennes, 11th-13th June 2007
Index
0.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Introduction
The theoretical background
The design of the experiment
The booklet for the analysis
Conclusions
Homines dum docent discunt
Rennes, June ‘07
2
0. Introduction
• New teachers’ role: intercultural
mediators
• Reasons: geographical, economic,
social …
• Task: to make students interculturally
competent
Rennes, June ‘07
3
0. Introduction
• Objective: to measure the intercultural
competence of in service teachers.
• How? By a questionnaire handed out
to future teachers (F. of Education)
Rennes, June ‘07
4
0. Introduction
• Why? New role of teachers
• When? During two years (practices
period of students)
Rennes, June ‘07
5
0. Introduction
• Hypothesis: in service teachers
generally lack intercultural
competence.
• This questionnaire will help to raise
awareness of their intercultural
needs and their pupils’.
Rennes, June ‘07
6
1. Theoretical background
• Language and Culture (Byram
1989, Kramsch 1996, etc.)
• Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: language
shapes thought
Rennes, June ‘07
7
1. Theoretical background
• Cultural assumptions as a source
of misunderstandings
• Onion’s model
• Cultural iceberg
Rennes, June ‘07
8
1. Theoretical background
• What you get is what you see?
Paralanguage
• Haptics
Kinesics
• Oculesics
Chronemics
• Body coverings …
Rennes, June ‘07
9
1. Theoretical background
• Byram’s (1997) concept of
intercultural competence:
“to be able to interact effectively
(using linguistic and non-linguistic
resources) with people from another
country in a foreign language”
Rennes, June ‘07
10
1. Theoretical background
• Some disagreement with Byram’s
(1997) concept of intercultural
competence:
the cultural distance between
speakers of the same lg.
Rennes, June ‘07
11
1. Theoretical background
• The Council of Europe:
 The Common European Framework of
Reference for Languages (CEF)
The European Language Portfolio (ELP)
Hegemony of English
European Citizenship
Rennes, June ‘07
12
2. Design of the Experiment
• What? To measure if the school-system is
preparing pupils to be intercultural
mediators
• Who? In service teachers by future
teachers
• Why? Intercultural needs of both
subject groups and society demands.
“Security distance” and “not-real-assessment”
Rennes, June ‘07
13
2. Design of the Experiment
• When? In their practices period
• Distribution of Practices in the FCE of the
UCO:
1st Year: Observation,15 days (around February)
2nd Year: Participation,1 month (around March)
3rd Year: Intervention, 2 months (one around
January and the other around April)
Rennes, June ‘07
14
2. Design of the Experiment
• So, who?
 20 students in their 1st and 2nd year
 10 selected + 10 at random
 Mixed group
• Why?
 Experiment for 2 years (at least)
 Not the “first teacher” in the class
 Possibility of continuation
Rennes, June ‘07
15
3. The booklet
Section 1: The teacher of English
Section 2: Speaking and Listening
Section 3: Reading
Section 4: Writing
Rennes, June ‘07
16
3. The booklet
Before gathering data
for this section, ask
for permission to the
teacher (it is important
not to make him/her
feel
uncomfortable
with this situation).
Through an interview,
or by your own
observation,
collect
data on the following.
Personal profile of the teacher
How proficient is s/he in English?
Does s/he use English as the
communication
language
in
the
classroom?
Your notes
Does s/he have a positive attitude
towards the English/American …
culture?
Does s/he travel frequently to an
English-speaking country?
Does s/he frequently use his/her travel
anecdotes as a resource?
Does s/he frequently use his/her
knowledge about English/American …
literature as a resource?
Does s/he frequently use his/her
knowledge about English/American …
songs as a resource?
Does s/he frequently use his/her
knowledge about English/American …
food as a resource?
Could s/he be said to be ‘Englishculturally interested’? Can pupils
perceive that?
Rennes, June ‘07
SECTION ONE:
THE TEACHER OF ENGLISH. SHEET 1
17
3. The booklet
 Purposes:
 To assess the teacher’s general profile
(competence, attitude)
 To make students and teachers aware of
the real purpose of this analysis
 To make students aware that they must go
through the whole doc.
Rennes, June ‘07
SECTION ONE:
THE TEACHER OF ENGLISH. SHEET 1
18
3. The booklet
ACTIVITY/
RESOURCE
EVALUATING THE METHODODOLOGY
PAIR/ SMALL SMALL/LARG
CHILD WITH
GROUP
E GROUP
ADULT
SMALL/LARGE
GROUP WITH
ADULT
Interactive
speaking &
listening
activities
Role play,
dramatic play,
drama &
storytelling
Video and/or
photo-based
discussions
Crosscurricular
exercises
Songs,
chants
Choral/drill
repetition
Rennes, June ‘07
SPEAKING AND LISTENING ANALYSIS.
SHEET 1
19
3. The booklet
Speaking + Listening:
Time pressure for the students
Interaction between the two skills
Purpose: to evaluate the type of
groupings in interactive and
communicative activities
Rennes, June ‘07
SPEAKING AND LISTENING ANALYSIS.
SHEET 1
20
3. The booklet
EVALUATING THE METHODODOLOGY
ACTIVITY/
RESOURCE
PAIR/ SMALL SMALL/LARGE
GROUP
GROUP
CHILD WITH
ADULT
SMALL/LARGE
GROUP WITH
ADULT
Interactive speaking &
listening activities on
cultural differences
Role play, dramatic play,
drama & storytelling
based on traditional tales
Video and/or photo-based
discussions on famous
facts or people
Cross-curricular
discussions (based on
common cultural facts
such as food, weather,
etc.)
Culturally-diverse songs
and chants
Choral/drill repetition of
words in different
languages
Rennes, June ‘07
SPEAKING AND LISTENING ANALYSIS.
SHEET 2
21
3. The booklet
• Purpose: to observe if there is
some introduction of the
intercultural component in the
English class (same type of
activities as those in
Sheet 1)
Rennes, June ‘07
SPEAKING AND LISTENING ANALYSIS.
SHEET 2
22
3. The booklet
RECORD OF ANALYSIS
An aide reminder of things to look for:
Look for signs of evaluate
& reflective thinking
questioning
commenting
repeating
participating
describing
responding
reinforcing
expressing opinions
arguing
discussing
requesting
reasoning
persuading
turn taking
acknowledging
Rennes, June ‘07
Look for
Tick those features found
listening attentively
body language
gestures
eye contact
facial expression
confidence
awareness of audience
awareness of purpose
body contact
supporting
asserting
planning
collaborating
initiating
narrating
speculating
hypothesizing
negotiating
justifying
categorizing
recalling
comparing
SPEAKING AND LISTENING
ANALYSIS. SHEET 3
23
3. The booklet
• Purpose:
To help students summarize the
final objective of their observations
To connect the interaction of
language and paralanguage
(kinesics, haptics, oculesics…)
Homework for students
Rennes, June ‘07
SPEAKING AND LISTENING ANALYSIS.
SHEET 3
24
3. The booklet
A. Opportunities and Experiences
The kinds of opportunities and experiences that are offered in school will influence the way children view
reading. The quality of the books themselves will also influence the child’s interest and engagement, as will
their organization and display. The variety of topics will make them aware of the fact that reading is not boring
and, of course, this skill is the perfect opportunity to introduce intercultural topics. The reading environment,
both physical and social, will obviously also be a powerful factor in supporting children’s development as
readers.
Please, take the time to discuss the following questions with other students.
•What messages about reading are implied by reading in school?
•What kind of topics must be introduced?
•What overt messages about reading can be given to the children in class and how?
•What overt messages can be given about intercultural reading in class and how?
•What covert messages can be given if reading is mono-cultural?
•What range of reading material should be available for the children in the class?
•What choices must children have in their book selection?
•How should be reading done? Alone? With each other? Reading of the teacher to the children? Choral
reading?
•What physical aspects of the classroom environment can promote reading for pleasure and information?
Do you consider useful to have racks/bookshelves with books and/or comfortable seating?
•What time aspects of the planning could be improved to leave some time for reading in the English class?
Would you consider that useful?
•How can be parental involvement encouraged and supported?
•From all your discussion and reflection about this how would you answer these questions:
1.“How must be reading taught in school?” (list main points only)
2. “How can be reading used for intercultural purposes?”
Rennes, June ‘07
READING ANALYSIS.
SHEET A
25
3. The booklet
• Purpose:
Students’ reflection; writing only
the two final questions
To emphasize reading as the “star
skill” to introduce interculturality
Question: wide range of topics
(messages, physical environment,
parental involvement …)
Rennes, June ‘07
READING ANALYSIS.
SHEET A
26
3. The booklet
Please list 5
books (children’s
Literature in
English) that you
think could be
valuable in the
classroom. Try to
make them
interculturally
varied (you can
search the Web).
AUTHOR
AND YEAR
TITLE AND
PUBLISHER
GENRE
(non fiction,
picture book,
poetry, novel
etc.)
HOW COULD YOU
USE IT? (reading
alone, in groups,
teacher to children…
When during the
class? In what
place/s would be the
pupils?)
THE TOPIC:
Is it intercultural?
In which way?
What is the
message implied?
1
2
3
4
5
Rennes, June ‘07
READING ANALYSIS.
SHEET B
27
3. The booklet
• Purpose:
Students’ own proposals:
intercultural awareness on reading
Not to dismiss new ideas:
(Internet search)
Rennes, June ‘07
READING ANALYSIS.
SHEET B
28
3. The booklet
A.
Opportunities and Experiences
Writing is a means of recording learning, communicating and thinking, and plays a central part in the
whole curriculum. To support children’s development as writers we also need to help them become more reflective
writers through discussion of their own texts, an awareness of readers’ needs and an ability to reflect upon
themselves as writers and the writing process. In addition to this, we have the opportunity of introducing intercultural
topics to be developed in their writings.
You are asked to evaluate a writing activity with the children. Select one from the following possibilities,
explain the instructions you would give to the children (implementation), and finally state the pros and cons of the
activity:
•retelling a traditional tale for a class book;
•developing a play script for later performance or reading;
•writing instructions for a game, problem solving or craft activity;
•writing poetry and illustrating it for a class anthology;
•selecting a personal theme, or recalling an earlier experience, each child could, in a writing workshop, choose and
direct their own work;
•writing notes from a class discussion on cultural facts about weather, food, politics, etc.
•writing a newspaper account of, for example, a fairy tale or a local event;
•shared writing sessions with pairs or groups composing their tale - or with teacher as scribe.
Please, write an account of your writing activity, the procedure and the predictable results.
Rennes, June ‘07
WRITING ANALYSIS.
SHEET A
29
3. The booklet
• Purpose:
 Raise students’ awareness of the
importance of making writing also
intercultural
Assess which of the eight
activities is the best for this goal
Rennes, June ‘07
WRITING ANALYSIS.
SHEET A
30
3. The booklet
B.
Classroom Practices in Writing
In discussion with other students, please, comment on the following questions:
1. List a possible range of writing activities undertaken by children across at
least two days, in table form as below.
2. What can be the children’s attitudes to writing, what kinds of writing are
foreseeably popular and what aspect of writing can they think is most
important?
3. What is the pupils’ attitude towards intercultural topics? Do they accept the
difference/otherness?
4. Do students take writing as homework? Are parents aware of the
intercultural activities students are carrying out? Do you know if they have a
positive attitude?
5. How should be spelling, grammar, and punctuation taught/learnt in this
classroom?
6.How should the teachers and the children respond to, and assess, writing?
Writing Activity
Rennes, June ‘07
Topic/Purpose
Audience
WRITING ANALYSIS.
SHEET B
31
3. The booklet
• Purpose:
 Measure children’ interest in
writing
Assess pupils’ interest in the
intercultural value of writing
Rennes, June ‘07
WRITING ANALYSIS.
SHEET B
32
3. The booklet
EVALUATING THE METHODOLOGY
ACTIVITIES/
RESOURCES
TYPE OF
ACTIVITY
ALONE/GROUPS/TEACHE
R AND PUPILS
TOPIC
INTERCULTURAL
Interactive reading &
writing activities
Cultural information
found
Combined skills (i.e.
reading + speaking ,
et. al.)
Rhymes, poems
reading and
memorizing
Vocabulary learning
exercises
Fill-in-the-gaps
activities
Free writing
Guided writing
Grammar exercises
Cross-curricular
exercises (biology,
history, arts and
crafts …)
Ordering a story
Rennes, June ‘07
READING & WRITING ANALYSIS.
ANALYSIS SHEET
33
3. The booklet
• Purpose:
 Combine the analysis of reading
and writing intercultural activities
Again, raise students’ and pupil’s
awareness on intercultural facts
Rennes, June ‘07
READING & WRITING ANALYSIS.
ANALYSIS SHEET
34
4. Conclusions
 Teaching only ENGLISH is no
longer a goal in itself
Change on the teacher’s role
New society’s demands
Rennes, June ‘07
35
4. Conclusions
 Future teachers of English, inservice teachers and pupils:
progressive awareness of
Intercultural societal needs
Rennes, June ‘07
36
ASSESSING
INTERCULTURAL
INSTRUCTION IN FL
TEACHING PRACTICES
Mª Elena Gómez Parra
University of Córdoba
Spain
Rennes, 11th-13th June 2007
Descargar

Assessing Intercultural Instruction in FL Teaching Practices