CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
STORYTELLING AS
COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
David Berlo’s SMCR Model
Source
(Sender)
Encodes
Message
Channel
Feedback
Decodes
Receiver
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
David Berlo’s SMCR Model
Source
(Sender)
I
Communication
Skill
I
Attitudes
I
Knowledge
I
Social System
I
Culture
Encodes
Message
Channel
I
Content
I
Treatment
I
Code
I
Seeing
I
Hearing
I
Touching
I
Smelling
I
Tasting
Decodes
Receiver
I
Communication
Skill
I
Attitudes
I
Knowledge
I
Social System
I
Culture
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
A Basic Model of Communication
_ Person A / Person B (Sender / Receiver)
_ Stimulus and Motivation
_ Encoding and Decoding
_ Frame of Reference
_ Code
_ Channel
_ Feedback
_ Environment
_ Noise
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
Environment
Stimulation;
motivation
Encoding
Internal
noise
External
noise
(Code;
channel)
Internal
noise
Stimulation;
motivation
Decoding
(Feedback)
Decoding
Frame of
reference
(Code;
channel)
Encoding
Noise
Frame of
reference
Environment
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
A Basic Model of Communication
_ Person A / Person B (Sender / Receiver)
Person A in the model could be the sender
(the source of the message) or the receiver
(the interpreter of the message). Person B
also could be either the sender or the
receiver. Actually, during most of their
communication, they will both send and
receive simultaneously.
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
A Basic Model of Communication
_ Stimulus and Motivation
Two things must happen before the sender
even wants to send a message. First, the
sender must be stimulated. Some type of
stimulus triggers a thought, which in turn
triggers the desire to communicate.
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
A Basic Model of Communication
_ Stimulus and Motivation
A stimulus alone is not enough to trigger
communication. The second requirement to send a
message is sufficient motivation. Think of the times
a leader has asked a question, and some of the
people present were fairly sure they knew the
answer (were stimulated) but did not respond. Why
didn’t they respond? Probably because they were
not sufficiently motivated – that is, they saw no
personal benefit in answering.
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
A Basic Model of Communication
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
_ Encoding and Decoding
After being stimulated and motivated to communicate, the sender must
decide how best to convey a message to the specific receiver. The
process of putting a message into the form in which it is to be
communicated is called encoding.
When the encoder’s message is picked up, the receiver tries to
make sense out of it, that is, to decode it. Decoding is the process the
receiver goes through in trying to interpret the exact meaning of a
message. Everyone tends to read between the lines in an effort to
interpret what the sender means by the message.
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
A Basic Model of Communication
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
_ Frame of Reference
Although encoding and decoding may seem to be fairly simple
process, they are often responsible for major communication
breakdowns. As a sender, you use your own background and
experience to encode messages. But receiver use their own
background and experiences to decode those message. Unless
the backgrounds and experiences – the frame of reference – of
both sender and receiver are identical, problems may develop
in accuracy encoding and decoding messages.
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
A Basic Model of Communication
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
_ Code
The code is not the message but the symbols that carry the message. There are
three basic communication codes:
_ Language (verbal code): either spoken or written words
_ Paralanguage (vocal code): tone of voice, pitch, rate, volume, and emphasis
_ Nonverbal (visual code): facial expressions, eye contact, gestures,
appearance, posture, size, location and time
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
A Basic Model of Communication
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
_ Channel
In many instances, the success of your message may depend
on the channel you select. A channel is the medium selected
to carry the message. Some examples of communication
channels are face-to-face discussion, memos, magazines,
newsletters, radio, telephone, and television.
When selling merchandise or ideas, you should select the
channel that (1) is the least expensive but (2) reaches the
target audience with (3) the appropriate codes needed to sell
the item or idea.
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
A Basic Model of Communication
_ Environment
The effective communicator plans and
controls the environments as much as
possible. The environment includes the
“time, place, physical and social
surroundings” in which the
communicator find themselves.
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
A Basic Model of Communication
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
_ Noise
Anything that interferes with communication by distorting or
blocking the message is noise. External noise includes
distractions in the environment, such as the speaker’s poor
grammar, papers being shuffled, phones ringing, people talking,
cold air in the room, or lights that are too bright or too dim.
Internal noise refers to conditions of the receiver, such as
a headache, daydreaming, lack of sleep, preoccupation with
other problems, or lack of knowledge on the topic.
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Message Codes
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Message Codes
_ Physical appearance (clothes etc.)
_ Kinesics (gestures)
_ Oculesics (eye contact)
_ Proxemics (personal space)
_ Haptics (touch)
_ Olfactics (smell)
_ Chronemics (time)
_ Vocalics (voice)
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Message Codes
_ Physical appearance
- Size, body frame, height, hairstyle, body
ornamentation, clothes and accessories
- Culture-specific
- Can lead to stereotype
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Message Codes
_ Kinesics
- Facial expressions, body movements, gestures,
conversational regulators
- Extremely culture-specific
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Message Codes
_ Oculesics
- Eye contact
- Blinking
- Eye movements
- Pupil dilation
- Averting eye contact
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Message Codes
_ Proxemics
- Interpersonal space and distance
- Extremely cultural-specific
- Highly contextual; e.g. can change
at rush hour
- Divided into: Intimate distance,
Personal distance, social
distance, public distance
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Message Codes
_ Haptics
- Tactile communication (touching)
- Highly culture-specific (Amount,
Location, Type, Public or private
display)
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Message Codes
_ Olfactics
- Communication through smell
- Conscious and subconscious
- Pleasant and unpleasant
- Seriously neglected in research
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Message Codes
_ Chronemics
- The study of meaning, use and
communication of time
- Cultural time differ dramatically
- Things can be experienced
- Simultaneously and polychronically
- Monochronically and sequentially
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Message Codes
_ Physical environment
- Factors influencing
communication (seating
arrangement, color, lighting)
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Message Codes
_ Vocalics / Paralanguage
- Tone
- Pitch
- Tempo
- Singing
- Other forms of aesthetic communication
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Communication
Functions
Emblems  carry exact verbal meaning
Illustrators  add or clarify meaning
Regulators  control the flow of conversation
Adaptors  habitual gestures used in stress
Affect displays  show emotions
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Levels of Communication
1. Interpersonal communication
2. Small group communication
3. Organizational communication
4. Mass communication
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
Steps for Storytelling
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Steps for Storytelling
01_ Analyzing the Target Audience
02_ Crafting the Theme
03_ Selecting the Media
04_ Narrating the Story
STEPS FOR STORYTELLING
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Steps for Storytelling
01_ Analyzing the Target Audience
Who is your target audience?
What media do they consume?
What are their personalities?
What are their likes & dislikes?
What are their needs & desires?
STEPS FOR STORYTELLING
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Steps for Storytelling
STEPS FOR STORYTELLING
02_ Crafting the Theme
What would you like to communicate to your target audience?
Match your theme with the target audience.
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Steps for Storytelling
STEPS FOR STORYTELLING
03_ Selecting the Media
Which media would be best to reach your target audience?
What are the media elements and codes available for
narration?
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
Steps for Storytelling
04_ Narrating the Story
How are you going to tell the story?
Which point of view do you choose?
STEPS FOR STORYTELLING
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
STEPS FOR STORYTELLING
Source
Idea
(Sender)
Encodes
Narration
Message
Channel
Media
Decodes
Audience
Receiver
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
STEPS FOR STORYTELLING
Idea
Encodes
Narration
Media
Decodes
Audience
_demographics
_psychographics
_media consumption
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
STEPS FOR STORYTELLING
Idea
Inspiration?
_theme
_incidence
_character
Encodes
Narration
Purpose?
_to persuade
_to express
_to inform
_to educate
_to entertain
Media
Decodes
Audience
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
audio-visual
Idea
print
Encodes
Film
Television
Radio
Music
Stage
Narration
STEPS FOR STORYTELLING
Media
Decodes
Magazine
Newspapers
Comics
Photography
Advertisements
Posters/Billboard/Flyers
VHS/DVD/CD covers
ICT-based
Video games
Website
Interactive communications technology
Audience
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
STEPS FOR STORYTELLING
Idea
Encodes
Narration
Media
Decodes
Audience
Styles and techniques for telling the story
CA2012 STORYTELLING FOR COMMUNICATION
STORYTELLING AS COMMUNICATION
References:
Hamilton, Cheryl and Cordell Parker. Communicating for Results. Belmont CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 1997.
Hyde, S. Idea to Script: Storytelling for Today’s Media. Boston MA: Allyn and
Bacon, 2003.
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