Chapter 8
Interpersonal Processes & Behavior
Nelson & Quick
Communication
Communication - the evoking of a shared or common
meaning in another person
Interpersonal communication - communication
between two or more people in an organization
Communicator - the person originating the message
Receiver - the person receiving a message
Perceptual screen - a window through which we
interact with people that influences the quality,
accuracy, and clarity of the communication
Basic Interpersonal
Communication Model
Message
• Context
• Affect
Event X
Perceptual screens
Message - the thoughts and feelings that the
communicator is attempting to elicit in the receiver
Feedback loop - the pathway that completes twoway communication
Communication
Language - the words, their pronunciation, and the
methods of combining them used & understood by
a group of people
Data - uninterpreted and unanalyzed facts
Information - data that have been interpreted,
analyzed, & and have meaning to some user
Richness - the ability of a medium or channel to elicit
or evoke meaning in the receiver
Message Influences
Factors that
influence
sent & received
messages
Gender
Reflective Listening
Reflective Listening - the skill of listening carefully
to another person and repeating back to the
speaker the heard message to correct any
inaccuracies or misunderstandings
This complex
process needs
to be divided to
be understood
What I heard you
say was we will
understand the
process better if we
break it into steps
Reflective Listening
• Helps the receiver & communicator clearly
& fully understand the message sent
• Useful in problem solving
Reflective Listening
Reflective listening emphasizes
• the personal elements of the communication
process
• the feelings communicated in the message
• responding to the communicator, not leading
the communicator
• the role or receiver or audience
• understanding people by reducing perceptual
distortions and interpersonal barriers
Reflective Listening:
4 Levels of Verbal Response
Affirm contact
Paraphrase the expressed
Clarify the implicit
Reflect “core” feelings
One-way vs. Two-way
Communications
One-way communication Two-way communication - a
communication in which a
form of communication in
person sends a message
which the communicator &
to another person and no
receiver interact
questions, feedback, or
– good for problem solving
interaction follow
– good for giving simple
directions
– Fast but often less accurate
than 2-way communication
Five Keys to Effective
Supervisory Communication
• Expressive speaking
• Empathetic listening
• Persuasive
leadership
• Sensitivity to
feelings
• Informative
management
Barriers to Communication
Communication
Barriers factors that block
or significantly
distort successful
communication
•
•
•
•
•
•
Physical separation
Status differences
Status differences
Gender differences
Cultural diversity
Language
Defensive Communication
Defensive Communication - communication
that can be aggressive, attacking & angry,
or passive & withdrawing
Leads to
–
–
–
–
–
–
injured feelings
communication breakdowns
alienation
retaliatory behaviors
nonproductive efforts
problem solving failures
Nondefensive Communication
Nondefensive communication communication that is assertive, direct,
& powerful
Provides
– basis for defense when attacked
– restores order, balance & effectiveness
You are feeling
really angry right
now.
Two Defensiveness Patterns
Subordinate Defensiveness characterized by passive,
submissive, withdrawing
behavior
Dominant Defensiveness characterized by active,
aggressive, attacking behavior
Defensive Tactics
B
o
s
s
Nondefensive Communication:
A Powerful Tool
• Speaker exhibits self-control & self possession
• Listener feels accepted rather than rejected
• Characterized by
–
–
–
–
–
–
assertiveness
control
informative approach
centered
realism
honesty
Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication - all elements of
communication that do not involve words
Four basic types
– Proxemics - an individual’s perception & use of space
– Kinesics - study of body movements, including
posture
– Facial & eye behavior - movements that add cues for
the receiver
– Paralanguage - variations in speech, such as pitch,
loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, & crying
Proxemics: Territorial Space
Territorial space - bands of space extending
outward from the body; territorial space
differs from culture to culture
a = intimate <1.5’
b = personal 1.5-4’
c = social 4-12’
d = public >12’
a
b
c
d
Proxemics: Seating Dynamics
Seating dynamics - seating people in certain positions
according to the person’s purpose in communication
X O
Cooperation
X
O Communication
X
O X O
Competition
NonCommunication
O
Decoding Non-verbal Cues
He’s
unapproachable!
Boss fails to acknowledge
employee’s greeting
I wonder what
he’s hiding?
No eye contact
while
communicating
He’s angry! I’ll
stay out of his way!
Boss breathes
heavily & waves
arms
My opinion
doesn’t count
Manager sighs deeply
Computer-Mediated
Communication
•
•
•
•
•
Informational databases
Electronic mail systems
Voice mail systems
Fax machine systems
Cellular phone systems
How Does CMC Affect
Communication?
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fast, immediate access to information
Immediate access to people in power
Instant information exchange across distance
Makes schedules & office hours irrelevant
May equalize group power
May equalize group participation
How Does CMC Affect
Communication?
• Communication can become more
impersonal--interaction with a machine
• Interpersonal skills may diminish--less tact,
less graciousness
• Non-verbal cues lacking
• Alters social context
• Easy to become overwhelmed with
information
• Encourages polyphasic activity
Tips for Effective Use of CMC
Strive for
message
completeness
Build in
feedback
opportunities
Is the
message
really
necessary?
Don’t
assume
immediate
response
Regularly
disconnect
from the
technology
Provide
social
interaction
opportunities
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