Language Planning and Policy
Language Planning
• is all conscious efforts that aim at
changing the linguistic behavior of a
speech community.
English vs. German Immigrants
Language Policy
• is the more general linguistic, political and
social goals underlying the actual
language planning process.
U.S. Government vs. Native American
languages
Two types of Language Planning
Heinz Kloss
1. Corpus Planning is the internal structure of the
language. Activities include a writing system for a
spoken language, initiating spelling reforms,
creating new terms and publishing grammar books.
2. Status Planning refers to all efforts undertaken to
change the use and function of a language or
language variety within a given society.
Einar Haugen’s View
Language planning is a technocratic process
concerned with systematizing and cultivating a
standardized language code to solve problems.
•
•
•
Emphasized the importance of the written
standard over the spoken.
Dialects (regional or social) hamper
communication.
Concerned with equality among standard
languages, non-standard languages are
problematic.
Neoclassical-autonomous approach
Neoclassical Approach vs. Historical
Approach
Tollefson (1991)
Neoclassical
Historical
• Individual choice
• Historical-structural
• Current language situation
• Evaluation is in ahistorical
and amoral terms
• This model assumes that
the field of applied
linguistics and teachers are
apolitical
influence of socio-historical
factors on language use
• Considers past
relationships between
groups
• Concerned with issues of
class dominance and
oppression
• Political stance is
inescapable for those who
avoid political questions in
advertently support the
status quo.
Autonomous vs. Ideological
Street (1984)
Autonomous
• Literacy is a “NEUTRAL”
technology which can be
detached from social context
• Literacy can be isolated as an
independent variable
• Sets up a dichotomy between
written and oral modes of
communication
Ideological
• Concentrates on the “social
practices” of reading and
writing & recognizes these
practices are culturally
embedded
• Literacy is a “socially
constructed practice” having
different meaning for different
groups
• Considers overlap of the oral
and literate modes
Haugen’s Framework…
4 Phases of Language Planning
1)
2)
3)
4)
Selection
Codification
Implementation
Elaboration/Modernization
1. Selection
is the term used to refer to the choice of
a language variety to fulfill certain
functions in a given society.
2. Codification
The creation of a linguistic standard or
norm for a selected linguistic code. It is
divided up into three stages:
1) Graphisation – developing a writing system.
2) Grammatication – deciding on rules/norms of
3)
grammar
Lexicalisation – identifying the vocabulary
Western Apache Writing System
“Prayer for Life”
Apache Language Today
The Apache language adopted the Latin alphabet for their
written representation, adding symbols to indicate unique
sounds in their language. This was largely due to the
influence of missionaries translating the Bible into the
Apache language.
There are no standardized spellings. Words are spelled
phonetically.
Chris Harvey
www.languagegeek.com
3. Implementation
Promoting of the decisions made in the stages
of selection and codification which can include
marketing strategy, production of books,
pamphlets, newspapers, and textbooks using
the new codified standard.
Implementation can be either vigorous legal enforcement
(Native Americans in BIA boarding-schools) or
encouragement (Spanish province of Catalonia, where the
use of Catalan is encouraged, but not enforced).
Implementation example…
Posters in Language Classrooms
4. Elaboration/Modernization
Refers to the terminology and stylistic
development of a codified language to
meet the communicative demands of
modern life and technology. Its main
area is the production and dissemination
of new terms.
Elaboration is an ever evolving process…
Lexical Modernization
Three strategies:
1) Borrowing
2) Extension of the meaning of a native term
3) Creation of the new terms (neologisms)
1) Portable Document File (PDF)
2) Trash Can - (Ko) - Fire
3) Power Cable - (Kqh bitl’ool) - Electricity’s Rope
Boss
Dialects in Thailand
First Thai script 1283
by Sukhothai's kings, Ramkamhaeng the Great
1871, in the reign of Rama V
the Command Declaration on Schooling was issued
Rama V
Language planning: Thai
• Since King Rama V (1868-1910)
• Official language: Thai
• regulated by the Thai Royal Institute
• Assimilation policy
• Political goal
• Acquisition planning: Ministry of Education
1800s, Rama IV imposed English as a new educational
requirement
Language planning: English in
Thailand
• Current compulsory education (year 1-12)
• Bilingual schools
• International schools (88 established)
Adam
CASE STUDY: SOUTH AFRICA
CASE STUDY: SOUTH AFRICA
South
Africa
• Multilingual vs. Monolingual
• Which context viewed as problematic?
• Who decides?
LANGUAGE AS CODE
VS
LANGUAGE AS SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
Liebowitz (1974)
•“Language policy as social
control”
Ruiz (1984)
• Three contrasting views of Language
– As a problem
– As a right
– As a resource
SOUTH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT
• “Official” stance
–South Africa should be a fully
functional multilingual society
A critique of the “official” policy
• “Too idealistic”
–Mfanafuthi Mgqwashu (2004)
• REVISITING THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA
AND ITS LANGUAGE POLICY
Language Planning and Policy
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Language Planning and Policy