Bridging the Research to Practices Gap Tracy L. Masiello, Ph.D. Carol M. Trivette, Ph.D. Carl J. Dunst, Ph.D. Orelena Hawks Puckett Institute Presentation prepared for an Office of Special Education Programs meeting, Washington, DC, November 16, 2006. Major Aims • Synthesize available research evidence on effective early literacy learning interventions • Identify and develop evidence-based practices from this research • Implement and evaluate the use of these evidence-based practices • Conduct general and specialized technical assistance promoting the adoption and sustained use of evidence-based early literacy learning practices CELL Model The CELL model divides early language and literacy development of young children into five overlapping age ranges and three phases of literacy development, which occurs through both formal and informal contexts and experiences. Informal LITERACY CATEGORIES Formal Print-Related Competencies Linguistic Processing Competencies Infant Toddler Preschool PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENT Framework for Organizing Early Literacy Learning Practices Phases of Literacy Learning • Preliteracy Development • Emergent Literacy Development • Early Literacy Development Preliteracy Development The communication and social skills acquired before language onset that form the foundation for language acquisition and emergent literacy skills. The preliteracy period is from birth to approximately 12 to 15 month of age developmentally. Emergent Literacy Development The verbal and nonverbal skills that are the foundation for the process of learning to read, write, and develop other literacyrelated abilities. Emergent literacy period is from 12-15 to 30 months of age. Early Literacy Development The acquisition and mastery of the fundamentals of reading, writing, and other literacy-related skills. Early literacy period is from approximately 30 months of age to five years. Six Domains of Early Literacy • Alphabetic and print awareness • Written language • Reading comprehension • Phonological awareness • Oral language • Listening comprehension Categorization of the Literacy Domains • Print related competencies (alphabetic and print awareness, written language, and text comprehension) • Linguistic processing competencies (phonological awareness, oral language, and listening comprehension) Key Factors Influencing Literacy Learning Literacy Rich Experiences Instructional Practices Literacy Skills Child Interests Child Interests • Children’s personal interests are a combination of their stored knowledge based on previous experience with objects of interest and stored value deriving from their experience. • Children’s situational interests are triggered by features of the environment that capture their attention and encourage engagement. • CELL activities will include procedures for identifying children’s interests and using this information to involve children in interest-based literacy learning opportunities. Literacy Rich Experiences • The environmental arrangements, material availability, and experiences that promote literacy learning opportunities for children, as well as literacy related curricular activities. • Include both formal experiences (early intervention, preschool special education, and other preschool experiences) and informal experiences as part of everyday family and community life. Instructional Practices • Teachers and other early childhood educators typically use more structured, formal instructional practices (e.g., explicit instruction). • Parents/caregivers typically use less formal styles of interaction (e.g., responsive parenting styles). Categorization Scheme of CELL’s Instructional Practices Informal Formal Implicit Instruction Explicit Instruction Caregiver Responsiveness Contingent Responsiveness Responsive Teaching Incidental Teaching Response Elaboration Embedded Instruction Imitation Modeling Parent Scaffolding Practitioner Scaffolding Parent-Mediated Child Learning Teacher-Mediated Child Learning Research to Practice Toolkits • Promote print-related and linguistic processing competencies for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers using formal and informal literacy learning opportunities. • Include printed material, videos, and CD-ROMs, PowerPoint presentations, and other curricular activities. Practice Guide Interventions • Promote literacy rich learning opportunities that are contexts for skill acquisition • Include the instructional practices that can be used to promote early literacy learning • Include specialized practices for supporting the literacy learning of children with disabilities or learning difficulties who require more specialized interventions Developing Literacy Practice Guides • What is the practice? • What does the practice look like? • How do you do the practice? • How do you know the practice worked? Hierarchy of Early Literacy Learning Early Childhood Intervention Practices Specialized Practices Instructional Practices Literacy Rich Learning Opportunities Conclusion The CELL framework is based on the successful approach used by the RTC to bridge the research-to-practice gap. CELL will yield an increased understanding of the effective early literacy learning interventions and the positive outcomes of these intervention for young children with identified disabilities or developmental delays.