Teaching Oral Communication
Speaking
Listening
Rhodalyne Gallo-Crail
[email protected]
COTSEAL Workshop
University of California, LA, CA
Presentation Outline
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Issues in Teaching Oral Communication
Listening Approaches
Speaking Approaches
Principles in Designing Listening and Speaking
Strategies and Activities
Assessment
Issues in Teaching Oral
Communication
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The Place of Pronunciation
Accuracy and Fluency
Affective Factors
The Interaction Effect
The Role of Listening
Approaches that Promote
Listening
• Total Physical Response (TPR) worked by James Asher
(1977) which gives emphasis to comprehension where
students were given ample amount of language to listen
before they were encourage to respond orally.
• The Natural Approach also recommended a significant
silent period
• Stephen Krashen (1982) emphasized the importance of
“comprehensible input”.
• Other studies also showed the importance of training
students to use different cognitive strategies to process the
input. These strategies may include the following:
– Retention
– Feedback
– Interaction
Principles for Designing Listening and
Speaking Techniques
(Brown, 1994)
• Techniques should cover the spectrum of
learner needs from language based focus on
accuracy to message-based focus on
interaction, meaning and fluency
• Techniques should be intrinsically
motivating
• Techniques should utilize authentic
language and contexts
• Provide appropriate feedback and correction
• Capitalize on the natural link between
speaking and listening
• Give students opportunities to initiate oral
communication
• Encourage the development of listening and
speaking strategies
Listening Strategies
• Looking for key words
• looking for nonverbal cues to meaning
• predicting a speaker’s purpose by the
context of the spoken discourse
• associating information with one’s existing
cognitive
TYPES of Classroom Listening
Performance
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Reactive
Intensive
Responsive
Selective
Extensive
Interactive
Speaking Strategies
• Asking for clarification
• Asking someone to repeat something
• Using fillers and conversation maintenance
cues
• Getting someone’s attention
• Using paraphrases for structures one can’t
produce
• Appealing for assistance
• Using formulaic expressions
• Using mime and one-verbal expression
TYPES OF SPOKEN
LANGUAGE (Nunan, 1991)
• Monologue (planned and unplanned)
– storytelling
– news broadcast
– readings (short stories, poems, etc.)
• Dialogue (Interpersonal and Transactional)
Types of Dialogues
• Scripted Dialogue
• Semi-Scripted
• Using Picture Cues to present scenario for
dialog
• Discourse Chain
Scripted Dialog
ALING TOYANG: Hoy, Mila kumusta ka na? Matagal na tayong
hindi nagkita.
MILA: Oo nga, lumipat na kasi kami ng bahay.
ALING TOYANG: Saan?
MILA: Doon sa bayan ng San Juan.
ALING TOYANG: Talaga, may mga pinsan ako sa San Juan. Ibigay
mo sa akin ang address mo para pagpunta ko, mabisita na rin kita.
MILA: O’ Sige, doon ako sa 188 kalye San Jose. Malapit sa
munisipyo at istasyon ng pulis.
ALING TOYANG: Parang hindi naman mahirap hanapin ang bahay
mo. Magtatanong na lang ako.
MILA: Aasahan ko ang pagdalaw mo.
Semi-Scripted Dialogue
• ALING TOYANG: Hoy, Mila _______? Matagal na
tayong hindi nagkita.
• MILA: Oo nga, lumipat na kasi kami ng ______.
• ALING TOYANG: Saan?
• MILA: Doon sa ___________.
• ALING TOYANG: Talaga, may ______ ako sa San Juan.
Ibigay mo sa akin ang _____ mo para pagpunta ko,
mabisita na rin kita.
• MILA: O’ Sige, doon ako sa _______. Malapit sa
munisipyo at istasyon ng ______.
• ALING TOYANG: Parang hindi naman mahirap hanapin
ang ______. Magtatanong na lang ako.
• MILA: Aasahan ko ang _________ mo.
Using Picture Cues
Discourse Chain
Mother
send your son to the
store
Son
Tell mother you will go buy
what she needs
Store Keeper
Greet the store keeper. Tell
her/him what you want to
buy, ask how much.
Tell what you have
and how much
Pay her and say goodbye.
Techniques for Teaching Oral
Communications
• Pronunciation
– Stress, Intonation, Pitch,
• Grammar
• Discourse (Speaking and Listening)
• Interactive Techniques
– Interviews, Guessing Games, Discussions, Roleplay,
Simulations, Problem Solving Activities
• Individual Practice (Oral Dialogue Journal)
ASSESSMENT
• Activity-Based
• Oral Interviews
• Recorded journals
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Teaching Oral Communication