Prof. Gautam Biswas, FNA JC Bose National Fellow and Director Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati First IR: 1775 Triggered by the Prime Movers. Technology and Manufacturing became the deciding factor for World Power Second IR: 1970 Triggered by the Transistors. Microelectronics, Computers and Communication. Knowledge-based industry and Information Technology transformed the society and started playing a major role in World Economy. FIRST TRANSISTOR BY BARDEEN 1947 A MODERN VLSI CHIP CONTAINING MILLIONS OF TRANSISTORS IN AN AREA OF ABOUT 1 cm2 Energy is stored in the covalent bonds between phosphates. ADP + Pi + Energy ATP Hydrolysis of ATP ADP + Pi ATP ENERGY • • • • • • • • • • Data and Image analysis Genomics, Proteomics, Biomics TEM, FE-SEM Telemetry Bio- Informatics Materials for Implants and Prostheses Robotics, cognitive, sensory Real Time In vivo sensors Biochips In order to accommodate emerging Subjects, some subjects could be Dropped. Mechanism for dropping? Lipson EMERGING ENGINEERING SUBJECTS Molecular Engineering Synthetic Biology Smart Macromolecules and Intelligent Materials Manufacturing by Self Assembly of Materials Artificial Intelligence, Self Learning, Self Correction Self Replication Many graduates are unable to take into consideration economic, societal, and ethical considerations; unable to work in teams. We require to look for remedies. Increased economic gap between engineering and practitioners of the ‘professions’. Also there is very little understanding among the graduates about functioning of the Government. A plethora of new concepts (especially wrong interpretation of Industry-connect) for better pedagogical approaches for engineering . This issue requires more focus and better understanding. ABET Engineering Criteria 2000, EC 2000, formalized some of the objectives of the reform in the US. ‘Objectives’ and ‘Outcome’ are deciding parameters Six progressive stages of cognitive thinking, known as Bloom’s taxonomy, are: (i) Recall, (ii) Comprehension, (iii) Application, (iv) Analysis (v) Synthesis and (vi) Evaluation Cognitive learning is demonstrated by knowledge recall and the intellectual skills: comprehending information, organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem-solving and evaluating ideas or actions. Curriculum The current trend world over is to structure the academic programmes in a Credit based academic system The Credits are defined for the activities of the teaching-learning programme built into the curriculum. Number of one-hour lectures per week = L Number of tutorial-hours per week = T Number of practical (laboratory) hours per week = P L-T-P-C calculation Credit point for the course = C One hour lecture in a week = 1 Credit One hour tutorial in a week = 1 Credit Two hours laboratory work in week = 1 Credit The Credit nomenclature of a course unit is denoted by L-T-P-C For example, the Credit nomenclature for the first course in Mathematics may be identified as 3-1-0-4 Pedagogic thoughts following Grinter (President ASEE) Report A minimum of 36 Credits of Maths and Basic Sciences must be there for enhancing the capacity for Interdisciplinary Research COURSE L-T-P-C Mathematics I 3-1-0-4 Mathematics II 3-1-0-4 Mathematics III 3-1-0-4 Physics I 3-1-0-4 Physics II 3-1-0-4 8 credits Chemistry 3-1-0-4 4 credits Biology 3-1-0-4 4 credits Environmental Science 3-1-0-4 4 credits Lab course (Phy & Chm) 1-0-6-4 4 credits 12 credits 36 credits Prevailing thoughts in many Elite Institutes Minimum of 12 Credits is recommended as the Compulsory Engineering Science (ESc (C))courses Fundamentals of Computing (2-0-4-4) Introduction to Electronics (2-0-4-4) Engineering Mechanics (3-1-0-4). Two courses on Engineering Practices (EP) are needed for acquiring engineering skills (Engineering Practices/ Design Practices) Engineering Graphics/ Drawing (2-0-4-4) Introduction to Manufacturing/ Fabrication/ Design (1-0-6-4). Courses in Schools Humanities Prevailing thoughts in many well known A minimum of 16 Credits in Humanities, Social Sciences Arts, Management, Economics and Communication-skills Among 16 Credits: (7) Credits are expected to be completed within first four semesters other (9) Credits are to be completed during the remaining period of the curriculum Among first (7) Credits, one course should be on Communication Skills (2-2-0-4) Communication is the most important skill one should acquire One dedicated course is essential for the students to improve their oral and written communication skills during the first two years of their training. Prevailing thoughts in many well known Schools Subjects categorized as the Engineering Science Options (ESc (O)) include 16 credits. Such courses are Thermodynamics, Solid Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics, Transport Phenomena, Quantum Chemistry, Electrical Drives, Geo Sciences, Materials Science, Data Structure, Analog Electronics, Digital Electronics , Big Data Analytics etc. Table-1: Courses appropriate for first four semesters of the B.Tech./ B.E./ BDes Program. Table-1 (First four semesters) Type of Courses Credits Mathematics and Science Courses 36 Communication skills and Humanities 07 Engineering Science (Compulsory) 12 Courses on Engineering Practices 08 Engineering Science (Options) 16 Here are a few examples how Engineering Science Option can be used by ECE and Mechanical Engineering Department ˃ ˃ ˃ ˃ ECE BTech Programme Analog Electronics Digital Electronics Electromagnetics Digital Image Processing Mechanical Engineering ˃ Thermodynamics ˃ Fluid Mechanics ˃ Solid Mechanics ˃ Electrical Drives Prof. Geogre M Whitesides Courses in Humanities, Social Sciences and Liberal Arts The students are to complete nine (9) credits (3 courses) in Humanities in the final four semesters. There will be a basket of courses comprising of Advanced Economics, Sociology, Psychology, Law, Political Science, International Relations, and various courses pertaining to Liberal Arts. The courses in Liberal Arts may include Music, Drama, Puppetry, Cinematography etc. Engineering students are suggested to fulfill the same general education requirements as all other graduates. Basic Economics may be made compulsory and may be introduced during the first four semester. The basket should also include courses in creative writing and foreign languages. Total number of humanities courses taken by engineering students is expected to be not fewer than five. More courses (a total of eight courses) are possible if any engineering student chooses to take a Minor in Humanities and Social Sciences. Curriculum Revision includes Syllabus Revision Syllabus Revision is a Mammoth Task Three strands — • memory (less) • concepts (more) • problem-solving (tinkering applications) — inseparable Example: In a Mathematics course it should be told that Fourier Transform, Laplace Transform would be needed in Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Image Processing, Signal Processing etc. Courtesy: Prof. Sreerup Raychoudhury (TIFR) An Example of Syllabus Design (MIT): Thermodynamics 1 State of a system, Zero-th law, equation of state 13 Gibbs free energy 2 Work, heat, First law 14 Multicomponent systems, chemical potential 3 Internal energy, expansion work 15 Chemical equilibrium 4 Enthalpy 16 Temperature, pressure and Kp 5 Adiabatic changes 17 Equilibrium: application to drug design 6 Thermochemistry 18 Phase equilibria — one component 7 Calorimetry 19 Clausius-Clapeyron equation 20 Phase equilibria — two components 21 Ideal solutions 22 Non-ideal solutions 23 Colligative properties 24 Introduction to statistical mechanics 8 Second law 9 Entropy and the Clausius inequality 10 Entropy and irreversibility 11 Fundamental equation, absolute S, Third law 12 Criteria for spontaneous change 25 Partition function (q) — large N limit 26 Partition function (Q) — many particles 27 Statistical mechanics and discrete energy levels 28 Model systems 29 Applications: chemical and phase equilibria 30 Introduction to reaction kinetics 31 Complex reactions and mechanisms 32 Steady-state and equilibrium approximations 33 Chain reactions 34 Temperature dependence, Ea, catalysis 35 Enzyme catalysis 36 Autocatalysis and oscillators Prevailing thoughts in many well known Schools Table 2: The curriculum for the remaining four semesters Table-2 Type of Courses Credits (/Courses) 1. Compulsory Professional Courses 30 or 10 courses 2. Elective (Departmental) Courses 09 or 3 courses 3. Open Electives 15 or 5 courses 4. Departmental Laboratory Courses 08 or 2 courses 5. Humanities and Social Science 09 or 3 courses 6. Baccalaureate Project 10 or 2 courses The final four semesters will have about 25 courses, i.e. equivalent to 81 Credits. The total Credit requirement for the Baccalaureate degree is about 160. The above mentioned break-up is a sample/ model. The colleges/ institutes will have enough freedom to add or subtract the compulsory courses. All professional courses in final four semesters may have L-T-P-C (3-0-0-3) Prevailing thoughts in many well known Schools Elective subjects develop the special talents of the individual students to serve the varied needs of society & to take the advantage of interdisciplinary developments Definition of ‘Minor’ students may be provided with the flexibility to credit a sequence of three courses in the “open elective slots” These three courses could be from a specific department forming their Minor Students should have flexibility for the ‘Minor’ option. One has to complete open electives No special design is needed for any course to offered as ‘Minor’. Usual open electives are to be floated with thorough rigor The students who would be earning ‘Minor’ are supposed be very well performing students Prevailing thoughts in many Elite Institutes For some specific Branches, one/ two of the ESc (C) courses may be shifted to 5th or 6th semester. In lieu of that two professional courses can be moved to 3rd or 4th semester. Fundamentals of Computing (2-0-4-4) Introduction to Electronics (2-0-4-4) Engineering Mechanics (3-1-0-4). Similarly, one course from the basket of ‘EP’ can be interchanged with one professional level course of 6th semester. Engineering Graphics/ Drawing (2-0-4-4) Introduction to Manufacturing/ Fabrication/ Design (1-0-6-4). Realizing the importance of exposing engineering students to end to end solutions, a Project Work required to be introduced Table 3. No of suggested courses in different categories Phy Num ber of cours es 2 Chm Core lab Math Esc (C) Esc (O) HSS ENV & Bio EP OE Major Proj ect Total 1 1 3 3 4 5 2 2 5 15 2 45 (ESc (C) = Eng Science Compulsory, ESc (O) Eng Science Optional, OE Open Elective) HSS = Communication skills, Humanities and Social Sciences , EP =Engineering Practices. ‘Minor’ is a sequence of three open electives from a specific branch. Undergraduate Research MIT's Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) is ver well known. The paradigm of Engineering Research is on the verge of third Industrial Revolution. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the future the machines and devices will be guided substantially by the principals of life sciences. Quite a few new subjects have started emerging. The Bio-inspired interdisciplinary subjects, such as, Biomimetics, Microfluidics, Microsystems technology, Bottom-up fabrication, Bioenergetics etc are emerging fast. These subjects require being included as the Department Electives or the Open Electives in all disciplines. Undergraduate Research The students may be asked to design/ develop/ fabricate, on a laboratory/ pilot plant scale, processes, products, devices, equipment etc for teaching, research, industry or society at large. Hon'ble Prime Minister of India suggested the IITs to focus on: Early Introduction to Research in the Areas of National Need. Some undergraduate students can be assigned challenging research projects at an early stage so that they can complete the work by the time they graduate. As a result some projects may culminate into complete product. Examples of such projects: •Manufacturing Suspension System of a Vehicle to be used in Rough Terrain •Bio-inspired Micro-aerial Vehicles •Amplifier Design for Active Piezoelectric MEMS Resonators » Many of our technologies have been commoditized and are easily available even to non-engineers and school children. » We require to develop bridges between disciplines: Minors, Joint Interdisciplinary Projects » We need to educate young engineers to work in teams and teach them crossing disciplinary barriers through ‘life long learning’ » Young engineers have to be prepared to work at the intersections of their own disciplines and electronics, computer science, mathematics, the life sciences.