Phonetics & Phonology
Grammar
Syntax
Lexicology & Semantics
(Skandera & Burleigh:2005)
Variational
linguistics
Discourse analysis
Text Analysis
Stylistics
Contrastive linguistics
Psycholinguistics
Neurolinguistics
Computational linguistics
Dialectology
Sociolinguistics
Ethnolinguistics
Applied Vs. General/theoretical
Morphology
Synchronic vs. historical/diachronic and comparative
Microlinguistics
or core linguistics
Phonetics & Phonology
Sociolinguistics
Macrolinguistics
Linguistics
The Different Branch of Linguistics
The Speech Chain
Speaker’s Brain
Phonology
Speaker’s Mouth
Articulatory Phonetics
Transmission of
Sound Through Air
Acoustic Phonetics
Listener’s Ear
Auditory Phonetics
Listener’s Brain
Phonology
(Skandera & Burleigh:2005)
Simulation of talking faces in
the human brain improves
auditory speech recognition
• (A and B) Difference contrasts
between voice–face and voice–
occupation learning in speech
(A) and speaker recognition (B).
• (C ) Statistical parametric map
of positive correlations of BOLD
activity with the face-benefit
for speech recognition.
• .This figure displays the results
for the ROI in the left STS. See
Table S5 and Fig. S4 for results
for the ROI in the right STS.
Phonetics
Definition
• Examining the inventory and structure of the
sounds of language (O’Grady and
Dobrovolsky:1989)
• Phonetics first of all divides, or segments,
concrete utterances into individual speech
sounds. It is therefore exclusively concerned with
parole or performance. Phonetics can then be
divided into three distinct phases: (1) articulatory
phonetics, (2) acoustic phonetics, and (3)
auditory phonetics. (Skandera & Burleigh:2005)
• Phonetics is essentially the study of the
physical aspects of speech. This means the
physiological bases of speech.
• Thus, phonetics research might investigate the
collection of frequencies of sounds observed
in the production of particular types of
vowels, or it might examine the precise
movements of the tongue in producing the
sound 's', for example
1. Articulatory Phonetics
Study of how speech sounds are produced by
human vocal apparatus
1. Anatomy of vocal organs
2. Air stream Mechanism
3. Voicing
4. Articulation
1. Anatomy of Vocal Organs
2. Air-stream Mechanisms
1. Pulmonic
2. Glottic
3. Velaric
A. Pulmonic Sounds
• Air flow is directed outwards towards the oral
cavity
• Pressure built by compression of lungs
English: [p], [n], [s], [l], [e]
B. Glottic Egressive Sounds
• Air flow is directed outwards towards the oral
cavity
• Pressure built by pushing up closed glottis
• Georgian [p’], [t’], [k’]
Glottic Ingressive Sounds
• Air flow is directed inwards from the oral
Cavity
• Pressure reduced by pulling down closed
glottis
C. Velaric Sounds
• Air flow is directed inwards from the oral
cavity
• Pressure reduced by forming velaric and
alveolar closure and pulling down tongue
2. Articulatory Phonetics
• Study of how speech sounds are produced by
human vocal apparatus: Anatomy of vocal
organs & Air stream Mechanism
A. Voicing
B. Articulation
A. Voicing
Articulation
• Manners of Articulation
• Places of Articulation
Places of Articulation
Places of Articulation (2)
• Place of articulation : Each point at which the
airstream can be modified to produce a
different sound.
• Places of articulation are found at the lips ,
within the oral cavity, in the pharynx, and at
the glottis.
Places of Articulation : Labial
Labial: any sound made with closure or near
closure of the lips
• Bilabial: sounds involving both lips
English: peer, bin, month
• Labiodental: sounds involving the lower lip
and upper teeth
English: fire, vow
Places of Articulation : Dental
Dental: Some phones are produced with the
tongue placed against or near the teeth
• Interdental: if the tongue is placed between
the teeth
English: this, thing
Note: some English speakers produce s and z
as dentals)
Places of Articulation : Alveolar
Alveolar ridge: within the oral cavity, a small ridge
protrudes from just behind the upper front teeth
• English: top, deer, soap, zip, lip, neck
Places of Articulation :
Alveopalatal &Palatal
• Alveopalatal/palatoalveolar: just behind the
alveolar ridge, the roof of the mouth rises
sharply
English: show, measure, chip, judge
• Palate: the highest part of the roof of the
mouth
• Palatal: Sounds produced with the tongue near
the area
English: yes
Places of Articulation : Velar
• Velar: the soft area toward the rear oof the roof
of the mouth.
• Velum: Sounds made with the tongue in the
position
English: call, guy, hang
• Labiovelar: the tongue is raised near the
velum and lips are rounded at the same time
English: wet
Places of Articulation : Glottal
• Glottal: Sound produced by adjusting the
glottal opening to states other than voicing or
voicelessness .
English: heave, hog
SOUND CLASSES
Vowels
Consonants
Are produced with
relatively little
obstruction in the
vocal tract
Are produced with a
narrow or complete
closure in the vocal tract
Are more sonorous
Are less sonorous
Are syllabic
Are generally not syllabic
Manners of Articulation
•
•
•
•
•
•
Oral Vs Nasal
Stops
Fricatives
Affricatives
Liquids
American Glides
Manners of Articulation: Oral Vs Nasal
• Oral sounds are produced with air flowing
through only the mouth
• The velum can be lowered to allow air to pass
through the nasal passages, producing a
sound that is nasal.
Manners of Articulation: Stops
• Stops are made with a complete and
momentary closure of airflow
through the oral cavity.
• Stops are found at bilabial, dental,
alveolar, palatal, velar, uvular, and
glottal points of articulation.
Point of articulation
Bilabial
Alveolar
Velar
Transcription
Voiceless
span [p]
Voiced
ban [b]
Nasal
man [m]
Voiceless
stun [t]
Voiced
dot [d]
Nasal
not [n]
Voiceless
scar [c]
Voiced
gap [g]
Nasal
wing [ŋ]
Manners of Articulation: Fricatives
• Consonants produced with a continuous
airflow through the mouth
• The air used in their production passes
through a very narrow opening, resulting in
turbulence, which causes the noise.
Point of articulation
Glottal State
Transcription
Labiodental
Voiceless
fan [f]
Voiced
van [v]
Voiceless
thin [θ]
Voiced
then[ð]
Voiceless
sun [s]
Voiced
zip [z]
Voiceless
ship [š]
Voiced
azure [ž]
Voiceless
hat [h]
Interdental
Alveolar
Alveopalatal
Glottal
Manners of Articulation: Liquids
• Among the sounds commonly found in the world’s
language are l and r and their numerous variants. They
form a special class of consonants knows as liquids.
• Laterals: varieties of l , voiced: [l], voiceless [ļ]: please,
clear
• English r’s: varieties of r.
• Retroflex r : curling the tongue tip back into the mouth
(US and Canada): ride, car
• Flap [D]: the tongue tip strikes the alveolar ridge as it
passes across it. bitter , butter , very (North American
English)
Manners of Articulation:
American Glides
• The two glides of English are [y] of yes and boy,
and the w-glide [w] of wet and now.
Manners of Articulation (Consonants)
Consonants
Vowel – Features
•
•
•
•
•
Low / High
Back / Front
Round
Nasal
Long
Vowel – Minimal Pairs
• Bag
/bæg/
• Beat
/bit/
• Boot
• /but/
Big
/bɪg/
bit
/bɪt/
bait
/bet/
(English)
Diphthongs
• Combination of two vocalic sounds
English: [aj]
I, eye [aj]
[aw]
cow [kaw]
Gemination of Consonants
• Double/long consonants
English: “misspell”, “unknown”
English Phonetic Table
Phonology
Definition
Phonology is the study of the sounds used in languages: the way
they pattern with respect to each other, the way they are use to
make up words and phrases, and the changes they undergo
(Andrew Spencer)
Phonology deals with the speakers' knowledge of the sound
system of a language. It is therefore exclusively concerned with
langue or competence, (Phonology, then, is not the study of
telephone manners, as one student once jokingly suggested.)
Phonology can be divided into two branches: (1) segmental
phonology and (2) suprasegmental phonology.
Study of how sounds interact in various languages
• Segmental phenomena
• Phonemic Inventory and Allophony
• Sound-change rules and ordering
• Supra-segmental phenomena
• Syllabification
• Prominence
• Tones
• Intonation
• Mental concept representing a physical sound
• Many to many mapping between phoneme and a
phone within a language
English /t/
• aspirated in “tunafish”
• unaspirated in “starfish”
• dental before labio-dental
• flapped in “buttercup”
• Phoneme = set of features that are true at a
given time for a
• Particular phonemic unit (phonological
features) (Autosegmental theory)
Phonological Rules
• Humans are lazy so compromise articulation to
reduce effort
• Compromise in Articulation changes the sound
• Constituents of a phonological rules are
• Phonemes to be modified due to a rule
• Conditioning context in which the rule has to be
fired
• Change that occurs in a sound after the rule has
been fired
• Rules are sometimes ordered in a language
Types of Phonological Rules
• Assimilation
Addition of features due to neighboring
phonemes
phone book /fonbuk/
[fombuk]
n [+bilabial] / __ [+bilabial, +voiced, +stop]
• Dissimilation
• Deletion of features due to neighboring
phonemes
fifths /fIfth/ /fifts/
• Insertion / Deletion
Addition or deletion of an entire phone
• Metathesis
Change order of phonemes
prescribe => perscribe
ask => aks
Syllable
A syllable is a unit of sound composed of
a central peak of sonority (usually a vowel), and
consonants that cluster around this central peak
Prominence
• Syllable(s) in a word may be more prominent
than others
• Prominence can change meaning
Spanish:
término, 'end' (noun), termíno, 'I'm finishing'
terminó, 'she/he finished’
• English
‘ob.ject, ob.’ject
‘con.tent, con.’tent
Intonation
Intonation carries linguistic meaning, e.g.
emotion, intention, etc.
• You are going!
• You are going.
• You are going?
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Phonetics & Phonology - Arif Awaludin's Notes