Phonetics & Phonology Grammar Syntax Lexicology & Semantics (Skandera & Burleigh:2005) Variational linguistics Discourse analysis Text Analysis Stylistics Contrastive linguistics Psycholinguistics Neurolinguistics Computational linguistics Dialectology Sociolinguistics Ethnolinguistics Applied Vs. General/theoretical Morphology Synchronic vs. historical/diachronic and comparative Microlinguistics or core linguistics Phonetics & Phonology Sociolinguistics Macrolinguistics Linguistics The Different Branch of Linguistics The Speech Chain Speaker’s Brain Phonology Speaker’s Mouth Articulatory Phonetics Transmission of Sound Through Air Acoustic Phonetics Listener’s Ear Auditory Phonetics Listener’s Brain Phonology (Skandera & Burleigh:2005) Simulation of talking faces in the human brain improves auditory speech recognition • (A and B) Difference contrasts between voice–face and voice– occupation learning in speech (A) and speaker recognition (B). • (C ) Statistical parametric map of positive correlations of BOLD activity with the face-benefit for speech recognition. • .This figure displays the results for the ROI in the left STS. See Table S5 and Fig. S4 for results for the ROI in the right STS. Phonetics Definition • Examining the inventory and structure of the sounds of language (O’Grady and Dobrovolsky:1989) • Phonetics first of all divides, or segments, concrete utterances into individual speech sounds. It is therefore exclusively concerned with parole or performance. Phonetics can then be divided into three distinct phases: (1) articulatory phonetics, (2) acoustic phonetics, and (3) auditory phonetics. (Skandera & Burleigh:2005) • Phonetics is essentially the study of the physical aspects of speech. This means the physiological bases of speech. • Thus, phonetics research might investigate the collection of frequencies of sounds observed in the production of particular types of vowels, or it might examine the precise movements of the tongue in producing the sound 's', for example 1. Articulatory Phonetics Study of how speech sounds are produced by human vocal apparatus 1. Anatomy of vocal organs 2. Air stream Mechanism 3. Voicing 4. Articulation 1. Anatomy of Vocal Organs 2. Air-stream Mechanisms 1. Pulmonic 2. Glottic 3. Velaric A. Pulmonic Sounds • Air flow is directed outwards towards the oral cavity • Pressure built by compression of lungs English: [p], [n], [s], [l], [e] B. Glottic Egressive Sounds • Air flow is directed outwards towards the oral cavity • Pressure built by pushing up closed glottis • Georgian [p’], [t’], [k’] Glottic Ingressive Sounds • Air flow is directed inwards from the oral Cavity • Pressure reduced by pulling down closed glottis C. Velaric Sounds • Air flow is directed inwards from the oral cavity • Pressure reduced by forming velaric and alveolar closure and pulling down tongue 2. Articulatory Phonetics • Study of how speech sounds are produced by human vocal apparatus: Anatomy of vocal organs & Air stream Mechanism A. Voicing B. Articulation A. Voicing Articulation • Manners of Articulation • Places of Articulation Places of Articulation Places of Articulation (2) • Place of articulation : Each point at which the airstream can be modified to produce a different sound. • Places of articulation are found at the lips , within the oral cavity, in the pharynx, and at the glottis. Places of Articulation : Labial Labial: any sound made with closure or near closure of the lips • Bilabial: sounds involving both lips English: peer, bin, month • Labiodental: sounds involving the lower lip and upper teeth English: fire, vow Places of Articulation : Dental Dental: Some phones are produced with the tongue placed against or near the teeth • Interdental: if the tongue is placed between the teeth English: this, thing Note: some English speakers produce s and z as dentals) Places of Articulation : Alveolar Alveolar ridge: within the oral cavity, a small ridge protrudes from just behind the upper front teeth • English: top, deer, soap, zip, lip, neck Places of Articulation : Alveopalatal &Palatal • Alveopalatal/palatoalveolar: just behind the alveolar ridge, the roof of the mouth rises sharply English: show, measure, chip, judge • Palate: the highest part of the roof of the mouth • Palatal: Sounds produced with the tongue near the area English: yes Places of Articulation : Velar • Velar: the soft area toward the rear oof the roof of the mouth. • Velum: Sounds made with the tongue in the position English: call, guy, hang • Labiovelar: the tongue is raised near the velum and lips are rounded at the same time English: wet Places of Articulation : Glottal • Glottal: Sound produced by adjusting the glottal opening to states other than voicing or voicelessness . English: heave, hog SOUND CLASSES Vowels Consonants Are produced with relatively little obstruction in the vocal tract Are produced with a narrow or complete closure in the vocal tract Are more sonorous Are less sonorous Are syllabic Are generally not syllabic Manners of Articulation • • • • • • Oral Vs Nasal Stops Fricatives Affricatives Liquids American Glides Manners of Articulation: Oral Vs Nasal • Oral sounds are produced with air flowing through only the mouth • The velum can be lowered to allow air to pass through the nasal passages, producing a sound that is nasal. Manners of Articulation: Stops • Stops are made with a complete and momentary closure of airflow through the oral cavity. • Stops are found at bilabial, dental, alveolar, palatal, velar, uvular, and glottal points of articulation. Point of articulation Bilabial Alveolar Velar Transcription Voiceless span [p] Voiced ban [b] Nasal man [m] Voiceless stun [t] Voiced dot [d] Nasal not [n] Voiceless scar [c] Voiced gap [g] Nasal wing [ŋ] Manners of Articulation: Fricatives • Consonants produced with a continuous airflow through the mouth • The air used in their production passes through a very narrow opening, resulting in turbulence, which causes the noise. Point of articulation Glottal State Transcription Labiodental Voiceless fan [f] Voiced van [v] Voiceless thin [θ] Voiced then[ð] Voiceless sun [s] Voiced zip [z] Voiceless ship [š] Voiced azure [ž] Voiceless hat [h] Interdental Alveolar Alveopalatal Glottal Manners of Articulation: Liquids • Among the sounds commonly found in the world’s language are l and r and their numerous variants. They form a special class of consonants knows as liquids. • Laterals: varieties of l , voiced: [l], voiceless [ļ]: please, clear • English r’s: varieties of r. • Retroflex r : curling the tongue tip back into the mouth (US and Canada): ride, car • Flap [D]: the tongue tip strikes the alveolar ridge as it passes across it. bitter , butter , very (North American English) Manners of Articulation: American Glides • The two glides of English are [y] of yes and boy, and the w-glide [w] of wet and now. Manners of Articulation (Consonants) Consonants Vowel – Features • • • • • Low / High Back / Front Round Nasal Long Vowel – Minimal Pairs • Bag /bæg/ • Beat /bit/ • Boot • /but/ Big /bɪg/ bit /bɪt/ bait /bet/ (English) Diphthongs • Combination of two vocalic sounds English: [aj] I, eye [aj] [aw] cow [kaw] Gemination of Consonants • Double/long consonants English: “misspell”, “unknown” English Phonetic Table Phonology Definition Phonology is the study of the sounds used in languages: the way they pattern with respect to each other, the way they are use to make up words and phrases, and the changes they undergo (Andrew Spencer) Phonology deals with the speakers' knowledge of the sound system of a language. It is therefore exclusively concerned with langue or competence, (Phonology, then, is not the study of telephone manners, as one student once jokingly suggested.) Phonology can be divided into two branches: (1) segmental phonology and (2) suprasegmental phonology. Study of how sounds interact in various languages • Segmental phenomena • Phonemic Inventory and Allophony • Sound-change rules and ordering • Supra-segmental phenomena • Syllabification • Prominence • Tones • Intonation • Mental concept representing a physical sound • Many to many mapping between phoneme and a phone within a language English /t/ • aspirated in “tunafish” • unaspirated in “starfish” • dental before labio-dental • flapped in “buttercup” • Phoneme = set of features that are true at a given time for a • Particular phonemic unit (phonological features) (Autosegmental theory) Phonological Rules • Humans are lazy so compromise articulation to reduce effort • Compromise in Articulation changes the sound • Constituents of a phonological rules are • Phonemes to be modified due to a rule • Conditioning context in which the rule has to be fired • Change that occurs in a sound after the rule has been fired • Rules are sometimes ordered in a language Types of Phonological Rules • Assimilation Addition of features due to neighboring phonemes phone book /fonbuk/ [fombuk] n [+bilabial] / __ [+bilabial, +voiced, +stop] • Dissimilation • Deletion of features due to neighboring phonemes fifths /fIfth/ /fifts/ • Insertion / Deletion Addition or deletion of an entire phone • Metathesis Change order of phonemes prescribe => perscribe ask => aks Syllable A syllable is a unit of sound composed of a central peak of sonority (usually a vowel), and consonants that cluster around this central peak Prominence • Syllable(s) in a word may be more prominent than others • Prominence can change meaning Spanish: término, 'end' (noun), termíno, 'I'm finishing' terminó, 'she/he finished’ • English ‘ob.ject, ob.’ject ‘con.tent, con.’tent Intonation Intonation carries linguistic meaning, e.g. emotion, intention, etc. • You are going! • You are going. • You are going?