Terrorism
An exploration into Terrorism -- its
defining characteristics, contrasting
features when measured against
“Just War” and the implications of
varying perceptions.
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The Middle East: Terrorism
2006-07
Activity: Distinguishing Differences
1.Read scenarios aloud within your team—
taking turns with each scenario.
2.Answer each set of questions on a
separate sheet.
3.Conclude with two newly crafted
definitions of…
A. “Just War” & B. “Terrorism”
4. Share your views/results with class.
What is a Just War?
Historically, the just-war tradition—a set of mutually
agreed rules of combat—commonly evolves between
two similar enemies.
When enemies differ greatly because of different
religious beliefs, race, or language war conventions
have rarely been applied.
The just-war tradition is as old as warfare itself. Early
records of collective fighting indicate that some
moral considerations were used by warriors. They
may have involved consideration of women and
children or the treatment of prisoners.
Many philosophers, scholars and military theorists have
generally agreed that the following six (6) conditions
must be satisfied for a war to be considered just:
Just War Conditions
NOTES
1.The war must be for a just cause.
2.The war must be lawfully declared by a
lawful authority.
3.The intention behind the war must be
good.
4.All other ways of resolving the problem
should have been tried first.
5.There must be a reasonable chance of
success.
6.The means used must be in proportion to
the end that the war seeks to achieve.
How should a Just War be fought?
A war that starts as a “Just War” may stop being a
“Just War” if the means used to wage it are
inappropriate.
“Shelf Life” “Window” “Law of Diminishing Returns”
1. Innocent people and non-combatants should not
be harmed.
2. Only appropriate force should be used – This
applies to both the sort of force, and how much
force is used.
3. Internationally agreed conventions regulating
war must be obeyed.
• Question: Complicated?…difficult to apply?
Terrorism…some definitions
•Terrorism is the use or threatened use of force
designed to bring about political change.
•Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force
to achieve a political objective when innocent
people are targeted.
•Terrorism is premeditated, politically motivated
violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets.
•Terrorism is the premeditated, deliberate,
systematic murder, mayhem, and threatening of the
innocent to create fear and intimidation in order to
gain a political or tactical advantage, usually to
influence an audience.
Terrorism…some definitions
•Terrorism is the unlawful use or threat of
violence against persons or property to
further political or social objectives. It is
usually intended to intimidate or coerce a
government, individuals or groups, or to
modify their behavior or politics.
•Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or
violence against persons or property to
intimidate or coerce a government, the
civilian population, or any segment thereof,
in furtherance of political or social objectives.
Terrorism…and, lastly…
•What sets terrorism apart from other violence is
this: terrorism consists of acts carried out in a
dramatic way to attract publicity and create an
atmosphere of alarm that goes far beyond the actual
victims. Indeed, the identity of the victims is often
secondary or irrelevant to the terrorists who aim
their violence at the people watching. This
distinction between actual victims and a target
audience is the hallmark of terrorism and separates
it from other modes of armed conflict. Terrorism is
theater.
Question: Which definition do you think the United
States should use in its “War on Terrorism”? Why?
The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations defines
terrorism as:
"..the unlawful use of force and violence against
persons or property to intimidate or coerce a
government, the civilian population, or any
segment thereof, in furtherance of political or
social objectives (28 C.F.R. Section 0.85).”
The FBI describes terrorism as either domestic or
international, depending on the origin, base, and
objectives of the terrorists…
Classifications of Terrorism
1.Revolutionary
2. Subrevolutionary/Anarchist
3. Repressive/Establishment
CASE STUDY
Ramírez Sánchez “Carlos the Jackal”
Cell Strategy
Internationalization
State Sponsorship
Counter Tactics
NOTES
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The Middle East: Terrorism
2006-07
Venezuela
Wealthy
Educated
Communist
Multi-lingual
PFLP
Attacks
OPEC
Mobility
Sudan
1994 capture
Isabelle Coutant-Peyre
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SUICIDE BOMBING
ORIGINS
TACTICS
MINDSET
COUNTER TACTICS
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INTERNATIONAL NETWORK
•MECHANICS
•STATE/ORGANIZATIONAL SPONSORSHIP
•DIAGRAM
•COUNTER TACTICS
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"Israel is a rotten, dried tree that will be annihilated in one storm."
"Anybody who recognizes Israel will burn in the fire of the Islamic nation's fury."
Iranian President
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
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C
C
I
T
C
C
N
N
N
TERRORIST NETWORK
WEAPONS
CATEGORIES
•CONVENTIONAL
•UNCONVENTIONAL
•NUCLEAR
•CHEMICAL
•BIOLOGICAL
CYBER
TARGETS
MARKETPLACE
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2006-07
IEDs
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Iraq is one of the most heavily mined nations in the world.
As of early 2003, it was estimated that there were over 10
million mines already in the ground—8 million antipersonnel
(AP) and 2 million antitank (AT), with Iraq both a producer
and exporter of AP mines.
Iraq is considered one of the most mine-infested nations in
the world.
Iraq emplaced minefields for three main purposes:
•To protect its borders during the lengthy war with Iran
(1980 through 1988).
•To ward off invasion during the Gulf War
(1990 through 1991).
•To
subdue the Kurdish population
in northern Iraq.
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The Middle East: Terrorism
2006-07
Types of Chemical Weapons
Sarin: A nerve gas the Aum Shinrikyo cult used
on a Tokyo subway in March 1995.
VX: Like all nerve agents, it is a colorless
liquid. The United States began producing VX
in April 1961. VX agents are among the most
toxic substances known; mere droplets can
kill. Sarin and VX are the most common
chemical weapon agents today.
Types of Chemical Weapons
Tabun: Invented by a German chemist,
Gerhard Schrader, in the mid-1930s. Like
Zyklon-B--used by the Nazis to gas victims-Tabun was developed as a pesticide.
Mustard agents: Cause severe eye and lung
damage. Saddam Hussein authorized their use
(along with cyanide) against Iranian soldiers
and Kurdish civilians in the Iran-Iraq war.
Types of Biological Weapons
Anthrax: Spores that may lead to lesions, seizures
and respiratory arrest.
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever: Transmitted by direct
contact with the blood, secretions, organs or
semen of infected person. No specific treatment or
vaccine exists. One of the most virulent viral
diseases known to humankind, causing death in
50-90% of all cases.
Types of Biological Weapons
Smallpox:
*Serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease.
*No specific treatment -- only prevention: vaccination.
*The pox part of smallpox is derived from the Latin word for “spotted”
refers to raised bumps appearing on face/body of an infected person.
*First symptoms: fever, malaise, head/body aches & vomiting.
*Rash emerges first as small red spots on tongue and in mouth.
*Usually the rash spreads to all parts of the body within 24 hours.
*Bumps become pustules
*Fever, dehydration are serious risks.
*Enclosed spaces will accelerate contagion
Types of Biological Weapons
Ricin:
Potent toxin. Can be delivered via inhalation,
injection or ingestion. Produced relatively easily
and inexpensively in large quantities in a fairly
low-technology setting. During the 1980's IranIraq war, Ricin may have been used. Results in
seizures, central nervous system depression,
severe lung damage, bloody diarrhea and
vomiting. No treatment currently available. If
exposure does not prove fatal within 3-5 days,
the victim will usually recover.
Terrorist Organizations
Focus groups:
•al-QAEDA
•HAMAS
•HEZBOLLAH
•FATAH *
*Not recognized as terrorist
organization, yet maintains
strong stance against Israeli
occupation of Gaza, West Bank,
Jerusalem.
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2006-07
al-Qaeda
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AL-QAEDA
“the Base”
•Bin Laden was born in Saudi Arabia in 1957
to a Syrian mother and Yemeni father.
•He is one of ~50 children of the multiple
wives of Mohammed bin Laden, a
construction magnate who made his fortune
building palaces for the Saudi royal family.
•Inherited $30 million
$300 million
The Middleto
East: Terrorism
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2006-07
•As a student in Jeddah in the late 1970s, bin
Laden fell in with the Muslim Brotherhood, a
radical group devoted to establishing a panIslamic state.
•1979-89 war against the Soviets. Bin Laden
raised money and supplied heavy machinery
for the anticommunist mujahadeen, or holy
warriors, fighting the Soviet invasion.
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The Middle East: Terrorism
2006-07
•Bin Laden forged an alliance with radical
Islamist groups in Egypt and elsewhere,
organizing al-Qaeda in 1988
•In the 1980s, bin Laden disdained America
for its alliances with Israel and moderate
Muslim states, but it was the Gulf crisis that
crystallized his hatred.
•When Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, bin
Laden wanted Arab veterans of the Afghan
war to help the Saudi army defend Saudi
Arabia.
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The destroyer was the target of a suspected terrorist attack in the port of Aden, Yemen,
on October 12, 2000, during a scheduled refueling. The attack killed 17 crew members
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and injured 39 others.
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Hamas
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HAMAS
Arabic, acronym for "Harakat Al-Muqawama Al-Islamia" –
‘Islamic Resistance Movement’
•Sheikh Ahmad Yasin
•Khalid Misha'al
•Dr. Mousa Abu Marzook
•Abraham Ghousheh
•Dr. Abdel Aziz Rantisi
•Mohammed Nazzal
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Organization/History
•Largest & most influential Palestinian militant
movement.
•2006, won Palestinian Authority's (PA) general
elections
• Defeated Fatah, party of PA's president,
Mahmoud Abbas
•Refusal to recognize Israel
•Sponsors extensive social service network.
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Organization/History
•Hamas has also operated a terrorist wing
•Suicide bombings/attacks w) mortars & short-range
rockets
•In Arabic, the word "hamas" means zeal
•But it's also an Arabic acronym for "Harakat al-Muqawama
al-Islamiya," or Islamic Resistance Movement
•Hamas grew out of the Muslim Brotherhood,
•Religious/political organization founded in Egypt
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•Branches throughout the Arab world
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Organization/History
•Hamas founder/spiritual leader:
Sheikh Ahmed Yassin
•Hamas published official charter 1988
st
•1 Hamas suicide bombing April 1993
•Operates as an opposition group in
Gaza, the West Bank, and inside Israel.
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The Middle East: Terrorism
2006-07
Organization/History
•Hamas combines Palestinian nationalism with
Islamic fundamentalism
•founding charter commits to destruction of Israel
•Raising “…the banner of Allah over every inch of
Palestine."
•Leaders have called suicide attacks the "F-16" of the
Palestinian people.
•Hamas believes "peace talks will do no good"
"We do not believe we can live with the enemy."
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The Middle East: Terrorism
2006-07
Is Hamas only a terrorist group?
•No
•In addition to military wing, the Izz al-Din alQassam Brigade, Hamas devotes much of its
estimated $70M annual budget to extensive social
services network
•Funds schools, orphanages, mosques, healthcare
clinics, soup kitchens, and sports leagues
•“Approximately 90 percent of its work is in social,
welfare, cultural, and educational activities," writes
the Israeli scholar Reuven Paz
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The Middle East: Terrorism
2006-07
Is Hamas only a terrorist group?
•Military wing >1,000 active
•1,000’s of supporters & sympathizers.
•2004, > 200,000 Palestinians marched in
Yassin’s funeral.
•Money from: Palestinian expatriates, private
Saudi donors, Iran, charities in the United
States, Canada, and Western Europe
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•Hamas is believed to have killed more than five
hundred people in more than 350 separate terrorist
attacks since 1993
•Not all Hamas attacks suicide bombings
•Also accepted responsibility for assaults using
mortars, short-range rockets, and small arms fire.
•How does Hamas recruit suicide bombers?
•The organization generally targets deeply religious
young men
—although some bombers have been older.
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How does Hamas recruit suicide bombers?
•Recruits do not fit usual psychological profile of
suicidal people, who are often desperate or clinically
depressed
•Hamas bombers often hold paying jobs
•What they have in common, studies say, is an
intense hatred of Israel
•After a bombing, Hamas gives the family of the
suicide bomber between $3,000-$5,000 and assures
them their son died a martyr in holy jihad
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How does Hamas train the bombers?
•Recruits undergo intense religious
indoctrination, attend lectures, and undertake
long fasts
•The week before the bombing, the volunteers
are watched closely by two Hamas activists for
any signs of wavering, according to Nasra
Hassan, writing in the New Yorker.
•Shortly before the “sacred explosion,” as
Hamas calls it, the bomber records a video
testament.
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How does Hamas train the bombers?
•To draw inspiration, he repeatedly watches his
video and those made by his predecessors and
then sets off for his would-be martyrdom after
performing a ritual ablution and donning clean
clothes.
•Hamas clerics assure the bombers their deaths
will be painless and that dozens of virgins await
them in paradise.
•The average bombing costs about $150
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HEZBOLLAH
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Hizballah, Hezbollah:
Radical Shia group formed in 1982 in Lebanon.
Strongly anti-Western and anti-Israeli.
Closely allied with, and often directed by, Iran.
Known/suspected in numerous anti-U.S. terrorist attacks, including
suicide truck bombing of the U.S. Embassy
U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut in October 1983
U.S. Embassy annex in Beirut in September 1984.
Also attacked: Israeli Embassy in Argentina in 1992
Operates in the Bekaa Valley, southern suburbs of Beirut, S. Leb.
Cells in Europe, Africa, South America, North America, Asia.
Receives substantial amounts of financial, training, weapons,
explosives, political, diplomatic, & organizational aid from Iran, Syria.
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The flag of Hezbollah
Green logo: Shi'a political/military organization
background
Logo: ‫هللا‬
Yellow
‫" حزب‬Party of God"
First letter of "Allah" reaches up to grasp a Kalashnikov rifle
Other objects: globe, book, sword, seven-leafed branch.
Much of design from Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps.
Text above the logo:
‫فإن حزب هللا هم الغالبون‬
surely the party of God are they that shall be triumphant"
Underneath the logo: ‫لبنان‬
‫المقاومة اإلسالمية في‬
"The Islamic Resistance in Lebanon"
"Then
Hezbollah's deputy leader Sheik Naim Qassem speaks in Tyre, Lebanon, during Martyrs'
Day celebrations in 2005.
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Propaganda Poster
Fatah
<Not recognized as terrorist organization, yet
maintains strong stance against Israeli
occupation of Gaza, West Bank, Jerusalem>
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FATAH
The Movement for the National Liberation of Palestine (Fatah)
was founded in the early 1960s
Backed by Syria, Fatah began carrying out terrorist raids against
Israeli targets in 1965
"Fatah" is a reverse acronym of the Arabic, Harekat at-Tahrir alWataniyyeh al-Falastiniyyeh.
The word "Fatah" means "conquest by means of jihad.
Note the grenade and crossed rifles, superimposed on the map
of Israel in the emblem. This emphasizes the dedication of
Fatah, along with the other "liberation" groups, to the "armed
struggle" against Israel, a euphemism for terrorism against
civilians.
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FATAH
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Key Political Players
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President Bashar al-Assad
Yasser Arafat
Hassan Nasrallah
King Abdullah II
Mahmoud Abbas
Sheikh Ahmed Yassin 
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Terrorism in the Middle East - Lake Oswego High School