Active Shooter Awareness
Presented by: Safety Counselling, Inc.
3207 Matthew Ave NE
Albuquerque, NM 87107
505-881-1112 / 800-640-0724
www.safetycounselling.com
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Topics of Discussion
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What is an Active Shooter
Types of Active Shooters
Historical examples
How to prepare
What to do when faced with
Law Enforcement response
Dispatch’s role
EMS response
Techniques to reduce an
escalating encounters and tips
to avoid them
• PTSD,CISD, and the EAP
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Part One:
The Basics About Active
Shooters
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Active Shooter Definition
 Active Shooter executes
a random or systematic
shooting spree
 The objective is mass
murder rather than other
criminal intent
 Difficult time for many
people in these tough
times
4
The Active Shooter’s Intent
 Views the attack as
attempting to correct a
perceived wrong
 Usually has a “hit” list
and will search victims
out
 The Shooter often
takes out targets of
opportunity on the way
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An Active Shooter Expects To Die
• Not concerned with
dying so has nothing to
lose
• Moves throughout a
building or area until
either
– stopped by police
– commits suicide
• self
• suicide by cop
– stopped by others
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Types of Active Shooters
 This type of WPV can impact any
industry or business
 Increased media coverage on a
long term problem
 Examples of Active Shooters
have included
 angry customer
 patient’s family member
 mentally unstable individual
 disgruntled employee
 domestic violence spill over
 shooting(s) in the course of a
robbery, especially a robbery gone
bad but this is not our emphasis
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Lt. Dan Marcou’s
5 Phases of the Active Shooter
•
•
•
•
•
Fantasy stage
Planning stage
Preparation stage
Approach stage
Implementation
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Hunters versus Howlers
• Howlers make overt
threats, draw
attention, frighten
others intentionally
• Hunters develop a
hidden plan, acquire
the tools to harm
others, work in
stealth, and attack
with little or no
warning
• Organizations are often
responsive to a howler
and either unaware or
overly-rationalizing for
a hunter
• Calhoun and Weston’s
theory “Howlers don’t
hunt and Hunters don’t
howl. When Howlers
start to hunt, they are
no longer Howlers.” 9
10
Charles Whitman commits
Texas Tower Massacre in 1966
 Initially killed mother and
wife
 Killed 15 people / wounded
31 around tower
 Passersby armed
themselves to intervene
 Killed by 2 police officers
 Autopsy showed brain
tumor and he knew
something was wrong
11
James Hubberty commits Calif.
McDonald’s Massacre July 1984
• 41 yr. old laid off 1 week
before murders
• Killed 21 & wounded 19
• Multiple weapons from a 9mm
semi-auto uzi
• Killed by Sniper from SWAT
• Said he had killed 1,000s in
Viet Nam but never served
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Alb. Hollywood Videos Murders
• Shane Harrison aged 28
and accomplice Esther
Beckley
• Occurred March ’96
• Armed robbery and
kidnapping
• Killed 5, 2 after being
abducted (3 were
employees)
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Larry Phillips/Emil Matasareanu
N. Hollywood Bank Robbery 2/27/97
• Failed robbery that
changed what law
enforcement standardly
packs for heat
• Wounded 13: 9 PD & 4
bystanders
• Both suspects killed by
SWAT after 44 minute
shoot out on the street
• Shooters had body armour
• Armed with AK-47s
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Columbine High School, Littleton
Co. on April 20,1999
• 2 shooters: Harris and Klebold
• Vendetta: 2 angry teenagers killed
as many students as possible
after being bullied for years
• Killed 13 & Wounded 21
• Suspects committed suicide
• Used guns, rifles, bombs
• Changed the way law
enforcement responds
15
Ronald Taylor:Wilkinsburg, Pa. 2000
• Hate Crime: All
victims were white
• March 1, 2000
• Ist killed carpenter
who repaired door,
then onto McDonalds
& then Burger King
• 3 killed, 3 wounded
• Surrendered
16
Cho Seung-Hui commits Virginia
Tech Massacre on 4-16-2007
History of mental illness
Posted pictures before &
mailed info. to NBC during
 32 Dead, 23 Wounded
 Weapons: Glock 19, Walther
P22
 Committed suicide at scene
 Rationale:
 savior oppressed & rejected
 Romantic dispute?
 Teased about speech disorder
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Von Maur Department Store,
Dec. 2007
• Robert Hawkins - 19
• Omaha, Ne.
• Takes others out to
be famous at his
death after being fired
• 9 killed, 5 injured
• Death by suicide after
murders
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3 Murdered in City Hall Council
Meeting in Kirkwood, Mo. Feb. 2008
• Charles Lee "Cookie“ (52) Thornton
had disrupted/arrested at 2 other
council meetings
• Killed 6: 2 police officers, public
works director & 2 council members,
the mayor (intended victim) died
later as result of injuries
• Wounded 1 reporter & shot at city
attorney
• Suicide by cop
• 30 citizens were at the meeting
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Denny’s Robbery Takeover Albuquerque
6-21-2009
• Pablo Ortiz (32 top ) Marvin
Lopez (22, middle) Francisco
Melgar (bottom) ,
• Restaurant robbery on Sat.
6/09 @ 9:30AM breakfast-rush
• Teenage female employee
was killed
• Automatic Weapons w
• Intervention: 2 arrested initially
& other 2 apprehended
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Binghamton, N.Y.: American Civic Assoc.
by Jiverly Wong at 10:30 AM on Aug.’09
• 13 or victims killed & 4 wounded
• Victims from China, Haiti,
Pakistan, Vietnam, the
Philippines, Iraq, Brazil, US
• Used 2 automatic pistols and
wore body armor
• Shooter pinned his vehicle
against back door to block
escape
• Suspect shouted that he hated
America
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A.S. Major Nidal Malik Hasan: Fort Hood
Texas on Nov. 2009
• Palistinian born 39-year-old
of American military parents
• U.S. Army psychiatrist
• Description by fellow workers:
“paranoid, belligerent”
• Terrorist? or upset at
scheduled be deployed to
Afghanistan?
• Killed 13, Wounded 30
• Arrested and imprisoned
until trial in March 2012
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Amy Bishop Anderson at University of
Alabama, Huntsville on February 2010
• A.S.: Amy Bishop (Harvard trained
Professor was academic star)
 Involved in 3 previous police
investigations:
 Acquitted of brother’s murder
Pipe bomb
Shoving another customer
 Police arrested her on the scene
 Vendetta: Denied tenure
 3 killed, 3 wounded
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Police Headquarters in
Municipal Bldg. April 2010
• 29-year-old Patrick Gray
Sharp was only casualty.
No others injured.
• McKinney, Texas
• Drove truck loaded with
ammo and bomb-making
materials into the parking
lot, set truck on fire
• Fired off more than 100
rounds at police
• Suicide by cop
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A.S. Robert Reza: Emcore Murders in
Albuquerque on July 2010 at 10AM
 Vendetta:
child custody battle
Told nephew device
implanted in his head by co.
 Shot 25 bullets reloading once
 2 killed & 4 wounded
 Police arrived from Alb.along
with surrounding sherrifs/PDs
 Shooter committed suicide on
site
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University Library Violence 2010
• Gunman opens fire
in library in Austin
Texas, Sept. 2010
• No one injured
• Shot and killed
himself onsite
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Jerad Loughner shoots Congress
Woman Gabriel Giffords on Jan. 2011
• A.S.: Jerad Loughner
• Safeway,Phoenix, Ariz. at
Town Hall Meeting
• Vendetta: Gifford is
Jewish and he may have
been a member of an antisemetic group: AmRen
• 6 killed & 19 wounded
• Loughner was overcome
by crowd and arrested
• Bystander nearly shot one
of good samaritans who
overcame him
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A.S. Cesar Dominguez-Garcia at
UNM Hospital on Feb. 2011
 Albuququerque, N.M.
 Vendetta: Girlfriend’s child was
admitted to hospital.
Suspect arrived, became
angry and began striking
girlfriend.
Family intervened,
suspect brandished gun and
fired one round
 Police arrested
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Senior Center Shooting in Suisan
City, California July 2011
• 55-year-old Bernardo
Ararao
• Rode bike to Center,
dressed in camouflage
• Showed woman at the
center gun & said he was
"going on assignment"
• 911 called & repeatedly
ordered to drop his gun
• He refused/shot by police
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Construction Site Killing 2010
• Centreville, Alabama
October 2010
• Firing over stolen
copper
• Vendetta: Accusing
electrician was
continuing work on
the site when fired
employee shot and
killed him
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Construction Site Killing 2011
• Miami
• Two employees
showing off their
weapons on a break at
one worker’s truck .
• Gun accidentally went
off killing other worker
during exchange.
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There Are All Types of Scenarios
• Often happened in the AM
• Most usually is the result
of a robbery but that is not
our focus in this class
• Stay alert to surroundings
and situations all the time
• Be mentally prepared for
different violent scenarios
– armed individuals/bombs
– chemical, radiation, and biological
threats
– verbal or written threats
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When You Call 911 Dispatch
• The phone may not
ring right away.
• Most important piece
of information
• Call back number
• Dispatch does not go
to the scene.
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Information That Dispatch Gets When
You Call 911
 Landline
Name
Address
Location address
 Wireless
Phone number
Cell phone carrier
Location of caller
 City Hall/ PBX lines
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Dispatch’s Role
• Job is to preserve life
and facilitate safety
• Multiple callers
• Each caller is a new
witness
• May disconnect you
due to call volume
• Will ask you the big 6:
(Where/What/When/
Who/How/Why)
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Dispatcher Will Ask: Where
 Location within a location
Office number, room,
building
 Hazards for those present
and for responders
Sounds
(gun shots/explosions)
Screams
Injured
Other dangers in/around
location
 Safest approach
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Dispatcher Will Ask: What and When
 What is occurring?
 Are you hearing it or seeing it?
 First hand knowledge
 Just hearing chaos
 Is it just starting, in progress or over
 Information may save lives/minimize
causalities
 What you ADD is helpful
 Avoid repeating
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Dispatcher Will Ask: Who, How, & Why
 Who is involved?
Number of suspects
Still present
Know or recognize the AS
 Describe what they look like
 Physical features
Clothing body armor
 Weapons / explosives
 Why is this happening?
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A.S. Status vs Victim Status
 Dispatch will ask about
the shooter before
asking for information
regarding those injured
 How many are
injured?
Types of injuries?
 Dispatch can provide
steps for treatment
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Until Law Enforcement Arrives
• If you cannot speak to
911 dispatcher, just
leave the line open for
the dispatcher to
listen in.
• They are trained to do
this
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EMCORE 911 Tape
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Law Enforcement Intelligence From
Dispatch On The Way To Site
 Suspect(s)
Actions
Location
Description
Weapons
 Victim injuries and
location
 Designate site
representative to give
officers intelligence
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Arrival of Law Enforcement
• Average response time for
police to high priority calls in
your area
• Safest place to stay is inside
secure room
• The shooter will probably
not flee when police arrive
• The shooters goal is to kill
and injure, not negotiate or
flee
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Law Enforcement’s Modus Operandi
 Most likely by a variety of officers
Identified in some way
generally.
Could be officer already on
site
 AS response is different
5 qualified officers enter
immediately as a group
Armed with a variety of
weapons
Won’t be aiding victims
 Designate a site representative
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When Victims See Police Pass Through
If you are locked in a secure
room, stay there
Police will be shouting
commands
Everyone is a suspect
May force people to ground
Listen and follow instructions
Do not approach, stop or speak
to or hold onto officer(s)
Avoid screaming or yelling
Point in direction of shooter
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When You See Police (cont.)
Hands
Immediately raise hands
Keep your hands visible
Drop anything in your
hands
Do not move injured victims
Officers attempting to
apprehend the shooter will
not stop to help injured
victims
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Part 5:
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Delayed Medical Entry with Active
Shooter Scenes
 Fire/EMS personnel
will respond when
dispatched
 Entry by medics will
be delayed until
police are in control of
area and shooter is
disarmed
 Be prepared to do
trauma care until they
enter
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Victim Status Cards
Okay
Minor Injuries
Life threatening
Injuries
Extra or Missing
Victim
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Triage of Victims
 Sorting
 Who is most in need &
savable
 Coach injured to self-help
 Administer to them
 Have them administer to
others when injury is minor
 Get assistance from
others who can help
 Show helpers how
 Be a coach
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Protect Yourself
 Have a basic plan
 Don’t attempt to render first aid if
unsafe to do so
 Don’t show yourself to shooter
 Survey the scene
 Know where the first aid kit,
AED and extinguishers are
 Blood borne pathogens
 Potentially infectious materials
 Take universal precautions
 Wear PPE
 Clean-up procedures
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Victim Treatment
 Minor Injuries: minimal treatment
or self help with instruction
 Life threatening Injuries
 Most serious injury dealt with
first
 Examples: severe bleeding, not
breathing, broken limbs, heart
attack, seizure, asthma attack,
shock
 Dead or not-savable injuries
54
Stop Bleeding
Capillary bleeds only ooze
Venous
 Flows steadily
 Thick dressing / pressure
Arterial
 Squirts under pressure
 Thick dressing / elevate /
pressure
Have helper perform once under
control if there are other victims
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Tourniquet only if Bleeding To Death
 Controversial & only as last
resort as potentially dangerous
 For arterial bleeding &
extremities
 Use a belt, strap, or other 1”
wide material 2” above
 Tighten until bleeding stops
 Never loosen
 Note time applied
 Save amputation
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Victim Is Not Breathing
 CPR = CAB
 15 Compressions
 Airway: open
 2 Breaths
 Continue15-2
 Not recommended in
multi victim scene
unless multiple
trained first aiders
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Broken Limbs
• Splint in position
presented
• Use padding
• If it is the forearm
then support hand
• If it is the thigh or hip
do not move them
• Do not draw attention
to a mistake – correct
it
58
Spinal Cord Injuries
• Do not move unless life
threatening situation
• Maintain alignment of
head and spine when
moving
• Support head and neck
• Secure them to a board
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First Aid for Other Conditions
 Psychogenic Shock
 Fainting
 Panic attack
 Vomiting
 Altered and difficult to control
 Byproduct of shock
 Due to anxiety
 Others brought on by stress of event
 Heart Attack
 Seizure
 Asthma
 Diabetic Attack
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Seasoned EMT Don’ts
• Don’t
– panic or put yourself in
danger
– spend too much time on
a non-savable victim
– attempt to plug a bullethole (use direct
pressure)
– overly worry about
infection (use what you
can to stop bleeding)
61
Moving A Victim
 When to move victim
In the path of a shooter
Other hazards
 How to move victim
Walk them, be a human
crutch, drag, scoot,
carry them
 Spinal injuries
 Only if safe to do so
62
Update Your Training
• CPR/AED
• First Aid
• Conflict Resolution
• Stress Management
63
Part 6:
Choices You Have When You are A Victim
at an Active shooter Scene
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Plan For Survival
 Escape route plan
 Locations of exits
 Possible pathways to
exit
 Meeting place
 Perform drills as part
of training.
 Emergency lighting
 Fire extinguishers
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Timing in Active Shooter Situations
• Evolve quickly
• Shooters are unpredictable
• Law Enforcement has
historically been required to
stop them
• Arrival of police and EMS
on the scene is not
immediate
• Be prepared mentally and
physically to deal with the
situation until help arrives
66
What Will Require Your Attention
 Alerting others
Others in and around area
Authorities
Be able to describe perp.
 The victims
Providing first aid
Moving to safety
 How you face the shooter(s)
Assess
Determine the odds
67
Try To Focus and Be Methodical
 Try Not To Freak Out
 How To Calm Down
Deep breaths
How would your hero handle it?
 Staying Calm Helps
Think more clearly
Victims remain calm
The situation requires a leader
 Prioritize
Allocate tasks
Need more than just you?
68
Communications To Get Help
• Call 911 for outside
help
– if you can safely do so
– leave line open if
cannot talk
• Alert others onsite
with: intercom, phone,
page, or the code
69
Not In Line of Fire: Hide vs. Escape
 Be quiet and remain calm.
 Silence your cell phone
 Take several deep breaths
and review what to do
 Make the decision to hide
or escape
 Then assess if you can
help others while hiding or
escaping
70
If Hiding Makes Sense
 Keep yourself safe
Move to secure area
Lock door/barricade it
Hide
• behind large furniture
• in a large wall vent
• in the bathroom
 Turn off sources of noise
 Close the blinds
 EMS will tell you not to intervene
 Question someone asking for entry
71
If Escape is Feasible
 Shooter will not stop until
objectives are met or is
engaged by police
 Is escape best option?
Where is the shooter?
Multiple shooters?
Can you get out
immediately undetected?
Advise police of shooter
or plain clothes police
72
If Escaping
 Evacuate area using
designated exit path
– Hug the wall
– Check around corners first
– Whether or not others agree to
follow
– Leave all your belongings
– Only jump out a 1st or 2nd floor
window
 Help others escape
 Alert others you come across
73
Helping Others
 You are part of a
team
 Assist others in need
 Help others escape
with you
 Escape yourself even
if they are too afraid
to try
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If You Are In The Line Of Fire
 You have two choices if shooter is at close range:
fight or comply
 We do not know how you will or should respond
 How you respond will be based on:
 The actual situation and what is possible,
 How many of you/they there are
 Your personality/background
 Victim camaraderie
 Feelings of moral responsibility
 It is your choice but keep in mind it
will take time for police to arrive,
assemble, and enter
 Your life is on the line
75
When Your Decision is to Comply
Do what the shooter says
Keep your hands where
they can be seen
No sudden movements to
draw attention or alarm AS
Avoid eye contact unless
you are being addressed
Be quiet and remember
your life may depend on
being calm
76
Things to Consider
Before Fighting Back
 Chance of survival may be greater if you
incapacitate the shooter but consider:
 How many shooters are there?
 How many of you are there?
 How many of you will commit to an attack?
 What objects do you have available to
disable the person?
 Do any of you have military training or
experience handling firearms?
 Does the group have a plan?
 Are your odds good?
77
When Your Decision is to Fight
Never attempt to wrestle a gun away
from someone pointing it at you
The closer you are to the shooter the
better the chances of overcoming them s
Chance of survival is greater when you
 are behind or out of vision of shooter
 incapacitate the shooter
 improvise a weapon
 throw heavy, blunt or sharp object
 hit shooter with something heavy
 use cart to shove them down or door open
 jump on them
 stab them with letter opener, scissors, or exacto
78
When Your Decision Is To Mass Attack
Use the code if you know
victims or try to preplan during
Opportunity may be obvious to
incapacitate and overcome AS
Go for the gun if you are not in
the line of fire
 Try to knock them down & then
Try to get on them
Go for hands, eyes,
personals
You must COMMIT 100%
79
Do Not Enter A.S. Scene
Viewed/Heard From A Distance
Not always completely
aware of situation
Need to be absolutely
sure who the shooter is
In the Gabby Gifford
shooting, a guy
mistook a hero for the
shooter
80
The “Hostage Corridor” Phase
 You will be detained
 Wait for instructions
 Call 1 family member
 Do not talk with the media.
 Able witnesses are moved
Interviews
Post event debriefing.
 This phase will take hours
 Do not interrupt proceedings
unless medically necessary
 Drink water/eat something
81
Part 7:
How To Deal With Volatile Situations
Before
They Become Violent Situations
82
Get Help with Coworker Escalating
Behavior That is Getting Worse
• Approach if comfortable/offer
help
• Report it if repetitive and
talking doesn’t help
• Get guidance from pros
• Avoid discussing with other
coworkers, family or friends
• File a police report
• Call 911 for immediate threat
• Don’t let escalating behavior
go unchecked
83
The De-Escalation Process
•
•
•
•
•
Let them vent
Encourage talking & listening
Repeat back
Break problems down
Be very clear about
– what is going to happen
– timelines
•
•
•
•
Give them choices
Focus on issue/refocus when necessary
Use comfort/delay tactics as they deescalate
Follow up
84
Don’ts For The
De-escalation Process
• Don’t bargain with
threatening individual if their
behavior is not threatening.
• Don’t make false promises.
• Don’t downplay seriousness
of situation
• Keep it simple
• Don’t take sides or agree
with distortions
85
Verbal Communication
to Deescalate Anger
• Speak slowly but
confidently
• Keep your voice down,
especially if they are
raising theirs
• Communicate respect
• Keep it simple
• Repeat back for clarity
• Do not interrupt
86
Body Language That Helps Deescalate
an Angry Individual
• Maintain your space
• Don’t put up barriers but don’t
isolate yourself
• Project calmness
• Show concern and empathy
• Don’t appear challenging
• Keep you hands in sight
• Avoid sudden movements
87
Avoid Altercations
• Do not take sides
• Do not get involved in
workplace altercations
• Do not try to break up
arguments or fights or you
may get in trouble yourself
• Notify your supervisor
immediately
88
Do Not Condone Bullying at Work
• As a supervisor
– Review policy
– Only 1 warning
• As the victim
– Be assertive and
refuse to be a victim
– Label it
– Tell them to stop
– Keep a factual journal
– Report it
89
Dealing With Angry Customers
• Imminent danger then push
panic button or call 911
• If comfortable doing so ask
them to lower their voice and
listen to them vent – empathize
• Explain the process
• Get them to the right person
• Report issues to supervisor
• Always follow up
90
Ways To Cope with your Emotions Long
Term Before YOU Become Violent
• Acknowledge the problem
• Take time to gain
perspective
• Get help
– HR/EAP
– See a counselor
– Talk to a spiritual advisor
91
If You Feel Like You Are About to
Become Violent Right Now
• Take a deep breath
– Think about consequences
– Imagine looking back
• Is there an expedient
solution?
• Talk to your supervisor,
HR, or EAP immediately
• Go to the ER
92
Part 7
93
Signs of Post Traumatic Stress
 Sleeplessness/nightmares
 Anti-social behavior
Withdrawal
Paranoia
Emotional outbursts
 Nervous behavior
Distracted
Loss of concentration
Pacing and restlessness
 Loss of interest in hobbies
 Substance abuse
94
Get Help Early On
• If you suspect
PTSD or emotional
distress; notify
management.
• Assistance will be
provided to help the
employee deal with
issues.
95
Company EAPs
• Free, confidential counseling
program assists employees with
anything they perceive to be a
problem
• Brief solutions counseling
• If you require additional services,
counselors will help you access
your mental health benefits,
community resources, self-help
groups or other services
96
When There Is a Problem The EAP
Is a Good Place To Start
• Workplace issues
• Feeling stressed to the
point where you might
harm yourself or others
• PTSD & CISD
• Drug and alcohol abuse
•
•
•
•
•
•
Anxiety & depression
Family challenges
Conflict resolution
Grief and loss
Relationship issues
Other concerns
97
How An EAP Works
• For employees and immediate family in household
• Benefit may be prepaid by your company
– Your company pays set amount monthly to EAP
– The company does not receive bill with employee’s name
on it
• EAP services are confidential
• Information may only be released with your written
permission
• In a crisis or an emergency, counselors
are available by phone 24 / 7
• In imminent danger always call 911 first
98
Would You Be Prepared
If It Happened To You?
• Have you thought about it?
• Discuss it
• No single definitive strategy
will ever be appropriate
• This class includes possible
options but only you know
how you will respond and your
response will be based on
many factors
99
Your Employer Wants to Protect You
• Look to the future with
coworker conflicts
• Be proactive with
customers
• Use information in
this class to protect
yourself, coworkers
and work environment
100
The Goal Of This Course Is To
Keep Employees Alive
The End
101
Ex LA/NY Policeman’s New Book
• Tool to improve
performance
• Advantages: resiliency,
profitability, safety
• About power of people
connected online and using
electronic tools to
collaborate to solve
problems
102
City of Rio Rancho’s EAP
• The Solutions
Group
• To access your
EAP call 505-2543555 for R.R. &
Alb.
• Call 1-866-2543555 if out of town
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Active Shooter: Avoidance and Awareness