Chapter Two:
Achieving Psychological
Health
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Psychological Health

Cognitive functioning of the following:
• Expressing emotions
• Coping with stress
• Dealing with adversity and/or success
• Adapting to changes
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Characteristics of Psychologically
Healthy People






Accept themselves and others
Like themselves
Give and receive care, love, and support
Accepts life’s disappointments
Accept their mistakes
Express full range of emotions (positive
and negative)
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Characteristics of Psychologically
Healthy People
(cont’d)






Feels empathy and concern for
others
Take care of themselves
Can function both independently
Generally trusts others
Involves exercise, sound
nutritional habits, and sleep into
lifestyle
Establishes goals
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
What is Self-Esteem?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Having pride in yourself
Treating yourself with respect
Considering yourself valuable
Feeling good about yourself
Having self-assurance and accepting
yourself
People with low self esteem have a poor self concept: how
they view themselves
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Emotional Intelligence

Ability to understand others and act
wisely in human relations
• Know your emotions
• Manage your emotions
• Motivate yourself
• Recognize emotions in others
• Handle relationships
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Enhancing Psychological Health



Sense of Humor: critical component
of emotional health – results in a
positive outlook upon life
Communication Skills: increased
verbal and non-verbal skills will
produce better comfort levels with
themselves (self-concept) and others
(self-esteem)
Conflict Management Skills: listen,
learn “how” to say it, as well as use
assertive communication
* Learn to be more optimistic and in control
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Proactive Approach to Life

Proactive Approaches – actively
taking charge of your psychological
health:
• Construct mental pictures
• Accept these perceptions
• Test these perceptions (new
experiences)
• Modify these
experiences/outcomes (reframe)
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Challenges to Psychological Health

Two factors that can affect control
1) Nature (innate factors)
2) Nurture (environmental factors)
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Mood Disorders
Primary symptom is a disturbance in
mood.
 Clinical depression (feeling down
for a lengthy period)
 S.A.D (seasonal affective disorder)
 Bi-polar disorder (a.k.a., manic
depression)
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Suicide Intervention



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

Remain calm
Offer support and assistance
Encourage problem solving
Emphasize the temporary nature
of the problem
Seek help
Stay with the person
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Suicide Intervention, cont’d


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

Talk about it
Assume they are serious
Tell someone about this
Don’t argue
Don’t be judgmental
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Anxiety Disorders
• GAD (generalized anxiety disorder)
• Social phobia
• Panic disorder
• Obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD’s)
Treatment involves a combination of
medication, counseling and lifestyle
modification.
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Schizophrenia

Personality deterioration (biological
and environmental) – characteristics
are:
•
•
•
•
•
delusions
hallucinations
disorganized speech
catatonic behavior
dysfunction in everyday routines
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Chapter Two:
Achieving Psychological Health
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice



1 Which of the following are characteristics of an
emotionally well person? A) they feel
comfortable about themselves B) they are on
medication C) they have a successful business
D) there is no need for interaction
2 Common symptoms of depression include: A)
persistent sad moods B) eating disorders C)
thoughts of suicide D) all the above
3 St. John's Wort is used to treat: A) suicide
B) shyness C) loneliness D) none of the above
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice



4 Facial expressions is an example of: A)
suicide prevention B) depression C) verbal
communication D) non-verbal communication
5 Which of the following are considered conflict
management skills? A) avoidance B) humor C)
get a good night's sleep D) none of the above
6 Which is not considered part of Maslow's
hierarchy of needs? A) psychological needs B)
love and belonging C) safety and security D) all
are levels of needs
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice



7 Emotional wellness: A) refers to
memory B) refers to language C) refers
to feelings D) all the above
8 Depression is treated by: A) drug
therapy B) psychotherapy C) home
remedies D) all the above
9 Psychological health can be enhanced
through: A) humor B) aggressive
communication C) avoiding criticism D)
learned helplessness
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice

10 Psychological health is
associated with: A) positive self
esteem B) positive self concept C)
emotional intelligence D) all of the
above
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice
1.
2.
3.
Sasha considers herself to be a psychologically healthy person. She is
able to
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
express her emotions.
cope with stress.
adapt to changes in herself.
adapt to changes in her environment
All of the answers are characteristics of a psychologically healthy person.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
enjoy their vocations.
are able to hold a full-time job.
accept themselves and others.
have at least three intimate relationships.
do not recognize the need for goals.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
self-esteem.
emotional intelligence.
self-concept.
emotional diversity.
self-integration.
Psychologically healthy people have the following characteristic:
An individuals sense of pride, self-respect, values and worth is known
as
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice
4.
5.
6.
Emotional intelligence is demonstrated by
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
ignoring how you come across to other people.
knowing and managing your emotions.
always winning when there is conflict.
having the proper emotional response to any event.
achieving a state in which you do not experience intense emotions.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
decide whether the exchange is formal or informal.
decide what types of nonverbal signals to send.
determine what needs to be said.
avoid biased forms of speech.
begin on a positive note.
a)
b)
stare deeply into someone’s eyes during the whole conversation.
make sure the distance between himself and the other person is no more than
a foot and a half.
fold his arms when engaging in a conversation.
slightly exaggerate his arm movements.
None of the answers are strategies for improving nonverbal communication
skills.
Your first task upon entering any exchange of communication should be
to
To improve Tom’s nonverbal communication skills, he should
c)
d)
e)
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice
7.
8.
Personal space for a casual conversation among those in the United States tends
to be about
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
6 inches to 1 foot.
1 to 2 feet.
3 to 4 feet.
5 to 6 feet.
greater than 6 feet.
a)
c)
d)
e)
Staring at a person for seven seconds or more while in conversation makes him/her feel
more valued.
Facial expressions have been cited as one of the most important source of nonverbal
communication in terms of a person’s emotional state.
People tend to pay more attention to body posture versus someone’s eyes.
The nose is the only part of the face that does not play a role in nonverbal communication.
All of the answers are true.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
create in-groups.
promote equality.
create positive feelings.
poke fun at authority figures.
use sarcasm as a weapon.
Which of the following is true regarding nonverbal communication?
b)
9.
People with a great sense of humor attract others mainly because they
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice
10.
11.
12.
Of the following, a helpful approach to conflict is
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
acknowledging the other person’s point of view.
practicing submission when conflicts arise.
avoiding conflict at all costs.
playing to win.
settling conflicts as quickly as possible.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
reframing your perceptions.
accepting your perceptions.
constructing perceptions of yourself.
discarding previous experiences.
undertaking new experiences.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
“Things never work out for me no matter how hard I try.”
“It didn’t work out for me this time.”
“I’m not very good at Spanish.”
“Some things will just never change.”
None of the answers are statements Juan would make to describe himself in terms of
learned optimism.
All of the following are steps in a process for improving your psychological health
except
Which of the following statements would Juan make if he could describe himself in
terms of learned optimism?
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice
13.
14.
15.
Being able to recognize emotions in others is a sign of
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
arrogance.
Emotional intelligence.
low self-esteem.
submission.
neediness.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
They
They
They
They
They
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
contract fewer infectious diseases.
have better health habits.
possess stronger immune systems.
be more successful in their careers.
see the glass as half empty.
Denise and Pedro are arguing about the amount of time they spend together.
Which of the following techniques for communication should they use?
should
should
should
should
should
cover all topics that have ever bothered them.
use absolutes, such as “never” and “always.”
make criticism as general as possible.
focus on the topic at hand.
dismiss how each other are feeling.
Studies have shown that optimists tend to have all of the following qualities
except
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice
16.
17.
18.
In the United States, about ____% of the population suffers some form of
depression.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
5
10
15
20
25
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
quit soccer.
quit her job.
quit all of her sports.
did poorly in a major class.
broke up with her boyfriend.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
He
He
He
He
He
Ellen has always filled her life with competitive distance running, bicycling,
swimming, and soccer. You suspect that she is fighting depression when you hear
that she
Which of the following best illustrates that Joseph is suffering from depression?
binge drinks.
is hot-tempered.
skips many classes.
watches fight movies.
has drifted away from all of his friends.
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice
19.
20.
21.
All of the following can be symptoms of depression except
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
frequent crying
significant weight loss
significant weight gain
low self-esteem or feelings of hopelessness
feelings of high energy
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
It is the third leading cause of death for young adults 15-24 years old.
Men commit suicide four times more often than women.
Women tend to employ more violent methods of suicide then men.
It is the third leading cause of death for young adults 15-24 years old and is
committed more often by men than by women.
All of the statements are true.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
bipolar disorder.
generalized anxiety disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
post traumatic stress disorder.
panic disorder.
Which of the following statements is true regarding suicide?
All of the following are examples of anxiety disorders except
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice
22.
23.
24.
Bill is easily distracted and experiences frequent bouts of excessive energy,
excitability, and impulsive behavior. His condition is characterized as
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
general anxiety disorder.
mania.
panic disorder.
social phobia.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
paranoid.
obsessive-compulsive.
catatonic.
disorganized.
undifferentiated.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
one
two
three
four
five
Types of schizophrenia include all of the following except
In the 15-to-24 age group in the United States, suicide ranks as the number ____
cause of death.
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice
25.
26.
27.
One sign of bipolar disorder is
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
intelligence.
long-term feelings of stability.
heightened ability to focus.
no family history of the disorder.
irritability.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
little or no support system
family history of mental illness
problem with alcohol or drug use
family history of mental illness and drug use
All of the answers are risk factors associated with suicide.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
1
5
7
10
15
Which of the following is a risk factor associated with suicide?
Schizophrenia affects ____% of the U.S. population.
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice
28.
29.
30.
Which of the following characteristics should you foster to help develop
your creativity?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
motivation through external rewards
dependence on others
approval-seeking
curiosity and independence
financial security and conformity
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
having a sense of purpose
having a sense of direction
having a sense of awareness
having a sense of direction and awareness
All of the answers are dimensions of spiritual health.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
spirituality.
peace.
self-esteem.
acceptance.
creativity.
Which of the following is a dimension of spiritual health?
According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the basic needs include
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice
31.
32.
33.
Self-actualized people tend to have all of these characteristics except
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
strong ethical code.
innovativeness.
compassion.
goal orientation.
complacency.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
reduce
reduce
reduce
reduce
reduce
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Prozac.
Paxil.
Erythromycin.
Zoloft.
Serzone.
Studies have shown that the practice of spirituality can
life expectancy.
heart disease and cancer.
reliance on others.
the need for morals or ethics.
the need for community.
All of the following drugs are used to treat depression except
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Multiple Choice
34.
35.
36.
Susan finds that her heart is racing and breathing is labored while she is driving to
work. She may be suffering from
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
bipolar disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
schizophrenia.
depression.
panic attacks.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Individuals with ADD tend to be highly intelligent and creative.
It is considered a childhood disease.
It affects more males than females.
It affects more males than females and individuals with ADD tend to be highly intelligent
and creative.
None of the statements are true.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
safety and security
belonging and love
basic physiological integrity
ego-strength and self-esteem
self-actualization and fulfillment
Which of the following statements is true regarding Attention Deficit Disorder?
Rick has a wife and children and a steady job. He enjoys his family and his
coworkers, but he has no higher aspirations for himself. In groups he is a follower,
seldom suggesting ideas or stating his own preferences. On Maslow's hierarchy,
his personality probably best fits the ______ level.
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
True/False






1 Emotionally well people meet with the
demands of life. A) True B) False
2 Psychological wellness develop mental
functioning. A) True B) False
3 Depression is the most common dysfunctional
state. A) True B) False
4 Suicide is the 2nd leading cause of death for
college students. A) True B) False
5 Improving communications will enhance
emotional wellness. A) True B) False
6 Maslow developed 3 areas of psychological
wellness. A) True B) False
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
True/False





A new proposal by the FDA would require ads
for prescriptive drugs to contain language that
consumers can better understand.
Self-esteem is critical to emotional health.
A psychologically health person does not trust
other people.
A person's self-esteem largely comes from
external sources.
Emotional intelligence includes the willingness
to express emotions regardless of whether your
actions are appropriate.
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
True/False









As a defense mechanism, humor is better than denying,
rationalizing, or minimizing a problem.
The main difference between major depression and the
normal bouts of emotional “blues” is that major
depressive episodes are briefer and more intense.
Scientists have discovered the single gene that is the
cause for depression.
Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by
alternating episodes of obsessive-compulsion and mania.
The mood swing of bipolar disorder generally lasts for
only a few hours.
Anxiety disorders do not tend to interfere with life.
Social phobia is a condition characterized by dread and
embarrassment in which social interaction is involved.
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental disorders.
There are many cures for schizophrenia
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
True/False





In Maslow's model, needs can be met in
any order.
Sleep is at the lowest level in Maslow's
hierarchy.
There is strong evidence to support a
genetic cause for ADD.
One of the benefits of faith is that it
gives meaning to life.
Creative individuals are extremely
concerned with conforming to what other
people think of them.
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Critical Thinking




Your best friend has told you he is thinking about
committing suicide. What steps will you take to help your
friend?
You are suffering from depression. What resources are
available to help you and to provide hope for the future?
Describe the ways in which communication skills can
improve psychological wellness (resilience, avoidance of
depression, self-esteem, normal emotions, meeting
challenges, conflict management).
Your supervisor is an authoritarian: He is always
convinced of the rightness of his decisions, he leads every
initiative, and he doesn't engage in dialogue—he verbally
battles opposing viewpoints. He has now directed you to
do something you strongly disagree with. What will be
the key points in your response?
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
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Chapter Two - South Georgia College