PBIS in Urban Settings
Presented by
Christine McGrath, Ph.D., PBIS Trainer
The May Institute
Association for Positive Behavior Supports
March 27, 2009
Goals of Session
• Overview of Urban Systems
• PBIS in an urban school district in New
England
–Meriden, CT
• Lessons learned
Challenges –Urban Systems
• Staff turnover
• More challenging behavior
• Lower SES level
• Increased diversity
• Academic deficits
• Competing Initiatives
Survey of Barriers to Implementation and
Sustainability of SW-PBS in Urban Settings
10. Cultural difference between teacher-student
9. History of failed initiatives
8. Competing initiatives that drain resources
7. High proportion of inexperienced, short term
teachers
6. Disconnect between school and district
administration
5. Administrative turnover
4. Continuous change in district leadership and
priorities
3. High bureaucratic complexity
2. Inadequate prepared teaching force
1. Teacher turnover
4
Continuum of PBS in Schools
6+ referrals
2-5 referrals
1-5%
~10%
~10%
Individualized
Systems for Students
with High-Risk Behavior
Secondary Prevention:
Specialized Group
Systems for Students
with At-Risk Behavior
Primary Prevention:
School-wide and
Classroom-wide
Systems for
All Students, Staff
& Settings
0-1 referral
Tertiary Prevention:
~80-85% of Students
Crone & Horner (2003)
Continuum of PBIS in Urban Schools
6+ referrals
9%
~10%
2-5 referrals
~15%
Tertiary Prevention:
Individualized
Systems for Students
with High-Risk Behavior
Secondary Prevention:
Specialized Group
Systems for Students
with At-Risk Behavior
0-1 referral
~76% of Students
Primary Prevention:
School-wide and
Classroom-wide
Systems for
All Students, Staff
& Settings
Turnbull, et. al (2002)
SW-PBIS Primary Outcomes
Improves the school behavioral climate:
Decrease in
• office referrals
• suspensions & detentions
• disruptive classroom behavior
Increase in
•
•
•
•
academic performance
on-task behavior
parent, student & staff satisfaction
staff retention
Implementing School-wide Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports
in an Urban School District:
Meriden, CT
District Characteristics
Meriden Public Schools
• Approximately 8,864 pre KG-12th grade students.
• Comprised of 41% Hispanic,43% White,14% Black
• 29% students report a language other than English
spoken at home.
• 58% qualify as low income.
• 9% English Language Learners.
Development of District wide Leadership Team
• Representative District PBIS team formed in Spring
2005
– Meets quarterly
– Compiled long-term action plan
– Planned for “going to scale”
– Provides support to PBS Coaches and PBS Coordinator
– Completes self-assessment quarterly
– Examines district-wide student discipline data for overall trends,
implications, and intervention strategies
– Outlined long-term funding for PBS initiative
Political Support
• Student social behavior identified as one of the
top 3 goals for the district.
• Active participation and support of the
Superintendent & Associate Superintendent
secured.
• Associate Superintendent reports annually to
the Superintendent and Board of Education
with PBIS Trainer on activities and outcomes.
Coordination
• District PBIS Coordinator identified
(2005) to oversee implementation
– Principal, Benjamin Franklin Elementary School
• Coordinator receiving on-going training
with May Institute PBIS Trainer
Visibility
• District team developed newsletter to
share with district administrators and
board of education
• Individual schools sharing information
with stakeholders about activities and
outcomes:
– Monthly reports to staff
– Parent open houses and letters
– Postings on websites
Coaching Capacity
• Leadership Team developed PBIS Coaching
Network to build & sustain School-wide PBIS
in the district
– 2 to 3 PBIS Coaches from each school implementing
SW-PBIS
• Coordinator and/or Trainer meets monthly with
all PBIS Coaches for information sharing,
implementation strategies, fundraising, and
problem solving.
Demonstrations
• Currently, 10 schools within district have adopted
SW-PBIS
– 8 elementary schools
– 2 middle schools
• Exemplar schools within the district identified that
display:
– Fidelity of implementation of SW-PBIS
– Positive outcomes
• Decrease in office discipline referrals
• Increased staff satisfaction of SW Discipline
SW-PBS Implementation & Evaluation
• District-wide evaluation processes assess :
– Fidelity of implementation of SW-PBIS
(School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET))
– Impact of SW-PBIS on student outcomes
(ODRs and suspensions)
– Extent of implementation of the action plan
Implementation and Outcomes:
Meriden Public Schools
PBS Implementation
• Organized into 4 Cohorts:
– Cohort 1: Middle School 1
• (2004-2005)
– Cohort 2: Elementary Schools 1 & 2
• (2005-2006)
– Cohort 3: Elementary Schools 3, 4, 5 & 6, Middle
School 2
• (2006-2007)
– Cohort 4: Elementary Schools 7 & 8
• (2007-2008)
PBS Implementation: SET Scores
Meriden Public Schools
SET Overall Mean Scores
100
100
95
90
92 91
90
91
87
86
84
Year 1
Year 3
96
95
91 90
88
Baseline
Year 2
84
83
7878
80
72
70
70
SET Overall Mean Score
70
60
53
53
50
50
46
41
39
40
34
31
30
26
20
10
0
Washington
Hale
Franklin
Putnam
Hooker
Barry
School
Hanover
Lincoln
Sherman
Pulaski
Overall Impact of PBS on the Meriden Public Schools
• Dramatic reduction in the number of referrals
that Administrators must deal with.
– Providing more time for attention to our core mission of
teaching and learning.
– Overall 38% reduction in ODRs at 7 implementing
schools
• (Range: 19% to 66% reduction)
• Improved over all school climate
• Improved relationships with parents, families,
and guardians
Implementation and Outcomes:
Cohort 2
Elementary School 2:
Benjamin Franklin Elementary
Benjamin Franklin Elementary School
• RESPECT SOS
– Respect for Self
– Respect for Others
– Respect for School
Benjamin Franklin Elementary School
• Bulldog Bucks
– Token economy of
Benjamin Franklin
School
– Rewarded to students
for demonstration of
Respect for Self,
Others, and School
Cohort 2 Data
Baseline 2004-2005
PBS Year 1 2005-2006
PBS Year 2 2006-2007
PBS Year 3 2007-2008
School-Wide Evaluation Tool
Benjamin Franklin Elementary
100100100
100
100100100
100
100100100
100
100
100
87.5
90
Percentage of Feature Implemented
75
91 90
81
80
80
88
87.5
75
75
70
70
67
70
69
63
60
50
50 50 50
50
40
30
20
10
0
Expectations
Defined
Behavioral
Expectations
Taught
On-Going
System for
Rew arding
Behavioral
Expectations
System for
Responding to
Behavioral
Violations
Monitoring &
Decision-Making
System s Feature
Management
District-Level
Support
Overall
Cohort 2
Longitudinal Data
7.0
Average ODRs per Day per Month
6.0
Baseline 2004-2005
PBS Year 1 2005-2006
PBS Year 2 2006-2007
PBS Year 3 2007-2008
Benjamin Franklin Elementary School
Office Referrals per Day per Month across Years
OVERALL: 37% Decrease in
total number of office
discipline referrals PBS Year
1 compared to Baseline
5.0
6.5
5.5
5.4
4.9
4.6
4.6
4.3
4.1
4.0
3.7
3.6
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.9
2.6
2.4
2.0
1.0
2.1
1.9
1.1
Additional 48% decrease
2.1 in total num ber of office
1.9
1.5
1.3
discipline referrals PBS
Year 1 to Year 2
1.7
1.6
1.3
1.1
1.0
0.9
1.3
1.0
1.2
1.2
1.1
Additional 31% decrease
in total num ber of office
discipline referrals PBS
Year 2 to Year 3
1.0
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.0
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
SW-PBIS Behavioral Outcome Data:
Time Lost…
2004-2005
2005 - 2006
2006 - 2007
2007 - 2008
780
507
264
183
Administrator
Time
Required
11,700 Min.
7,605 Min.
3960 Min.
2745 Min.
195 Hours
127 Hours
66 Hours
46 Hours
Instructional
Time Lost
23,400 Min.
15,210 Min.
7920 Min.
5490 Min.
390 Hours
253.5 Hours
132 Hours
91.5 Hours
Office
Referrals
Impact of SW-PBIS on Benjamin Franklin Elementary School:
Behavior and Academics: Time Saved
• Dramatic reduction in the number of referrals that
Administrators must deal with.
– Providing more time for attention to our core mission of
teaching and learning.
– Overall 76.5% reduction in ODRs: Improved overall
school climate
– 149 hours saved in administrator time
– 298.5 hours saved in instructional time
Impact of SW-PBIS on Benjamin Franklin Elementary School:
Behavior and Academics: Time Saved
• Improved relationships with parents,
families, and guardians
• Dramatic improvement in overall school
academic achievement.
– School “In Need of Improvement” designation
removed from school, Fall 2007.
Continuum of PBS in Schools
6+ referrals
2-5 referrals
1-5%
~10%
~10%
Individualized
Systems for Students
with High-Risk Behavior
Secondary Prevention:
Specialized Group
Systems for Students
with At-Risk Behavior
Primary Prevention:
School-wide and
Classroom-wide
Systems for
All Students, Staff
& Settings
0-1 referral
Tertiary Prevention:
~80-85% of Students
Targeted Intervention
• H.U.G. Program: Hello, Update, Good-bye
– Students from the targeted group
– Tier Two intervention for students at risk for
office discipline referrals (2-6)
– Daily Record (point sheet)
– Check in/Check out
HUG Students Enter in the Morning
H.U.G. Behavioral Outcome Data
H.U.G. Behavioral Outcome Data:
4th Grade Cohort
H.U.G. Academic Outcome Data:
4th Grade Cohort
H.U.G. Academic Outcome Data:
4th Grade Cohort
Impact of PBS on Benjamin Franklin Elementary School
• Dramatic reduction in the number of referrals
that Administrators must deal with for at-risk
students.
– 49% reduction in ODRs for 4th grade students in H.U.G.
intervention
– 11.4% and 7.25% improvement in CMT Reading Scores
for 4th grade students in H.U.G. intervention (larger
increase than peers)
• Improved relationships with parents, families,
and guardians
Lessons Learned During Implementation
• Never underestimate the power of Data.
• ‘Buy in’ of district and school-based
administration is crucial to a successful
implementation.
• Trust your consultants.
Lessons Learned During Implementation
• Build districts capacity – must have trained faculty and need to
develop institutional knowledge.
• Take your time with planning and implementation.
• Watch out for over zealous teams that may not have a
complete understanding of the PBS process.
• The process is the most important aspect of implementation.
• Targeted and Intensive Team interventions are difficult to
develop but are essential.
• Train, train and retrain. Constantly revisit the training of
faculty and students through out the year – a once and done
training will not sustain itself.
Contact Information
• For more information
contact
– Chrissy McGrath
• e-mail:
[email protected]
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