TRAINING OF TRAINERS
GURU PEMANDU MGMP SMA
MAPEL BAHASA INGGRIS
Lembaga Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan
(LPMP)
Jawa Tengah
Semarang, 21 – 22 Juni 2007
Let me introduce myself
Rudi Hartono, S.S., M.Pd.
Tasikmalaya,September 7, 1969
S-1 (English Linguistics-UNPAD
Bandung)
S-2 (English Education-UPI Bandung)
S3 (Linguistics: Translation StudiesUNS/On going)
English Lecturer of UNNES Semarang
English Textbook Writer
One Wife and Two Children
Teaching & Traveling
E-mail:
[email protected]
PENDALAMAN MATERI
1.
2.
TEXT TYPES
a. Listening
b. Speaking
c. Reading
d. Writing
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
a. Listening
b. Speaking
c. Reading
d. Writing
TEXT TYPES



Grade X (Smt 1)
1. Recount
2. Narrative
3. Procedure
Grade XI (Smt 1)
1. Report
2. Narrative
3. Analytical Exposition
Grade XII (Smt 1)
1. Narrative
2. Explanation
3. Discussion



Grade X (Smt 2)
1. Narrative
2. Descriptive
3. News Item
Grade XI (Smt 2)
1. Narrative
2. Spoof
3. Hortatory Exposition
Grade XII (Smt 2)
1. Narrative
2. Review
Additional Lesson Materials
for Language Program


Grade XI (Smt 1)
1. Public Speaking:
Master of Ceremony
2. Show Presenter
(Host)
3. News Reader
Grade XII (Smt 1)
1. Public Speaking: Speech
2. Debate
3. Presentation


Grade XI (Smt 2)
1. English song
2. English Contemporary
poetry
3. Film
4. Contemporary Drama
5. Novel
6. Figurative Languages
Grade XII (Smt 2)
1. English song
2. Contemporary Poetry
3. Film
4. Contemporary Drama
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
(Grade X Semester 1)
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






Self introduction
Introducing others
Greetings
Invitation
Appointment
Expressing happiness
Sympathy
Giving instructions
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
(Grade X Semester 2)





Thanking
Appreciating
Congratulating
Surprising
Unbelieving
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
(Grade XI Semester 1)
 Asking comments/opinions
 Giving comments/opinions
 Expressing satisfactions
 Expressing dissatisfactions
 Giving advice
 Warning
 Expressing relief, pain,
and pleasure
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
(Grade XI Semester 2)
 Scolding
 Expressing Annoyance
 Expressing Anger
 Asking for and Offering
Suggestions
 Asking for and Offering
Recommendations
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
(Grade XII Semester 1)
Accusing
Regretting
Asking and Offering
a Promise
Asking and Expressing
Wants, Hopes
and Wishes
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
(Grade XII Semester 2)
Asking Plans
Asking Purposes
Predicting
Speculating
Criticizing
Persuading
Encouraging
Prohibiting
Short Functional Texts










Letters
Listener’s letters
Invitation cards
Announcements
Advertisements
Manual instructions
Editorials
Schedules
Contents
Tourism information
BASIC COMPETENCE

LISTENING
Memahami wacana transactional dan wacana interpersonal ringan, dan
monolog lisan yang berkenaan dengan jenis teks.

SPEAKING
Mengungkapkan nuansa makna dalam wacana transactional dan wacana
interpersonal ringan, dan monolog lisan yang berkenaan dengan jenis
teks.

READING
Memahami nuansa makna dan langkah-langkah pengembangan retorika
di dalam teks tertulis berdasarkan jenis teks.

WRITING
Mengungkapkan nuansa makna dengan langkah-langkah pengembangan
retorika yang benar di dalam teks tertulis berdasarkan jenis teks.
Listening

Transactional Dialog (Recorded):
Andy
Benny
Andy
: Ben, did you buy any ice cream?
: No. I only bought some bread, milk, and an apple.
: Oh, okay. I’ll buy the ice cream then.
What did Benny buy?
A.
C.
B.
D.
Listening

Interpersonal Dialog (Recorded):
A: Hi, Ben. How are you?
B: Not bad. Thanks. And yourself?
A: Fine, thanks.
B: Good weather, isn’t it?
A: Yes, … better than last week.
B: I know. That was terrible, don’t you think?
A: Indeed. I had never seen such heavy rain in my life.
B: Neither had I.
A: It was pouring!
B: It was, wasn’t it?
A: The winds blew trees down. One of those trees fell on my neighbor’s car.
B: That’s too bad.
A: Yeah. Now if you’ll excuse me, I’ve got a class to attend. See you.
B: See you. Bye.
This conversation is between:
a. Two close friends
b. Two strangers
c. teacher and student
d. news reader and listener
Listening
 Monolog Report (Dictated/Recorded)
Snakes are reptiles. These cold-blooded creatures belong
to the same group as lizards. Snakes have no legs, but a
long time ago they had claws to help them slither along.
Snakes often sunbathe on rocks in the warm weather. This
is because snakes are cold-blooded and they need the
sun’s warmth to heat their body up. Most snakes live in the
country. Some types of snakes live in trees, some snakes
live in water, but most live on the ground in thick, long
grass and in old logs.
Snakes belong to the same group as
a. lizard
b. crabs
c. cold-blooded creatures
d. warm-blooded animals
Speaking

Factual questions:
What’s your first name?
What do you do in your spare time?
Do you like cooking?

Assigned dialog (in pairs)
You planned to play basketball last night, but no one could come because
of the heavy rain. Now make another plan to play basketball.

Interpersonal dialog

Monolog (describing a picture/photo, retelling a story)
Aspects of speaking test:
a. Grammar and vocabulary
b. Discourse management
c. Pronunciation
d. Interactive Communication
Reading

Reading Text
Snake are reptiles. These cold-blooded creatures belong to the same
group as lizards. Snakes have no legs, but a long time ago they had
claws to help them slither along. Snakes often sunbathe on rocks in
the warm weather. This is because snakes are cold-blooded and they
need the sun’s warmth to heat their body up. Most snakes live in the
country. Some types of snakes live in tress, some snakes live in water,
but most live on the ground in thick, long grass and in old logs.

The genre of the text is

a. Description
b. Explanation
c. Report
d. Exposition
The first sentence functions as
a. Identification
b. General classification
c. Description
d. Introduction
Writing
 Writing short transactional texts:
Sahabat pena Anda di London bermaksud
mengunjungi Anda dalam liburan mendatang. Beri
petunjuk bagaimana ia bisa sampai di kota Anda
dengan mudah.
 Writing one of genres (e.g. recount):
Tadi malam listrik di daerah Anda padam. Tiba-tiba,
Anda mendengar orang menggedor pintu dan Anda
ketakutan. Anda tidak mau membuka pintu sampai
orang tersebut pergi. Ceriterakan ini kepada teman
Anda.
ENGLISH TEXT TYPES
Lesson Materials
(Theory and Practice)
Functions of Texts
Texts
Spoof
Recount
Report
Functions
To retell a humorous twist
To retell events for the purpose of
informing or entertaining
To classify and describe the
phenomena of our world.
Analytical
Exposition
To persuade the reader or listener
that something is in the case
News Item
To inform readers, listeners or
viewers about events of the day
which are considered newsworthy
or important
Functions of Texts
Texts
Functions
Anecdote
To share with others an account of an
unusual or amusing incident
Narrative
To amuse, entertain and to deal with
actual experience in different ways, I.e. to
gain and hold the reader’s interest in a
story.
Procedure
To describe how something is
accomplished through a sequence of
actions or steps
Description
To describe a particular person, place or
thing
Hortatory Exposition
To persuade the reader or listener that
something should or should not be the
case
Functions of Texts
Texts
Explanation
Discussion
Review
Commentary
Functions
To explain the processes involved
in the formation or workings of
natural or socio-cultural
phenomena
To present (at least) two points of
view about an issue
To critique an art work or event for
a public audience
To explain the processes involved
in the formation (evolution) of a
socio-cultural phenomenon, as
though a natural phenomenon
Schematic Structure of
Recounts
Orientation
Event
1
Event 2
Event 3
Re-orientation
Linguistic Features of
Recount Text
Focus on specific participant
 Use of material processes
 Circumstances of time and place
 Use of past tense
 Focus on temporal sequences

Linguistic Features of
Spoof Text
Focus on individual participants
 Use of action verbs
 Temporal Circumstances
 Spatial circumstances
 Use of past tense

Schematic Structures of
Spoof Text



Orientation : sets the scene
Event(s)
: tell what happened
Twist
: provides the ‘punch
line’
Schematic Structure of Reports


General Classification: tells what
the phenomenon under discussion
is.
Description: tells what the
phenomenon under discussion is
like in terms of parts (and their
functions), qualities, habits or
behaviors, if living; uses, if nonnatural
Linguistic Features of
Report Text
 Focus
on Generic
Participants
 Use Relational
Processes
 Use of simple present
tense
 No temporal
sequence
Schematic Structure of
Narrative Text
 Orientation
 Evaluation
 Complication
 Resolution
 Re-orientation
Linguistic Features of
Narrative Text
 Focus
on specific and usually
individualized participants
 Use of material processes
 Use of relational processes
 Use of temporal conjunction
 Use of past tense
Schematic Structure of
Procedure
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Goal
Materials
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Linguistic Features of
Procedure
 Focus
on generalized human
agents
 Use of simple present tense, often
imperative
 Use mainly of temporal
conjunction (or numbering to
indicate sequence
 Use mainly of material processes
Schematic Structure of
Descriptive Text


Identification:
Identifies
phenomenon to be
described
Description:
describes parts,
qualities,
characteristics
Linguistic Features of
Descriptive Text




Focus on specific
participants
Use of attributive and
identifying processes
Frequent use of epithets and
classifiers in nominal groups
Use of simple present tense
Schematic Structure
of News Item



Newsworthy Event(s):
recounts the event in
summary form
Background Events:
elaborate what
happened, to whom, in
what circumstances
Sources: comments
by participants in,
witnesses to and
authorities expert on
the event.
Linguistic Features of a
News Item
Short, telegraphic information about
story captured in headline
 Use of Material processes to retell
the event
 Use of projecting verbal processes in
sources stage
 Focus on circumstances

Schematic Structure of
Analytical Exposition



Thesis
Position: introduces topic
and indicates writer’s
position
Preview: outlines the main
Arguments
Point: restates main
argument outlined in
preview
Elaboration: develops and
supports each
point/argument
Reiteration: restates
writer’s position
Linguistic Features of a
Analytical Exposition
 Focus on generic human and nonhuman participants
 Use of simple present tense
 Use of relational processes
 Use of internal conjunction to stage
argument
 Reasoning through causal
conjunction or nominalization
Schematic Structure
of Hortatory Exposition
 Thesis:
announcement of
issue of concern
 Arguments: reasons
for concern, leading
to recommendation
 Recommendation:
statement of what
ought or ought not to
happen
Linguistic Features of a
Hortatory Exposition
 Focus on generic human and non- human
participants
 Use of simple present tense
 Use of mental processes: to state what writer
thinks or feels about issue e.g. realize, feel,
appreciate.
 Use of material processes: to state what
happens e.g. drive, travel, spend, etc.
 Use of relational processes: to state what is
or should be e.g. doesn’t seem, is, are, etc.
Schematic Structure of
Explanation Text


A general
statement to
position the
reader
A sequenced
explanation of
why or how
something occurs
Linguistic Features of a
Explanation Text
 Focus on generic, non-human participants
 Use mainly of material and relational
processes
 Use mainly of temporal and causal
circumstances and conjunctions
 Use of simple present tense
 Some use of passive voice to get theme right
Schematic Structure of
Discussion



Issue:
- Statement
- Preview
Arguments for and
against or statements
of differing points of
view:
- Point
- Elaboration
Conclusion or
recommendations
Linguistic Features of a
Discussion
 Focus on generic human and generic nonhuman participants
 Use of mental processes: to state what
writer thinks or feels about issue e.g.
realize, feel, appreciate, etc.
 Use of material processes: to state what
happens e.g. has produced, have
developed, to feed, etc.
 Use of relational processes: to state what
is or should be e.g. is, could have, cause,
are.
Schematic Structure of
Reviews
1) Orientation
2) Interpretative
recount
3) Evaluation
4) Evaluative
summation
Linguistic Features of an
Review Text




Focus on particular participants (on
movies, TV shows, plays, operas,
recordings, exhibitions, concerts and
ballets
Direct expression of opinions through
use of attitudinal lexis
Use of elaborating and extending
clause and group complexes to
package information
Use metaphorical language
Schematic
Structure
Orientation
Event 1
Event 2
Reorientation
Dear Dewi,
On Saturday I went to Mount
Bromo. I stayed at Nisa and
Achmad’s house at Cemara
Lawang, Probolinggo. It has a
big garden with lots of colourful
flowers and a fishpond.
On Sunday Nisa and I saw
Gunung Batok and went on the
scenic ride on horseback. It
was scary. Then we went to get
a closer look at the mountain.
We took pictures of the
beautiful sceneries there.
On Monday we went to the Zoo
at Wonokromo. We saw
cockatoos having a shower. In
the afternoon I went home.
It was fun.
Love,
Dini
RECOUNT TEXT
Linguistic
Features
Specific
participant
Material
Process
Circumstance
of time
Temporal
sequence
Circumstance
of place
Past Tense
Schematic
Structure
Orientation
Major
Complication
Resolution
Complication
Resolution
Complication
Major
Resolution
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
Once upon a time there lived a little girl named
Snow White, She lived with her Aunt and Uncle
because her parents were died.
One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking
about leaving Snow White in the castle because they
both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have
enough money to take Snow White.
Linguistic
Features
Past Tense
Temporal
Circumstance
Specific
participant
Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt
to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran
away. The next morning she ran away from home
when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast.
She ran away into the woods.
Mental process
Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked
but no one answered so she went inside and fell
asleep.
Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming
Material
process
She was very tired and hungry.
home from work. They went inside. There they
found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke
up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, “What is
your name?” Snow White said, “My name is Snow
White.”
Doc said, “If you wish, you may live here with
us”. Snow White said, “Oh could I? Thank you.”
Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story
and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever
after.
Relational
process
Temporal
Conjunction
Temporal
Conjunction
Specific
participant
Language Functions
Lesson Materials
(Theory and Practice)
FORMS OF DIALOG


Transactional dialog
Interpersonal dialog
TRANSACTIONAL DIALOG
Andy
Benny
Andy
: Ben, did you buy any ice cream?
: No. I only bought some bread, milk,
and an apple.
: Oh, okay. I’ll buy the ice cream
then.
Interpersonal Dialog
A: Hi, Ben. How are you?
B: Not bad. Thanks. And yourself?
A: Fine, thanks.
B: Good weather, isn’t it?
A: Yes, … better than last week.
B: I know. That was terrible, don’t you think?
A: Indeed. I had never seen such heavy rain in my life.
B: Neither had I.
A: It was pouring!
B: It was, isn’t it?
A: The winds blew trees down. One of those trees fell on my neighbor’s
car.
B: That’s too bad.
A: Yeah. Now if you’ll excuse me, I’ve got a class to attend. See you.
B: See you. Bye.
Greetings
Dialog 1:
 Anny
 David
 Anny
 David
 Anny
: Hi, Dave.
: Hello, Ann.
: How are you today?
: Fine thanks. How is everything?
: Good, thanks
Dialog 2:
 Masduki
 Mr. Hartono
 Masduki
 Mr. Hartono
: Good morning, Mr. Hartono?
: Good morning.
: How are you this morning?
: Just fine, thank you.
Introducing people








Fred
Tom
Ronald
Tom
Dini
Helen
Bill
Hilmi
: Tom, this is my brother, Ronald.
: Hello.
: Nice to meet you.
: Nice meeting you, too.
: Excuse me, are you Helen Smith?
: That’s right.
: Excuse me, are you Frederick?
: No, I am not. I’m Nur Hilmi.
Inviting Someone



Toni
Jaka
Toto


Jaka
Toto


Jaka
Toto

Jaka
: Jaka, are you free on Sunday morning?
: Yes, Toni. I have nothing to do.
: “I was wondering if you’d like to come to a
forum meeting to celebrate the Earth Day.
: Sounds great.
: And after the meeting we are going to
save our earth.
: What do you mean, Toto?
: Just picking up the rubbish, cleaning the
wastes and other litters.
: That’s a very useful thing to do.
That’s OK.
Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction
















Fera : Morning, Tuti
Tuti : Morning, Fera.
Fera : How’s everything today?
Tuti : It’s okay, but ….
Fera : What’ the matter, Tuti. Are you not satisfied with reading that story?
Tuti : Yeah. I’m a little dissatisfied with this story. The story makes me
sleepy.
Fera : Do you have any complaints?
Wati : I don’t like the story. It is a lousy story.
Fera : What are you complaining about?
Wati : I’m a bit disappointed with the main character of the story.
The story is also a sad ending story.
Fera : Oh, I see.
But don’t worry, Wati. Be happy please. It’s just a story.
You can read other stories that can make you happy.
Wati : Yes, that’s good idea. Thanks for your suggestion, Fera.
Fera : You’re welcome. By the way, I must go now, Wati
See you tomorrow at school.
Wati : See you.
Asking and Giving Comments














Rudi : Jimmy, have you heard about our school’s plan to ban the cellular phones
in the school?
Jimmy: Yeah…
Rudi : What do you think about it?
Jimmy: Well, I think that’s fair enough. I agree with banning it.
Rudi : Why do you think so?
Jimmy: You see, cellular phone has caused so much trouble in our class.
Remember yesterday’s English class? Our teacher got very angry because he was
interrupted by cellular phone’s ringing many times. This may happen again and
again.
Rudi : Oh, that’s terrible.
Jimmy: Another thing is cellular phone has caused bad effects,
Students send SMS only for dating and gossiping their friends.
They often keep forbidden photos.
Rudi : What do you mean?
Jimmy: You know… some of them see the pornography on the cellular phone display
downloaded from internet.
Rudi : Oh, that’s too bad.
Jimmy: So, it’s a good idea if the school doesn’t allow students to use their hand phone in
the school.
Rudi : Your comments have been very helpful.
Jimmy: Thanks.
Predicting and Speculating
Andi
Susi
Andi
Susi
Andi
Susi
Andi
Susi
Andi
Susi
Andi
Susi
Andi
Susi
: Hi, Susi.
: Hello, Andi.
: Susi, do you feel that the wind blows fast.
: Yes, I do. And it’s too cold today.
: I was predicted that a big storm will come.
: How do you know that?
: I heard the forecast from the radio. The scientist predicted that the
weather would turn next month.
: What does it mean?
: The following month our country would be in the bad weather.
: Really? Or it is just a speculation, Andi.
: I do not know exactly. It is not a speculation I think, because they
did a research how to predict the weather. And it is not a
speculation because all give logic reasons.
: But I don’t believe it.
: Yes, it depends on. By the way, I must go now. Bye, Susi.
: Bye, Andi, See you later.
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