THE CAMERA AS A WEAPON
The Role of The War Photographer
Presented by:
Fred and Robert Henstridge
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 1
TOPICS TO BE COVERED
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History of War Photography
The Use of Art to Depict War
The First Use of the Camera in War
Propaganda During WWII
Photography in the U.S. Army
Notable Photojournalists in WWII
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 2
FIRST KNOWN IMAGES
OF COMBAT
• Cave Paintings at Lascaux
– 32,00 Years Ago
• Romans did not use images to depict combat
– Roman Historians accompanied the Legions
• Bayeux Tapestry
– Depicts the Norman Invasion of England
– A Documentary in Cloth
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 3
FIRST KNOWN IMAGES
Bhimbetka rock painting, India Dating
back 30,000 years, it depicts hunters
with horses.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Harold's death
Slide No. 4
THE USE OF ART TO DEPICT WAR
• French Revolution
– Eugène Delacroix
• Goya Painting
• Crimean War
• United States War
Between the States
• Indian Fighting
– Remington
• First World War
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Marine machine gunners, Battle of
Belleau Wood (1 June 1918 – 26 June
1918)
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 5
ART TO DEPICT WAR
The Third of May 1808, 1814. Oil on
canvas, 266 х 345 cm. Museo del
Prado, Madrid.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Liberty Leading the People, Eugène
Delacroix, Louvre, Paris
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 6
FIRST USE OF A CAMERA IN WAR
• Crimean War
• Roger Fenton
• Civil War
– Matthew Brady
First World War
Lowell Thomas
Spanish Civil War
Robert Capa
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 7
SECOND WORLD WAR
• German Ministry of Propaganda & PK
– Movies and Still Photos
– Signal Magazine was Distributed World
Wide
• Soviet Union Documentation
– Roman Carmen, Famous for his film footage
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 8
THE CAMERA AS A WEAPON
German PK Archives
Above: German troops enter Poland after a
'blitzkrieg' offensive which swept into Poland
on September 1, 1939.
Right: Nazi German troops who stormed into
the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, were
well-prepared, aggressive, and certain of
victory.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 9
GERMAN PK ARCHIVES
The Use of Color
German troops in the Ukraine, circa
1940. German PK photographers were
using Agfa color film.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
German troops using an Enigma
code machine in the field, Russia,
circa 1940
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 10
SIGNAL MAGAZINE
The NAZI PK Version of LIFE
Two members of a Cossack volunteer
formation with copies of the Russian
edition (issue number 9/1943). PK
photographs, probably Croatia, late
1943.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Give that man a cigar! Two BelgianFlemish members of the Vlaamsche Wacht
having fun with the Churchill cover of the
Dutch issue number 8/1943. PK
photographs, 1943.
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 11
UNITED STATES OWI
• Office of War Propaganda
– Tasked to Document the Home Front
– Voice of America
• War Department Wanted to Document the
War
– Stills, Films and Voice Recordings
• Hollywood’s Contribution
– Training and Propaganda Films
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 12
PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE U.S. ARMY
• Army Signal Corps
– Trained Thousands of Sill and Film Photographers
– Fairchild 16mm Turret Lens Cameras
– 4x5 Speed Graphic and 2x2 Twin Lens Reflex
– 35mm Cameras were mainly German
• General Army Photographers
– Assigned to Army and Marine Units
• Independent Photojournalists
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 13
THIRD INFANTRY DIVISON
• Dogface Soldiers
– Casablanca to the Berghof
• Third Signal Company
– Lt. George “Fuzzy” Frezell
– 1,300 Framed Photographs
– http://www.dogfacesoldiers.org/
• Sgt. William (Pops) Heller – 1910-1972
– Contacted His Son
http://www.warfoto.com/
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 14
FUZZY FOLLIES
Lt. George “Fuzzy” Frezell
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Bill Heller and Howard Nickelson listen to the BBC
somewhere in France. This shot shows the exterior
of the Fuzzy's Folly photo lab.
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 15
THE PHOTOGRAPHERS
• Sgt. (T3) John D. "Jack"
Cole
• Sgt. (T4) William "Pop"
Heller
• Sgt. (T4) William
Toomey
• Pfc. Robert S. "Bobby"
Seesock
• Cpl. (T5) Howard B.
"Nick" Nickelson (Not
in the Photo)
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Third Signal Company Photographers near Zweibrucken,
Germany. Names are listed at Right from Left to Right
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 16
WILLIAM HELLER
Bill Toomey and Bill Heller pose by the Third Signal
Company's headquarters sign in Bad Wildungen,
Germany.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Bill Heller shows off some
of the unit's cameras
Slide No. 17
WILLIAM HELLER
….this is the office. It's just part of it. I just
can't be without a cigar. Even my
identification photo. I have a cigar in my
mouth.“ France 1944
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 18
WILLIAM HELLER
This 380mm artillery piece, the Anzio
Express, captured near Monte
Cassino. The Germans had two large
railway guns which made the GI's
miserable on Anzio,
© Fred Henstridge Photography
A Tired GI sitting next to Statuesque
Comrade. Italy, 1944.
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 19
WILLIAM HELLER
Bill Heller and Bobby Seesock in the
darkroom.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Staff Sergeant Earl Swanson of F
Co., Pfc. Edward F. Tidd Jr. of Rochester,
NY and one un-named GI 7th Infantry,
firing at Cisterna de Littoria, May 25,
1944.
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 20
WILLIAM HELLER
Pain registering in face of German
Soldier, as he dies.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Casualties-Animal and Human
Montilimar, France
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 21
WILLIAM HELLER
GI's leading nurse and German POW's
across the Rhine at Worms, Germany.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
GI carrying dead Italian girl from wrecked
building
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 22
WILLIAM HELLER
Marlene Dietrich with Bobby
Seesock 3rd Signal Co
Photographer
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Marlene showing her loyalty to
the 3rd Division-1945
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 23
NOTEABLE PHOTOJOURNALISTS
And War Photographers
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Roger Fenton
Mathew Brady
Robert Capa
Joe Rosenthal
Eddie Adams
Margret Bourke-White
Eugene Smith
John Houston
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 24
ROGER FENTON
The Crimean War
Valley of the Shadow of Death, with road
full of cannonballs, by Roger Fenton,
1855
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Marcus Sparling seated on
Roger Fenton's photographic
van, Crimea, 1855.
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 25
MATHEW BRADY
The Civil War
A company of the 6th Maine Infantry
on parade after the battle of
Fredericksburg.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Confederate dead behind a stone wall
at Fredericksburg, VA The 6th. Maine
Infantry penetrated the Confederate
lines at this point
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 26
ROBERT CAPA
When soldiers of the
16th Regiment of the
1st Infantry Division
landed at Omaha
Beach on June 6,
1944, photographer
Robert Capa, in the
employ of LIFE
magazine, was
among them with his
Contax II 35mm
camera.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Men of the 16th Infantry Regiment seek shelter from
German machine-gun fire in shallow water behind "Czech
hedgehog" beach obstacles, Easy Red sector, Omaha
Beach. © Robert Capa/Magnum Photos.
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 27
ROBERT CAPA
Loyalist Militiaman at the Moment of
Death, 1936 Robert Capa © Magnum
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Beach Scene, Omaha Beach, June 6,
1944. Robert Capa © Magnum
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 28
JOE ROSENTHAL
Two Iwo Jima Photos
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima, by Joe
Rosenthal - The Associated Press.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
Lowery's most widely
circulated picture of the first
flag raising.
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 29
EDDIE ADAMS
Adams' photograph of Nguyễn Ngọc Loan
executing Nguyễn Văn Lém on February
1, 1968
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Boat of no smiles,
Vietnamese Refugees, Gulf
of Siam, Thanksgiving Day
Slide No. 30
MARGERT BOURKE-WHITE
First Woman Combat Photographer
Above: Mohandas Gandhi, 1946 by
Margaret Bourke-White.
Right: Victims, KZ Buchenwald, 1945.
Margaret Bourke-White
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 31
W. EUGENE SMITH
Master of the Photo Essay
Once is Enough, Marines on Iwo Jima, 1945,
W. Eugene Smith
© Fred Henstridge Photography
W. Eugene Smith's iconic photo of
Amy soldier Angelo Klonis,
cigarette clenched between his
lips, illustrates the cover of LIFE
book, World War II
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 32
JOHN HOUSTON
The Battle for San Pietro
Soldier of the 36th Infantry Division with
Thompson Sub Machine Gun, December, 1943.
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 33
CLOSING SHOT
Steve McCurry, whose
iconic picture of a young
Afghan girl captured the
hearts of millions of people
around the world as she
peered hauntingly from the
cover of National
Geographic Magazine in
1985. This photo was
viewed around the world
and contributed greatly to
Afghan relief efforts
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 34
QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION
You are welcome to visit my Blog at
http://fredhenstridge.blogspot.com/
Web Site: www.henstridgephotography.com
September 11, 2010 Battle Event:
http://fhenstridge.zenfolio.com/p629222072
© Fred Henstridge Photography
The Camera as a Weapon
Slide No. 35
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THE CAMERA AS A WEAPON