ExC-ELL
INTEGRATING LANGUAGE,
LITERACY AND CONTENT:
Teacher and Student
Accountability
Margarita Calderón, Ph.D.
Professor Emerita, Johns Hopkins University
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ExC-ELL
LEARNING OUTCOMES
• Overview of latest research on ELs
• Gain literacy strategies beneficial to ELs
and struggling or reluctant readers
• Learn how to explicitly teach vocabulary
• Explore the use of interaction strategies to
engage all students
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ExC-ELL
Diversity of ELs
 LT-ELs -- Long-Term ELLs
 HSN -- Highly Schooled Newcomers
 R-ELs -- Reclassified ELLs
 M-ELs -- Migrant ELLs
 SIFE -- Students with Interrupted Formal
Education
 SE-ELs -- Special Education ELLs
 Struggling Readers/Reluctant Readers
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ExC-ELL
Diversity of ELs
1. What is the diversity of your ELs?
2. How are ELs grouped at your school?
3. Would a student benefit from a different
configuration?
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ExC-ELL
NOW: STUDENTS FALLING THROUGH THE GAPS
WITHOUT QUALITY INSTRUCTION
TIER 1 – WHEN GENERAL EDUCATION
TEACHERS DO NOT PROVIDE QUALITY
INSTRUCTION FOR ELs AND ALL STUDENTS
THEY FALL THROUGH THE GAPS.
80 –
90%



GAPS IN
INSTRUCTION
10 15%
TIER 2 – EL STRATEGIC
INTERVENTIONS 
GAPS IN
INSTRUCTION
510%
TIER 3
SPED
DROP
OUTS
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ExC-ELL
QUICK OVERVIEW OF 3 STUDIES ON
Features of quality
Instruction
Professional development
Whole-school structures
across Sheltered English Immersion (SEI)
and Bilingual Programs (TBA, DL, TWB)
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ExC-ELL
Results From the Five-year Studies:
IES comparison study of K-4th dual language
(DL), transitional bilingual (TB), and
sheltered English instruction/structured
English immersion (SEI).
Carnegie Corporation of New York study in 6th12th general education teachers, ESL, SEI,
SIFE, and bilingual teachers.
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ExC-ELL
The New York Carnegie Corporation
Goal for ExC-ELL (2008–2012)
Collaboratively
develop and test a
professional
development model
and instructional
design for K-12
general education,
ESL, dual-language
teachers who have
ELs in their
classrooms.
Kapa’a Teachers
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ExC-ELL
NEW YORK CITY SCHOOLS THAT
CONTINUOUSLY MEET AYP AND ELS SUCCEED.
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ExC-ELL
ExC-ELL
Schools #1 in
NYC, NC, UT, TX
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ExC-ELL
Kapa’a High School
maintains status of #
1 on the Island!!!
“School says nice work!”
“… Expediting Comprehension for English
Language Learners (ExC-ELL) contributed to the
positive movement the school is continually making, both
academically and in extra-curricular activities … it helped
the school earn good standing – unconditional, highest rank
status for the second year (Kauai newspaper).
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ExC-ELL
SOME SCHOOLS
IN … TRIED
DOING
WORKSHOPS
WITHOUT
FOLLOW-UP
TEACHER
SUPPORT
SYSTEMS AND
REMAIN IN
TROUBLED
WATERS
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ExC-ELL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Features of Success for ELs:
Whole School Commitment
Language, literacy and content
Cooperative learning/interaction
Differentiated Tutoring (RTI)
Whole-school structures & effective
leadership
Professional development for everyone
Teacher support: Coaching & TLCs
Parent/family support teams
Benchmark assessments and monitoring of
implementation
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ExC-ELL
Why Explicitly Teach Vocabulary?
• Effective vocabulary instruction has to start
early, in preschool, and continue throughout the
school years (Nagy, 2005).
• Teaching vocabulary helps develop phonological
awareness (Nagy, 2005) and reading
comprehension (Beck, Perfetti, & McKeown, 1982).
• Vocabulary instruction needs to be long-term
and comprehensive (Nagy, 2005) for ELs (Carlo, August,
& Snow, 2005; Calderón et al., 2005).
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ExC-ELL
Why is Vocabulary Important?
• Command of a large vocabulary frequently sets
high-achieving students apart from less successful
ones (Montgomery, 2000).
• The average 6-year-old has a vocabulary of
approximately 8000 words, and learns 3000-5000
more per year (Senechal & Cornell, 1993).
• Vocabulary in kindergarten and first grade is a
significant predictor of reading comprehension in
the middle and secondary grades (Cunningham, 2005;
Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997) or reading difficulties (Chall & Dale,
1995; Denton et al. 2011).
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ExC-ELL
THINK ABOUT IT
How many words are your
ELs learning per year?
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ExC-ELL
BASED ON CURRENT RESEARCH,
ELLs NEED A BALANCE OF
ESL
Depth of
Vocabulary
SHELTERED
INSTRUCTION
Reading & Writing
in Content Domains
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ExC-ELL
Key: Teach Vocabulary
Before, During & After Students Read
• Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading
comprehension.
• Reading comprehension correlates with procedural
and content knowledge.
• Content knowledge correlates with academic success.
• Comprehension depends on knowing between 90%
and 95% of the words in text.
• Knowing words means explicit instruction not just
exposure. Students need 12 production
opportunities to own a word.
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ExC-ELL
Why is Content Area Literacy
Important for ELLs?
Without reading instruction on content area literacy:
• SURFACE COMPREHENSION:
Literal comprehension; students read on their own and answer
questions; questions are low-level.
With reading instruction integrated into content areas:
• DEEP COMPREHENSION:
Critical comprehension; students learn new vocabulary
continuously; associate new readings with prior knowledge; add new
knowledge, discuss ideas, interpret facts and information, and apply
critical thinking skills to text.
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ExC-ELL
Semantic Awareness
Semantic Awareness is a cognitive, metacognitive,
affective, and linguistic stance toward words.
It is a mindset that word consciousness involves
motivating and showing students how important it is to be
learning words.
Students who are word conscious are aware of the power
of words they read, hear, write and speak.
Semantic awareness helps students become more skillful
and precise in word usage at many levels of complexity
and sophistication.
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ExC-ELL
Find your 3 O’clock Buddy
1. SUMMARIZE: THE MESSAGES FROM
WHAT HAS BEEN PRESENTED SO
FAR.
2. DISCUSS: WHAT ARE THE
IMPLICATIONS SO FAR FOR OUR
SCHOOL?
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ExC-ELL
Academic Language:
For formal discourse between
teacher-student and student-student
interaction around standards/goals.
For text comprehension.
For words you want to see in their
formal writing.
For success in tests.
For academic and economic status.
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ExC-ELL
Multiple Perspectives/Interfaces
Examples of Language Functions
Prediction
Enumeration
Identification
Classification
Interpretation
Comparison/Contrast
Explanation
Definition
Organization
Inference/hypothesis
Retelling
Summarization
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ExC-ELL
Multiple Perspectives/Interfaces
Reading Comprehension
Strategies/Skills
Predict
Visualize
Determine important Make inferences
information
Ask & answer
Monitor
questions
comprehension
Make connections
Summarize
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ExC-ELL
Multiple Perspectives/Interfaces
Examples of Writing Text Structures
Description
Cause and effect
Sequence
Problem solution
Compare and
contrast
Summarize
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ExC-ELL
Multiple Applications of Words
Text structure
Writing strategy
Signal words
Problem –
solutions
• problems are
identified and
solutions are
provided
• supporting
details describe
the problem and
solution
accordingly, answer,
as a result, because,
challenge, decide,
fortunately, if ___then,
issue, one reason is,
outcome is, problem,
so, solution, the
problem is solved by,
therefore, thus,
unfortunately, trouble
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ExC-ELL
Academic Language:
ords words words words words words words words
ords words words words words words words words
ords words words words words words words words
ords words words words words words words words
ords words wordsWriting
words words wordsLanguage
words words
Functions
&
ords words words
words words words
words words
Conventions
ords words words words words wordsDiscourse
words words
& words
Skillswords words words words
ords words words
ords words words words words words words words
ords words words words words
words words words
Reading
ords words words words words
words words
Strategies
& words
ords words words words words words words words
ords words words words words Skills
words words words
ords words words words words words words words
ords words words words words words words words
Margarita
Calderón
& Associates,
Inc. words words words words
ords
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
words
word
word
word
word
word
word
word
word
word
word
word
word
word
word
word
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word
ExC-ELL
Explicit Instruction of Vocabulary
STEP 1
 SELECT VOCABULARY TO PRE-TEACH BEFORE
PRESENTING CONTENT, TEACHER READ
ALOUD, OR STUDENT READING OF ANY TEXT.
STEP 2
 TEACH VOCABULARY USING 7 STEPS WITH
AMPLE STUDENT INTERACTION.
STEP 3
 STUDENTS READ, SUMMARIZE, DISCUSS, AND
WRITE ABOUT THE SUBJECT USING THE NEW
VOCABULARY
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ExC-ELL
SELECTING WORDS TO
TEACH ELS AND
STRUGGLING READERS
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ExC-ELL
Identify and Classify Vocabulary:
Selecting words to teach before, during, and
after reading:
1. Select Tiers 1, 2, & 3 from students’ texts.
2. From your explanations, for class experiments,
demonstrations you will present to them.
3. Words you want them to use during instructional
activities, partner summaries, class discussions
during and/or after reading, and those you want
to see in their writing.
4. From and for assessments.
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ExC-ELL
TIER 3 – CONTENT SPECIFIC
Square root
Rectangle
Radical
numbers
Photosynthesis Government
Germ
Bylaws
Atom
Bailout
Circumference Matter
Pi square
Osmosis
Congressional
Capital
Power
Power
Power
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ExC-ELL
Tier 2—Subcategories
Polysemous words (homonyms or homographs)
across academic content areas:
• solution
• table
• divide
• prime
• round
• trunk
• state
• power
• cell
• right
• radical
• leg
• left
• light
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
fall
check
court
hand
long
pin
rest
roll
sense
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ExC-ELL
TIER 2 – SOPHISTICATED AND
WORDS FOR SPECIFICITY
TIER 1 – TALK, SAY
TIER 2 -WHISPER
ARGUE
SPECIFY
ANNOUNCE
REQUEST
REVEAL
REMARK
DECLARE
DESCRIBE
DISCUSS
PROCLAIM
SHOUT
SCREAM
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ExC-ELL
TIER 2 – PHRASAL CLUSTERS AND
IDIOMS
•
•
•
•
Run off
Run away
Break a leg
Once in a
while
• Complete
sentence
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• Long noun
phrases
• Relatively
easier
• Stored
Energy
• Stimulus
package
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ExC-ELL
TIER 2 - SENTENCE STARTERS
Summarizing. Students create a new oral text that stands
for an existing text. The summary contains the important
information or big ideas.
+ This story tells about a . . .
+ This section is about the . . .
+ One important fact here is that . . .
Determining important information. Students tell the
most important idea in a section of text, distinguishing it
from details that tell more about it.
+ The main idea is . . .
+ The key details that support that are . . .
+ The purpose of this text is to . . .
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ExC-ELL
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
TIER 2 - QUESTION STARTERS
Can you help me _____?
I don't understand _____.
Where is/are _____?
How do I _____?
May I ask a question?
How much time do we have for _____?
Where do I _____?
Would you please repeat that?
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ExC-ELL
TIER 2 – WORDS THAT NEST CONTENT
WORDS AND CONCEPTS
Some Examples of Transition Words & Connectors for:
• Cause & Effect -- because, due to, as a result, since,
for this reason, therefore, in order to, so that, thus…
• Contrast -- or, but, although, however, in contrast,
nevertheless, on the other hand, while …
• Addition or comparison -- and, also, as well as, in
addition, likewise, moreover, by the way …
• Giving examples -- for example, for instance, in
particular, such as …
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ExC-ELL
•
•
•
•
•
•
TIER 2 & 3 – COGNATES &
FALSE COGNATES
Literature = literatura = littèrature
Context = contexto = contexte
Multisyllabic = multisilábico = ?
Osmosis = osmosis = osmose
Irony = ironía = ironie
Comprehension = comprensión = compréhension
False Cognates
• Library ≠ librería (bookstore) = biblioteca = bibliothèque
• Story ≠ historia (history) = cuento = histoire/conte
• Exit ≠ éxito (success) = salida = sortie
• Success ≠ suceso (event) = éxito = succès
• Character ≠ carácter (personality) = personaje = caractèr
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ExC-ELL
TIER 2 -- HOMOPHONES
When explaining / presenting a lesson, pay
attention to homophones such as:
–sum
some
–cell
sell
–weather
whether
–blew
blue
–whole
hole
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ExC-ELL
TIER 1 FOR ELS
Simple words for English speakers, but
might create difficulty for ELLs due to:
• Spelling
• Pronunciation
• Background knowledge
• Unfamiliar word, not previously
taught
• False cognate
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ExC-ELL
FIND YOUR 9 O’CLOCK BUDDY
REVIEW:
What are the differences between
Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3?
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ExC-ELL
These Await Your Students in 6th
& 7th Grade Tests!
vary, underlying, albeit, solely,
successive, denote, crucial, oddly,
analogous, compiled, oddly, whereby,
notwithstanding, forthcoming,
coincide, widespread, implicit…
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ExC-ELL
Criteria for Selecting Words to Teach
 It is critically important to the discipline.
 It is critically important to this unit.
 It is important to the understanding of the
concept.
 It is not critical but useful for ELLs.
 It is not useful at this time.
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ExC-ELL
Summary of
Vocabulary Tiers 1, 2, 3 For ELLs
TIER 1 -- Basic words ELLs need to communicate,
read, and write. Those that should be taught.
TIER 2 -- Information processing words that nest Tier 3
words in long sentences, polysemous words, transition
words, connectors; more sophisticated words for rich
discussions and specificity in descriptions.
TIER 3 -- Subject-specific words that label content
discipline concepts, subjects, and topics. Infrequently
used academic words.
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ExC-ELL
Type of Words
Identify & Classify Words
Tier 3
Tier 2
Tier 1
Polysemous
Phrases (bundled
up words, idioms)
Cognates
Connectors &
transition
Homophones
Other:
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ExC-ELL
A Change in Climate
From one day to the next, weather can have a big
effect on your life. When it rains, you have to stay
indoors or carry an umbrella. When it's cold, you
have to bundle up.
Over the course of hundreds, thousands, and
millions of years, weather trends affect life on
Earth in more dramatic ways. Ice ages or long
droughts, for example, can wipe out certain types
of plants and animals. Although many species
manage to survive such extreme, long-term
climate shifts, their living conditions also change.
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ExC-ELL
PRE-TEACHING VOCABULARY
An Example for 2nd to 5th
1. Teacher says the word. Asks students to
repeat the word 3 times.
2. Teacher states the word in context from the
text.
3. Teacher provides the dictionary definition(s).
4. Explains meaning with student-friendly
definitions.
5. Highlight grammar, spelling, polysemy, etc.
6.  Engages students in activities to
develop word/concept knowledge.
7. Remind students how/when to use the word.
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ExC-ELL
Example from 5th Grade Text
1. Say “manage” three times.
2. Although many species manage to survive such
extreme . . .
3. (1) succeed in doing something difficult; (2) to be in
charge of, to run: manage a company.
4. I managed to lose ten pounds by exercising. My father
manages that store.
5. Manage is a polysemous word. Manejar is the cognate.
It also has multiple meanings (to drive, to manage).
6. Think-pair-share: What have you managed well
recently?
7. Remember to use manage in your summaries.
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ExC-ELL
An Example for Pre-K to 1st
1. Introduce the new word or phrase and ask the children to
say it three times or more.
2. Explain the word using everyday language. Provide a
child-friendly definition.
3. Give examples of the word in a variety of contexts. Use
complete sentences. Use concrete objects.
4. Think-Pair-Share --Ask the children to use it in a
sentence with their buddy. Then, ask them what their
buddy said.
5. Acknowledge the student’s attempts at using the new
word.
6. Remind them when they need to use the new word.
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ExC-ELL
An Example in Kinder
1. In the pretend or play area, the teacher has the
students pack small bags, write their name or draw
a picture on a tag, and tie the tag to their luggage.
2. Students are asked to say luggage 3 times.
3. Students are asked to say to a buddy, “I have . .
. in my luggage. I am taking my luggage to . . .”
4. The teacher gives the student a sticker or teachermade luggage tag to put on his or her suitcase
every time the student uses the word luggage.
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ExC-ELL
An Example in Kinder
5. The teacher tells the students to ask their parents
to show them what luggage they take on their
trips, how many pieces of luggage they take on
trips, and what happens if they lose their
luggage. The next day, students are asked to
share the answers to these questions.
6. The teacher reads a story about a trip during
which the characters take luggage, and children
retell the story and add their own make-believe
adventures.
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ExC-ELL
Ejemplos del paso #6
Un sólo contexto para
todas las palabras
 Enséñame como sería un
inmenso plato de
espagueti?
 Si te lo comes todo y te
sientes incomodo, ¿cómo
te verías?
 Enséñame como te verías
comiéndolo lentamente.
 Enséñame como te verías
comiéndolo
prudentemente.
Mismo formato
 Si un perro estuviera
portándose amenazador,
¿lo acariciaría usted o se
alejaría de él? ¿por qué?
 Si usted quisiera ver algo
exquisito, ¿iría a un museo
o a una tienda de
alimentos? ¿por qué?
 ¿Cuál animal puede hacer
un gruñido, un pez o un
león? ¿por qué?
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ExC-ELL
More Examples for Step #6
SAY THE WORDS –
1. SLEEPILY
2. SUSPICIOUSLY
3. JOYFULLY
4. SADLY
5. SOFTLY
6. LOUDLY
7. LOUDER
8. LAUGHING
9. WHISPERING
faithful,
stubborn,
awesome,
awkward,
impish,
stern,
illuminated.
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ExC-ELL
Think-Pair-Share
Come up with a long
sophisticated complete
sentence using the word
__________________
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ExC-ELL
Your Turn to Teach Us!
 Prepare to teach a Tier 1 word using a support
from the previous page.
Prepare to teach a Tier 2 or 3 word using the 7
steps.
Teach it to us – role play as if we were your
students (3 minutes max).
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ExC-ELL
Teaching Words After Reading or for
Anchoring Knowledge
•
Cooperative Learning strategies -- RoundTable, Tea Party,
Write-Around, 3-Step Interview, 8-Rectangles, Corners, etc.
•
Word journals, Frayer graphs, semantic webs, etc.
•
Games -- Jeopardy, Charades, let students invent!
•
Charts, graphs, cognitive organizers, semantic maps, word
webs!
•
Poems, chants, songs, rhymes!
•
Summaries, syntheses, story-related writing, reports, related
research, personification plays, cartoons, comic books -- all
should include as many of the key words as possible.
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ExC-ELL
Vocabulary in Centers
Writing Center. Students can practice vocabulary starting
from letter formation to completing sentences by writing
lists, stories, summaries, and cooperative stories.
Experiment Center. ELs benefit from hands-on
experiments in science and math. Discovery develops
critical thinking even if the language skills are limited.
ELs can team up with an English speaker and conduct
experiments or solve math problems, then, do a
collaborative summary of what they learned.
Conversation Center. Students practice conversations
with adults—teachers, teacher assistants, or
parents/volunteers.
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ExC-ELL
Vocabulary in Centers
Reader’s Theater Center. Reader’s Theater Books that
contain lines for different readability levels can be used
at these centers. Students can practice fluency and
pronunciation, learn new words, build listening skills,
learn to take turns, and perform in front of an audience.
Listening/Reading Center. Many programs for ELs have
been developed such as online books or books on CDs.
Ask students to summarize their book.
Computer Center. ELs and other students can practice
phonemic awareness, pronunciation, vocabulary, math,
science, sequencing, following directions, and
technology skills on the computer.
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ExC-ELL
Polysemous S.E.E.D. activity as a
“DO NOW” the following day.
Sentences
The palm trees swayed
in the wind.
Explanation (Definition)
An evergreen tree that
grows in hot
places
The fortune teller will
read your palm and tell
your fortune.
Examples
palm trees on
Palm Blvd.
The flat inside
part
Drawing
of your hand.
sweaty
palms
palm reader
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ExC-ELL
Main categories of grammar that are
difficult for ELLs
A. Compound and complex sentences
B. Nominalization and long noun
phrases
C. Passive voice structures
D. Long or multiple prepositional
phrases and idioms.
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ExC-ELL
READING TO LEARN
• English language learners (ELLs) are learning
English at the same time they are studying core
content through English. They must perform
double the work of native speakers to keep up,
and at the same time be accountable for AYP
(Carnegie Panel on ELL Literacy, 2006).
• Without explicit instruction on vocabulary and
reading in each subject area, students cannot
learn math, science, social studies and literature
(NRC Commission on Teacher Preparation, in press).
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ExC-ELL
A Queen’s Wish
One gray winter day the elderly queen
summoned all her grandchildren to the castle.
“I have been fortunate to have lived a long
life,” she said. “But in time your generation will
rule the country. You must work persistently to
help the people and take care of the land.
“We will always work hard,” the children replied.
“You must also be faithful to your brothers and
sisters, no matter what,” the queen said.
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ExC-ELL
Vocabulary Tiers for ELLs
Tier 1
Tier 2
Tier 3
Simple
Words
Process, Idioms,
Sophisticated
Content Words,
Key vocabulary
wish
rule
summoned
gray
take care
fortunate
queen
replied
generation
castle
no matter what
persistently
elderly
faithful
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ExC-ELL
Before Reading Science, Math,
Social Studies, and Language Arts
• Hook the Reader
• Build Background
• Connect with Prior
Knowledge
• Pre-teach
Vocabulary
Explicitly
• Preview Text with
Students
• Set Purpose for
Reading
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ExC-ELL
Engagement with Text – Step 2
Modeling Comprehension
Why Do Teacher Read and Think Alouds?
•Fluency
M
O •Comprehension Strategies
D
•Self-correction
E
•Fix-it strategies
L
M
O
D
E
L
Extend comprehension
Teach more words
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ExC-ELL
There's lots of evidence of drastic changes in climate
occurring in the distant past. Earth today may again be
in the midst of such a climate change. In the last 100
years, studies show, global temperatures have risen an
average of 0.6 degrees C.
That might not sound so bad. After all, what difference
does half a degree make?
A growing number of studies suggest, however, that
such an increase could have a big impact on life.
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ExC-ELL
Partner Reading
• The teacher reads and models strategies.
• Partner A reads the first sentence.
Partner B helps.
• Partner B reads the next sentence.
Partner A helps.
• After each paragraph, partners “put their
heads together” and summarize what they
read.
• Partners continue until they finish reading
the section assigned.
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ExC-ELL
Biologists and ecologists are discovering, often by accident,
that climate change is forcing some plants and animals into
new habitats. Others are becoming extinct. Sometimes,
scientists show up at a site they've studied for years, only to
discover that the organisms they've been tracking are no
longer there. What's more, it now looks like this redistribution
of life on Earth is sometimes happening at an alarmingly fast
pace.
"These little pieces of information are all warning signs that
stuff is going on," says Erik Beever. He's a research ecologist
with the United States Geological Survey in Corvallis, Ore.
"Our world is changing more rapidly than we have observed
in the recent past," he says.
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Step 5: Connect Reading & Writing
Formulating Questions
Students work in teams of four:
1. Construct 2 questions based on the
specific Bloom level assigned to you.
2. Write each question on a separate
card.
3. Give your cards to the teacher.
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ExC-ELL
THINKING PROCESS
(Knowledge-1)
Shallow processing:
drawing out factual
answers, testing recall
and recognition
R
E
M
E
M
B
E
R
Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Process – 1
VERBS FOR
OBJECTIVES
choose
describe
define
identify
label
list
locate
match
memorize
name
omit
recite
recognize
select
state
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
MODEL
QUESTIONS
Who?
Where?
Which one?
What?
How?
What is the best?
Why?
How Much?
When?
What does it mean?
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
• Highlighting
• Rehearsal
• Memorizing
• Mnemonics
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ExC-ELL
Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Process – 2
THINKING
PROCESS
VERBS FOR
OBJECTIVES
(Comprehension-2)
Translating,
interpreting and
extrapolating
classify, defend
demonstrate
distinguish
explain, express
extend
give example
illustrate
indicate
interrelate
interpret
infer, judge
match
paraphrase
represent
restate
rewrite
select, show
summarize
tell, translate
U
N
D
E
R
S
T
A
N
D
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
MODEL QUESTIONS
State in your own words.
Which are facts?
What does this mean?
Is this the same as…?
Give an example. Select
the best definition.
Condense this
paragraph.
What would happen if…?
State in one word…
Explain what is
happening.
What part doesn’t fit?
Explain what is meant.
What expectations are
there?
Read the graph (table).
What are they saying?
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
• Key examples
• Emphasize connections
• Elaborate concepts
• Summarize
• Paraphrase
• STUDENTS explain
• STUDENTS state the rule
• Why does this example…?
• Create visual representations
(concept maps, outlines, flow
charts, organizers, analogies,
pro/con grids) PRO/CON
• NOTE: The faculty member
can show them, but they have
to do it.
• Metaphors, rubrics, heuristics
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ExC-ELL
THINKING
PROCESS
(Application-3)
Knowing when to apply;
why to apply and
recognizing patterns of
transfer to situations that
are new, unfamiliar or
have a new slant for
students
A
P
P
L
Y
Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Process – 3
VERBS FOR
OBJECTIVES
apply
choose
dramatize
explain
generalize
judge
organize
paint
prepare
produce
select
show
sketch
solve
use
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
MODEL QUESTIONS
Predict what would
happen if
Choose the best
statements that apply
Judge the effects
What would result
Tell what would happen
Tell how, when, where,
why
Tell how much change
there would be
Identify the results of
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
• Modeling
• Cognitive
apprenticeships
• “Mindful” practice –
NOT just a “routine”
practice
• Part and whole
sequencing
• Authentic situations
• “Coached” practice
• Case studies
• Simulations
• Algorithms
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ExC-ELL
THINKING
PROCESS
(Analysis-4)
Breaking down into
parts, forms
A
N
A
L
Y
Z
E
Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Process – 4
VERBS FOR
OBJECTIVES
analyze
categorize
classify
compare
differentiate
distinguish
identify
infer
point out
select
subdivide
survey
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
MODEL QUESTIONS
What is the function of…?
What’s fact? Opinion?
What assumptions…?
What statement is relevant?
What motive is there?
Related to, extraneous to, not
applicable.
What conclusions?
What does the author believe?
What does the author assume?
Make a distinction.
State the point of view of…
What is the premise?
State the point of view of…
What ideas apply?
What ideas justify the conclusion?
What’s the relationship between?
The least essential statements are…
What’s the main idea? Theme?
What inconsistencies, fallacies?
What literary form is used?
What persuasive technique?
Implicit in the statement is…
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
• Models of thinking
• Challenging
assumptions
• Retrospective analysis
• Reflection through
journaling
• Debates
• Discussions and other
collaborating learning
activities
• Decision-making
situations
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ExC-ELL
THINKING
PROCESS
Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Process – 5
VERBS FOR
OBJECTIVES
(Evaluation-5)
appraise
Evaluate according to judge
some set of criteria,
criticize
and state why
defend
compare
c
E
V
A
L
U
A
T
E
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
MODEL QUESTIONS
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
What fallacies,
consistencies,
inconsistencies appear?
Which is more important,
moral, better, logical, valid,
appropriate?
Find the errors
• Challenging assumptions
• Journaling
• Debates
• Discussions and other
collaborating learning
activities
• Decision-making situations
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ExC-ELL
THINKING
PROCESS
(Synthesis-6)
Combining elements
into a pattern not
clearly there before
C
R
E
A
T
E
Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Process – 6
VERBS FOR
OBJECTIVES
choose
combine
compose
construct
create
design
develop
do
formulate
hypothesize
invent
make
make up
originate
organize
plan
produce
role play, tell
c
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
MODEL QUESTIONS
How would you test…?
Propose an alternative.
Solve the following.
How else would you…?
State a rule.
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
• Modeling
• Challenging assumptions
• Reflection through
journaling
• Debates
• Discussions and other
collaborating learning
activities
• Design
• Design-making situations
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ExC-ELL
Numbered Heads Together
• Number off in your team from 1 to 4.
• Listen to the question.
• Put your heads together and find the answer.
• Make sure everyone in your team knows the
answer.
• Be prepared to answer when your number is
called.
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ExC-ELL
•
Clear your desks.
•
Only one paper and pencil.
•
Each student writes one answer and passes the paper
to the right.
•
Everyone must write an answer.
•
Continue this process until the teacher calls time
out.

•
Count the number of correct responses by your
team. Delete repeated words and report your
numbers.
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ExC-ELL
• Write a key word from
the text and pass the paper.
• Keep writing one word at a time until
time is up.
• The words must be Tier 2 or 3.

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ExC-ELL
Round 2
• Put your heads together and come up
with a strategy to improve your team
total.
• Apply your strategy in Round 2 of
Round Table.
• Follow the same rules as for Round 1.
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
79
ExC-ELL
80
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Assessment & Writing
The ultimate proof -- at the end of the
block, day, week:
Write one or two paragraphs
summarizing what you learned about
_______________ using as many tier 2
and tier 3 words as you have learned.
Extra points if you use appropriate
connectors, transition or signal words.
Use compound sentences or different
types of clauses.
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
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ExC-ELL
Vocabulary/Language Progressions
How do your students progress through the
different proficiency levels?
Does their vocabulary progress in the 4 language
domains – listening, speaking, reading, writing?
Does their vocabulary progress in the 4 core
subjects – math, science, social studies, language
arts?
Is their academic language differentiated and
targeted for each proficiency level and range of
schooling background?
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ExC-ELL
VOCABULARY
VOCABULARY
VOCABULARY
DISCOURSE/INTERACTION
READING, READING,
READING
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
WRITING STRATEGIES
DIFFERENTIATED
ASSESMENTS
83
ExC-ELL
HOW DID
SCHOOLS
ACCOMPLISH
SUCCESS?
5-DAYS OF PD
AND 3-5 DAYS
OF COACHING
ON-SITE PER
TEACHER,
AND PD FOR
ADMINISTRATORS
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ExC-ELL
Whole-School Structures
Whole-school implementation of
instruction
All teachers and administrators attend
professional development and follow-up
for all components
Coordinated quality instruction within
and across grade levels
Buy-in to more than a one year effort
85
ExC-ELL
Teachers Training Teachers in
TLCs
86
ExC-ELL
Professional Development Loop
Teacher Self-Efficacy
Peer-Coaching
and Expert Coaching
Teacher
Declarative
Knowledge
Evident Student
Gains and
Teacher
Application
Teachers
Conditional
knowledge
Teacher Practice
Peer-Coaching
And Expert Coaching
On-site Modeling
Expert Coaching
Teachers
Procedural
knowledge
Teacher
Practice and
Expert Coaching
87
ExC-ELL
ExC-ELL and RIGOR Professional
Development Institutes:
 5 days of initial PD + refreshers
 5 to 10 or 20 days of coaching,
modeling in classrooms,
helping teachers with lessons
 PD for principals & coaches
 Assist with implementation
88
ExC-ELL
Coaching Teachers
Differentiated coaching observation
protocols for kindergarten, 1st - 2nd and
3rd – 4th grades since the purpose of
reading, language development, writing
is different across these grade levels.
Principal walk-throughs with the same
instruments.
Teachers Learning Communities.
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ExC-ELL
Benchmark Assessments
Assessments for every grade level.
Performance assessments every 6 weeks.
To move students to higher levels.
To provide more intensive interventions.
End-of-the-year assessments to determine
individual student gains.
90
ExC-ELL
Implementation Assessment
Trainers conduct 3 or more implementation
visits to observe each classroom, give
teachers feedback and set goals and
recommendations for the next visit.
End-of-the-year data reports on all
classrooms focusing on teacher and student
outcomes.
End-of-the-year data reports on effectiveness
of school structures, administrative support,
tutoring, family support, attendance, and next
steps.
91
ExC-ELL
Teacher Support Technology
For data on teacher and
student performance;
For planning and refining
lessons;
For coaches to give feedback
For principal walk-throughs
and specific feedback
For peer coaching
For classroom research
For measuring teaching and
impact on students
92
ExC-ELL Access Reports on Secure Website
93
ExC-ELL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Features of Success for ELs:
Language, literacy and content
Cooperative learning/interaction
Differentiated Tutoring (RTI)
Whole-school structures & effective
leadership
Professional development for everyone
Teacher support: Coaching & TLCs
Parent/family support teams
Benchmark assessments and monitoring of
implementation
94
ExC-ELL
ELs Need
RIGOR / CHALLENGE
Teach students how to be effective learners
RIGOR / CHALLENGE
95
ExC-ELL
Solution Tree Press:
Item # 14BSF–BKF402
Solutiontree.com
Phone
800.733.6786
FAX
812.336.7790
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
96
ExC-ELL
WWW. CORWINPRESS.COM
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
97
ExC-ELL
Preventing Long-Term
ELs: Transforming
Schools to Meet Core
Standards
Paperback: $31.95,
D10840-978-1-41297416-5
WWW.CORWIN
PRESS.COM
800-233-9936
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
98
ExC-ELL
WWW.MARGARITACALDERON.ORG
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
99
ExC-ELL
SOME REFERENCES:
• Calderón M.E. & Minaya-Rowe, L. (2011). Preventing
Long-Term English Language Learners:
Transforming schools to meet core standards.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
• Calderón, M.E., Slavin, R.E. & M. Sánchez. (2011).
Effective instruction for English Language Learners.
In M. Tienda & R. Haskins (Eds.). The future of
immigrant Children. Washington, DC: Brookings
Institute/Princeton University.
• Calderón, M. (2011). Teaching Reading to English
language learners in K-5th Grades. The Solution Tree
Press.
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ExC-ELL
:
• Calderón, M. (May 2009). The importance of
integrating language, literacy and knowledge for
English language learners. Texas Elementary
Principals and Supervisors Association, 22 (3) 4-5, 10.
• Calderón, M. E., (2007). Teaching reading to English
language learners, Grades 6-12: A framework for
improving achievement in the content areas.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
• Calderón, M. E. (2007). RIGOR! Reading Instructional
Goals for Older Readers: Reading Program for 6th –
12th Students with Interrupted Formal Education. New
York: Benchmark Education Co.
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ExC-ELL
• Slavin, R. E., Madden, N., Calderón, M., Chamberlain,
A. & M. Hennessy (2009). Fifth-Year Reading and
Language Outcomes of a Randomized Evaluation Of
Transitional Bilingual Education: Report to IES.
Washington, DC: Institute for Education Sciences,
U.S. Department of Education.
• Calderón, M. E. (2009). Professional development for
teachers of English language learners and striving
readers. In L. Mandel-Morrow, R. Rueda & D. Lapp,
(Eds.) Handbook of Literacy and Research on Literacy
Instruction: Issues of Diversity, Policy and Equity.
Gilford Press.
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ExC-ELL
THANK YOU!!!
Wishing you great success
in your endeavors!
[email protected]
www.margaritacalderon.org
202-368-4621
103
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