ОБУЧЕНИЕ ГОВОРЕНИЮ:
МЕТОДИКА ПРЕПОДАВАНИЯ И
ФОРМЫ КОНТРОЛЯ НАВЫКОВ И
УМЕНИЙ
(ДИАЛОГ и МОНОЛОГ)
Говорение – вид речевой
деятельности, посредством
которого осуществляется
устное вербальное общение
Диалогическая речь – форма речи, при
которой происходит непосредственный
обмен высказываниями между двумя или
несколькими
лицами.
Единицей
обучения диалогической речи является
диалогическое единство (микродиалог)
– несколько реплик, связанных по
содержанию и по форме.
ДИАЛОГ
МОНОЛОГ
ДИАЛОГ 1
||
ДИАЛОГ 2
Х
ЭТАПЫ РАБОТЫ НАД
ДИАЛОГОМ
•
•
•
•
Аудирование
Вокабуляр
Лексико-грамматические структуры
Диалог: подготовленный неподготовленный
СВЯЗУЮЩИЕ ЭЛЕМЕНТЫ
(Linking Words, Fillers)
Связующие
элементы
монолога
Once………………
While……………
Then…………….
Связующие элементы
диалога
Did you hear about
(what happened to) …?
You may not/won’t believe it, but..
How did you feel then?
CONVERSATION TOOLS
Starting stories/news
Did I ever tell you about…?
I don’t believe I did
Did you hear about (what
happened to) …?
Was it on TV ….
No, what?
Did you see the latest news on
TV last night?
No, I missed it.
CONVERSATION TOOLS
Surprising news
•
•
•
•
•
Guess what!
You may not/won’t believe it, but..
You’d better sit down!
Do you know what!
I’ve got news for you
CONVERSATION TOOLS
Showing interest
•
•
•
•
•
•
How interesting
What happened then?
How did it happen?
What did you do then?
How did you feel then?
Why did you do that?
CONVERSATION TOOLS
Encouraging conversation
•
•
•
•
•
•
Right/OK
Yes?
And?
Really?
And then?
Did you/are you/is he?….
CONVERSATION TOOLS
Being sympathetic
•
•
•
•
•
•
Oh no!
What a pity
Poor you
That’s too bad
How awful/terrible/terrifying!
You must have felt terrible
CONVERSATION TOOLS
Asking to expand
• What makes you think so?
• What makes you say that?
• What do you mean?
CONVERSATION TOOLS
Summarizing
•
•
•
•
So …
So you mean…
I hope/I suppose…
In short…
CONVERSATION TOOLS
Interrupting
• Excuse me for interrupting
• Can I say something here?
• Can I ask a question?
CONVERSATION TOOLS
Changing topic
• Talking of…/Speaking of…
• That reminds me, …(of)
• By the way…/Before I forget…
CONVERSATION TOOLS
Returning to the topic
• In any case..
• Anyway…
• Coming back to what I was saying…
CONVERSATION TOOLS
Agreement
• Exactly
• Definitely
• I’ll say
CONVERSATION TOOLS
Finishing the story
•
•
•
•
To cut a long story short
So, in the end
So, in short
All in all
1. Listen and fill in the blanks
I’m often _______________ at weekends, especially if there
is a football match or a demonstration. I’m there to see
things don’t get out of control. I think you have
_______________ this type of work because it isn’t easy
and can be _______________. You serve the public and
you’re there to protect them, but they don’t always
_______________ what you’re trying to do. The pay and
conditions are all right, which is a _______________
because you can’t go on strike.
I’m often on duty at weekends, especially if there
is a football match or a demonstration. I’m there
to see things don’t get out of control. I think
you have to be cut out for this type of work
because it isn’t easy and can be dangerous. You
serve the public and you’re there to protect
them, but they don’t always appreciate what
you’re trying to do. The pay and conditions are all
right, which is a good thing because you can’t go
on strike.
Rewrite the phrases in italics, using the proper Phrasal verb
from the box.
get by on smth.
get on in life
be cut out for smth.
get smb. down
go in for smth.
1. She has to survive on a very small salary.
2. Are you sure you really have the qualities for
being a trapeze artist?
3. Being a teacher is really rewarding and worth
choosing as a career.
4. She still hopes someday she will be successful.
5. His lack of social life was beginning to depress
him.
• She has to survive on a very small salary.
(get by)
• Are you sure you really have the qualities for
being a trapeze artist?
(cut out)
• Being a teacher is really rewarding and worth
choosing as a career.
(go in for)
• She still hopes someday she will be successful.
(get on in life)
• His lack of social life was beginning to depress
him.
(get him down)
A
B
C
1. doing medical
seems
pretty difficult
research
sounds
fascinating
2. working as an
must be
nerve-racking
archaeologist
could be
kind of boring
3. writing for a
would be
fantastic
newspaper
pretty awful
4. being a politician
really rewarding
5. conducting an
very challenging
orchestra
6. being wealthy and
not having to work
7. being a secret agent
8. taking care of sick
people
+ opinion
+ because
I think
because
I guess
since
I believe
as
In my opinion
To my mind
For me
Example: For me, taking care of sick
people would be really rewarding.
Example: For me, taking care of sick
people would be really rewarding, as
you relive their sufferings.
CARD 3
A: I guess, (doing)……… would be really
B: Exactly! It sounds very …….., since …
Монолог
форма речи, обращенная к одному
лицу или к группе слушателей
(собеседников), иногда – к самому
себе
Этапы работы над
монологом
• Накопление вокабуляра
• Работа с грамматическими структурами
• Использование связующих элементов
(linking devices)
Накопление вокабуляра
•
•
•
•
готовые диалоги и тексты
мини-тесты
подстановочные упражнения
интерактивные формы (игры,
дискуссии и т.д.)
Подстановочные упражнения
МОНОЛОГ
MY HOROSCOPE
My horoscope claims I’m _______________
It means I__________. That’s true for me
because __________. In addition to this I’m
__________. I mean I ________________.
For instance, I really like _________.
Where is this taking place?
Who is in the clown suit? What did he/she do?
What is he/she thinking?
What is the police officer thinking?
What is the child thinking/feeling who is perhaps watching the
event?
Why is the nun so happy at the computer?
What is she doing?
How long has she been a nun? How does she feel about her calling?
What is her dream in life?
How will they explain this mistake to the foreman?
What happens next?
How is this both funny and sad at the same time?
Работа с грамматическими структурами
I don’t mind it
when people are straightforward with me.
It bothers me
when people aren’t reliable.
______________ when people are direct and say exactly what’s
on their mind.
______________ when a person corrects my English in front of
others.
Использование
связующих элементов
• She is kind-hearted. She is cooperative.
• She is kind-hearted as well as cooperative.
• She is kind-hearted. In addition / Besides / Moreover she is
cooperative.
• He is usually well-behaved. He can be naughty at times.
• He is usually well-behaved. However he can be naughty at
times.
• Although he is usually well-behaved, he can be naughty at
times.
Rewrite the following ideas using linking phrases
from the table above
•
•
•
•
Roger is friendly. Roger is caring.
He is intelligent. He is self-centered.
Andrew is stubborn. Andrew is disorganized.
She is decisive. She can be rude at times.
What kind of person are you?
I’m __________ as well as __________.
What do you mean?
I mean I don’t mind it when __________.
What does your horoscope say about you?
My horoscope says I’m __________, however I can be
__________.
How come?
I mean it bothers me when __________.
Опорные схемы
My horoscope claims I’m __________.
In other words I’m a person who__________.
It’s not true for me because __________. I’m
__________ as well as __________.
In addition to this __________.
I mean I __________.
For instance, it really bothers me when
__________.
My horoscope claims I’m creative
It means I’m good at thinking up new ideas.
That’s true for me because I really like
arranging surprise parties.
In addition to this I’m versatile. I mean I’m
good at doing a lot if different things.
For instance, I really like singing and
dancing.
I’m creative as well as versatile. I mean I don’t mind it when I
have to do a lot of things at the same time. I can think up
new ideas how to do it.
My horoscope says I’m sociable, however I can be reserved at
times. I mean it bothers me when people ask questions
about my private life.
Оценка качества
говорения
• соблюдение структуры диалога и (или)
монолога;
• использование всего необходимого
лексического материала;
• использование всего необходимого
грамматического материала;
• использование всех необходимых связующих
элементов.
КАЧЕСТВЕННЫЕ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ
ГОВОРЕНИЯ
• степень соответствия высказывания студентов
заданной теме
• полнота раскрытия темы
• использование языкового материала
ВИДЫ КОНТРОЛЯ
•
•
•
•
текущий
тематический
периодический
итоговый
ЛИТЕРАТУРА И ИСТОЧНИКИ
Гальскова Н.Д. Современная методика обучения иностранным языкам. Аркти – Москва,
Глосса, 2000.
Гайсина А.Я. Иноязычные тексты для различных целей обучения монологической
речи в неязыковом вузе. – М., 1999.
Ладыженская Т.А. Система упражнений по развитию связной речи //
Совершенствование методов обучения русскому языку: Сб.ст. Пособие для
учителей. – М.,Просвещение, 1981.
Нестерова Е.П., Пирогова М.А. Approaches to Teaching Conversation. // Сборник по
материалам 7-ой конференции FEELTA “Building Bridges with Languages and
Cultures”, 2008 – Владивосток, Издательство ДВГУ, 2008.
Allen, J.P.B. and Widdowson H.G. Teaching the communicative use of English. // The
Communicative Approach to Language Teaching. Ed. C.J. Brumfit, K. Johnson. – Oxford
University Press, 1998. – pp.122-142.
Deacon B., Murphey T. Deep impact storytelling. – Forum, V.35, №1, 1997 – p 11.
Larsen-Freeman, D. Techniques and principles in language teaching. – Oxford University
Press, 2000. – 208 p.
Shuming, Kang. Developing Adult EFL Students’ Speaking Abilities // Forum, Vol.35 # 3,
1997, pp. 8-13.
Beare K. Teaching Conversational Skills - Tips and Strategies.
http://esl.about.com/library/weekly/aa122299a.htm (10.12.2009)
Kayi H. Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second
Language. http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Kayi-TeachingSpeaking.html
(10.12.2009)
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ОБУЧЕНИЕ ГОВОРЕНИЮ: МЕТОДИКА ПРЕПОДАВАНИЯ …