La recherche
L’industrie
et les problématiques de l’environnement
en Pologne
Jan Pluta
L’usine
metalurgique
„Huta
Institute
of High
vu par l’Ecole Polytechnique de Varsovie
La Pressure
sud
deWarszawa”
la
Pologne
Faculté
dePhysics
Physique
Perspectives énergétiques
de la Pologne
La Premiere
Cooperation
FrancoPolonaise
Pologne
France
France
et
Pologne
(comparaison)
Pologne
France
Rapport
Pl/Fr
surface
322 577 km²
547 026 km²
0.59
population
38 189 000
60 656 178
0.63
densité de 123 pers./km² 111 pers./km²
population
1.108
Perspectives énergétiques
de la Pologne
Current status:
Production of electric energy (2005)
approx. 150 TWh.
It is sufficient for the needs of country.
Conclusion:
No needs to build new electric power plants.
but
comparison
Poland: 150 TWh.
France: 580 TWh
It corresponds for Poland: 580TWh *0.6 = 348 TWh
More than two times more !!!
What is the reason for this difference?
1. Smaller needs of industry.
2. Using of coal and/or other fuels – where the electricity
can be used.
Contribution of
different sources
of energy in the
world production
of electricity.
Contribution of
different sources
of energy in the
production of
electricity in
Poland
(95% - coal)
Charbon 95 % !!!
http://www.biomasa.org/edukacja/odnawialnezrodlaenergii
Why we need new electric power stations?
•
Development of industry and social infrastructure
•
Decreasing of: CO2, SO2, NOX emission
•
Diversification of the sources of energy
What new source of energy is suitable for Poland?
 Coal – NO (emission of CO2, SO2, NOX +
diversification)
 Oil or gas, – NO (dependence on Russia ?)
 Renewable sources of energy:
 Water – already used
 Wind – OK. but insufficient
 Geothermal sources – too low source temperature
 Sun – OK. but insufficient
 Biomass – unrealistic and unreasonable
 Nuclear – OK. but....................
I prefer rather this,
(les cigognes)
I do
not
like
view.
...
and
about
theare
windmills?
...and
I amwhat
suresuch
that
the
birds
of the same opinion.
Today there are more than 400 nuclear power
reactors in operation in 31 countries around the
world. Generating electricity for nearly 1 billion
people, they account for approximately almost
17 percent of worldwide electricity generation
and provide half or more of the electricity in a
number of industrialized countries.
Nuclear – OK. but....................
• Czarnobyl – Society say – „No more!”
• Coal resources sufficient for 30 – 50 years
• Future of the coal mining industry (mines
and miners) ??? (social problem)
• No experts in Poland (The construction of first
nuclear power plant in Poland was stopped after the
Czarnobyl disaster.)
Coal or Nuclear energy – Competition.
Unacceptable!
Is it possible to change
competition  cooperation (?)
„That is the question”
Up to now the nuclear plants were only used for
the production of electric energy.
... but maybe there are some other possibilities?
High-temperature nuclear plants of 4-th generation
can be the solution of the problem, as:
 electric energy production,
Coal  gas or liquid fuel
 natural source exist in Poland (coal)
 Social problem resolved (miners)
 Independence on the source of liquid/gas fuels (Russia)
High (9000C) temperature useful for many technological
processes, e.g. production of Hydrogen.
Some numbers on Hydrogen production
and application
• The world production of Hydrogen in 2004 is more
than 50 millions ton.
• 95% of Hydrogen is produced from the natural gas
• 50% is used for the production of fertilizer
artificial
• 40% is used by the oil refinery
• 97% is produced close to the location of its
application
• 10% - year increase of world production of
Hydrogen
http://web.mit.edu/pebble-bed
Hydrogen in Poland today:
Nitrogen processing
2 miliards m3 of natural gas used for the production of
Hydrogen and ammonia:
CH4 + 2H2O  CO2 +4H2
N2 + 3H2  2NH3
High temperature reactor could diminish the
year using of natural gas up to some hundreds
of millions m3.
Hydrogen in Poland today:
oil refinery
System for Hydrogen production at the Płock refinery
is using up to 100 thousands m3/h what is making
possible to produce 80 thousands tons of Hydrogen per
year.
This hydrogen is then used for the processes like
hydrokraking to produce light hydrocarbons from the
heavy fraction of oil.
High temperature reactor used in the oil
refinery could increase the year production of
commercial liquid fuels up to some hundreds of
ton (and/or decrease the using of oil)
High temperature reactor in small and
efficient power plant
• Thanks to high temperature, T = 900 oC, the efficiency
of the change of heat to electricity is about 45%
• In the case of coal plant this efficiency is less than
40%, and for currently working nuclear plants is about
35%
• The possibility of construction of small, efficient end
ecological coal plant is unrealistic
Small, efficient nuclear power plant will make
competition for gas power plant – not for a large
coal plant.
Heat of the reactor for the coal processing
and production of gas and liquid fuel
The first stage of synthetic petrol production is carbon
processinfg for gas:
C + H2O  CO + H2
In the next stages the CO2 is removed from the synthetic
gas and the synthesis of hydrogen with carbon oxide is
making:
17H2 + 8CO  C8H18 + 8H2O
This technology is well known but is expensive and strenuous
for the environment. Some tons of coal should be used to
change on ton for the synthetic petrol.
The heat from the high temperature reactor will make
possible to change even some hundreds of tons of coal for
liquid fuel and this process will be friendly for the
environment.
Hydrogen the fuel of the future
Hydrogen is seen as a fuel of the future but
will become it only when some condition are
fulfilled:
• Efficient, cheep and clean technologies of
Hydrogen production
• Systems of hydrogen storage
• Fuel cells, making efficiently electricity from
Hydrogen and Oxygen
High temperature reactor
in the industrial centre
Hydrogen
Reactor
Technological
heat T = 900 oC
Electricity
Fuel elements of high temperature reactor
Fuel element design
Graphite layer (5mm)
Coated particles imbedded in
Graphite Matrix
Fuel sphere
(Φ = 6 cm)
Some layers of
different materials
for safety
Half-section
Coated particle (Φ ≈ 1mm)
http://www.pbmr.com
Fuel (uranium dioxide) (Φ =
0,5 mm)
Construction of high temperature reactor
http://web.mit.edu/pebble-bed/index.html
Reaktor wysokotemperaturowy
http://web.mit.edu/pebble-bed/index.html
And what with the radioactive waste?
•
•
•
•
Reactor use some tens of tons of fuel par year.
Storage of radiactive waste will be near the
reactor duriong approx. 50 years of reactor
operation and 50 years after the end of work.
The storage place do not need a forced cooling
From the very begin the fuel is in almost
nondestructive microcapsules
The recycling of fuel is not predicted.
Conclusion:
The high temperature
4-th generation
nuclear reactor
is a good solution
for Poland.
...and what about
the future generations?
THE NUCLEAR FUSION
Tokamak
ITER
In
Cadarache
(FRANCE)
"тороидальная камера в магнитных катушках"
Welcome to
Warsaw University of Technology
Academic
History
Students:
other
17 since
faculties
staff:
staff:
301826
2000
000
2500
the main building of WUT
Warsaw University of Technology
“Gaudeamus igitur...”
Celebration of the new Academic Year
Warsaw University
of Technology
Celebration
of the new
Academic Year
Ecole Polytechnique de Varsovie – la structure
•
Faculté d’Architecture
•
Faculté de Chimie
•
Faculté d’Electronique et Techniques d’Information
•
Faculté d’Electrotechnique
•
Faculté de Physique
•
Faculté de Géodésie et Cartographie
•
Faculté de Génie Chimique et de Génie des Procédés
•
Faculté de Génie Civil
•
Faculté de Génie des Matériaux
•
Faculté de Génie de Production
Ecole Polytechnique de Varsovie – la structure
(suite)
11. Faculté de Génie de l’Environnement
12. Faculté des Mathématiques et Sciences d’Information
13. Faculté d’Energétique et de Génie Aérospatial
14. Faculté de Mécatronique
15. Faculté des Voitures et Machines Lourdes
16. Faculté de Transport
17. Faculté de Génie Civil, Mécanique et Pétrochimie
•
•
•
•
•
Collège des Sciences Sociales et d’Administration
Collège des Sciences Economiques et Sociales
Ecole des Affaires (Bussiness School)
Centre Inter – facultés de Biotechnologie
Ecole des Sciences Techniques et Sociales
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology
Divisions:
•Complex systems
•Optics
•Semiconductors
•Solid State Ionics
•Condensed Matter
Structure
•Solid State Technology
•Nuclear Physics
•Nonlinear Optics
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology
Some important events at the Faculty
Ceremony of Marie Curie fellowships awards
... led by prof. Gerard ‘t Hooft.
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology
Some important events at the Faculty
Meeting of
Polish
Physicists
September
2005
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology
Some important events at the Faculty
Festival of
science
2005
„Physics
under the
sails and
wings”
„Połowinki”
Cooperation with EMN
Before - scientific cooperation since 1991:
experiments: E183, E193, E286 at GANIL,
and NA44 at CERN
Cooperation agreement
signed 24 March 1997
by director of EMN Mr. Germinet
and rector of WUT Mr. Woźnicki
during the visit
of EMN delegation in Warsaw
After - Rapid development of cooperation
in research and education
Cooperation agreement (in Polish)
Visit of the delegation from WUT with the Rector (J. Woźnicki) at EMN
An idea of Mr Germinet
Three base elements
of cooperation
Exchange of students
Cooperation of teachers
Common research
Exchange of students
Industrial Training of EMN
students in Poland
Research training of
WUT students in France
International student project (PCI)
3-months Industrial Training of EMN
students in Poland (1997 - 2005)
Number of students, (months) = 31, (93)
Examples of placements:
• Metallurgic Plant “Warszawa-Luccini”
• Polish Telecom “TPSA”
• Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology
• Institute of Aviation
• Cancer Therapy Centre in Kielce
• Establishment for Nuclear Equipment in Swierk
• Warsaw University of Technology
Research training of students from WUT
at EMN (1997 -2004)
Number of students+tutors, (months) = 54, (85)
The subjects of research projects:
•Analysis of the results from E286 experiment at GANIL
•Data Base system for SSD detector of STAR experiment
•System of Data Acquisition for STAR-SSD
•Data Base for the construction of ALICE detector
•Non-identical particle correlations measured by STAR
•Three-dimensional Imaging Technique
International student project (PCI)
Autumn 1998 – „Application of semiconductor detectors for
sterilisation of medical materials”
Autumn 99 – 3 common student projects with Faculty
of Physics and Faculty of Environmental Engineering
Autumn 2000 – new projects with two faculties of WUT
January 2001 – exchange of students (in both directions)
between EMN at WUT in the frame of PCI
Autumn 2001 – realisation of PCI project on Radon...
(spontaneous visit of EMN students in Warsaw)
---------------------------Autumn 2002 - realisation of the next PCI project etc...
PCI project 2001/2002
“Radon radiation in private and public buildings”
Dr Wolkowicz
from Polish Geological Institute
demonstrates the instrument
for radon measurements...
...and makes the real measurements
with French and Polish students
in December 2001.
Final report on PCI in 1999/2000 academic year in Warsaw
...presentation
Consultation ... just before...
...and happy after presentation!
Visit in the power plant „Kawęczyn”
Cooperation of teachers
September 99 – (WUT=>EMN)
Visit at EMN of D. Soltyska – the head of Foreign Language
Division at WUT
June 2000– (EMN=>WUT)
Visit of the delegation of EMN in Warsaw (presentation of the
principles of APA )
March 2002 – (WUT=>EMN)
Visit of Prof. Galwas and Dr. Grabski at EMN, demonstration
of distance laboratories for students
June 2002 – (WUT<=>EMN)
“ALE’2002” - “Active Leaning in Engineering Education”
organised by John Miller-Jones from EMN with participation
of Jan Pluta from WUT
Pol-Bernard Gossiaux form EMN demonstrates the principles of APA (*)
for the teachers and students at The Faculty of Physics, WUT
(*) APA
– Apprentissage Par Action
APA
L’Apprentissage Par l’Action
„Learning by Doing”,
„Nauczanie przez Działanie”
A new way of teaching at EMN
The idea...
show complicated phenomena
in a simple way... (an example)
Robert Germinet
The original title
„L’apprentissage
de l’incertain”
(my translation)
Learning (preparation)
of (to) Uncertain
Common research
Experiment
EMN &WUT
scientific
cooperation
(I)
Participation
in STAR
Experiment
at BNL
STAR
at Brookhaven National Laboratory
RHIC
Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider
Long Island
New York,
USA
E=mc2
Brookhaven
New York
USA
see: http://www.star. bnl.gov/
EMN &WUT
scientific
cooperation
( II )
Participation
in ALICE
Experiment
at CERN
(Geneva)
Experiment ALICE at CERN
ALICE
see:
http://alice.web.cern.ch/Alice/AliceNew
UrQMD – Ultra-relativistic Quantum-Molecular Dynamics
Scientific cooperation
„Phone meeting” at EMN i the frame of common participation
In the STAR experiment at Brookhaven National Lab. (USA)
On line are participants from:
Warsaw, Brookhaven, Berkeley, Washington, Columbus...
Arrangement of cooperation
(an example)
How it works?
Organisation of the EMN students training in Poland
1. I am sending the propositions of the training subjects to EMN
From [email protected] Tue Dec 13 10:55:50 2005
Date: Tue, 13 Dec 2005 10:55:50 +0100 (CET)
From: Jan Pluta <[email protected]>
To: M-me Nicole Poedras <[email protected]>
Subject: sujets de stages en Pologne
Bonjour,
J'ai les premiers sujets pour 4 personnes.
amities,
Jan
=========================================================================
A. Dans "Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology"
http://www.ichtj.waw.pl
1. APPLICATION OF ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY (IRMS) FOR EVALUATION
OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES (WATER EXCHANGE POLLUTENTS EMISSION AND
DISTRIBUTION) AND FOR FOOD AUTHENTICITY DETERMINATION (WINE, JUICES, etc.)
Supervisor: Dr Jacek Palige, e-mail: [email protected]
2. CREATION OF THE INTERNET DATA BASE FOR THE AMBIENT DUST MONITORING NET.
All information from the dust monitoring stations are to to be stored in the
base. Communication between stations an the base is provided by the internet
and GSM.
Supervisor: Adrian Jakowiuk, BSc, MSc
e-mail: [email protected]
[email protected]===
Dans "Establishment for Nuclear Equipment":
http://www.zdaj.com
....................................... etc.
2. Student is sending mail to his future supervisor.
From [email protected] Wed Jan 11 19:24:40 2006
Date: Wed, 11 Jan 2006 19:24:33 +0100
From: Jean Berniolles <[email protected]>
To: [email protected]
Cc: [email protected], [email protected]
Subject: Placement inquiry: CREATION OF THE INTERNET DATA BASE
Dear Mr Jakowiuk,
As a part of my training in the third year at the EMN, an engineering
school of Nantes, France, we have the possibility to carry out a 3-month placement abroad.
I am writing to you because Mrs Poedras forwarded me the subject of the internship.
I think you will appreciate my technical skills in internet
programming (php, MySQL, Java ~E) and my ability to understand new
systems and languages as well as applying the knowledge I have acquired.
I think that this placement is a fantastic opportunity to discover a new culture
and to expand my knowledge in fields (internet programming, databases,
mobile access ~E) I want to be more skilled in.
I will be available from the beginning of May to the end of August.
I would be pleased to discuss my resume with you in more detail
during an interview. In the meanwhile, do not hesitate to contact me
by email should you require any further information.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Jean Berniolles
More info...
(from Mme Nicole Poedras)
Eleves de l’Ecole des Mines de Nantes intéressés par un stage en Pologne en 2006
Domaine recherche
Observations de l’élève
Domaine informatique
Je suis extrèmement intéressé par la Pologne.
En ce qui concerne le domaine, j'aimerais beaucoup travailler dans l'informatique, et
plus précisément dans le domaine de la programmation par contrainte, aide à la
décision ou recherche opérationnelle (constraint programming, decision systems,
operation research).
Evidemment je serai prêt à travailler dans un autre domaine de l'informatique, dans le
cas d’une proposition différente.
En ce qui concerne l'établissement d'accueil, j'aimerais si cela est possible, avoir un
stage dans un laboratoire ou dans le département R&D d'une entreprise.
Tristram Gräbener
Domaine de
l’environnement
Je suis vivement intéressé par la possibilité d'un stage en Pologne.
J'aimerais effectuer un stage qui ait un lien avec le domaine environnemental, le
traitement de l'eau par exemple.
N'hésitez pas à me contacter si vous avez besoin de plus d'informations!
Merci pour votre aide.
Mathieu Gillard
Domaine de
l’environnement
Je suis très intéressée par l'opportunité de faire un stage en Pologne.
J'aimerais qu'il concerne l'environnement au sens large, et je suis ouverte à toute
proposition dans ce domaine.
Je vous remercie.
Laleh Tcharkhti
3. They start to exchange mails, sometimes also phones or faxes
in order to clarify the details of the training
4. A am arranging the lodgiing for student(s) in the guest house
of our school, sometimes some financial support,
5. In the begin of May students are coming to Poland for the training.
6. At the end of training the supervisor is sending an information
with the evaluation of the student activity during the training
to EMN.
7. EMN is sending an acknowledgement to the supervisor.
It was done already with 31 students of EMN
Foto - report
Group of Polish students (with tutors) in Nantes
Foto - report
Group of French students in Warsaw
French and Polish students in the „Central
Laboratory for Radioprotection” in Warsaw
Foto - report
Working together – PCI
Reception for French students
by Dean of the Faculty of Physics in Warsaw
Visit of Profs: J. Martino and B. Erazmus from SUBATECH
at WUT, January 2003
Additional results of cooperation
Work of EMN students in French Enterprises or
Agencies in Poland.
Many private visits in Poland of EMN students,
after passing 3-month training in Polish Enterprises.
...and also
New French-Polish family of EMN student
Elric Peyre, married with Polish girl - “found” by him
in Warsaw during the 3-month training in 1997.
La promenade dans Varsovie
Varsovie – la Vieille Ville
Varsovie – la Gare Centrale
La France – en Pologne
Hypermarchés français à
Varsovie
Warsaw – „Old town”
Warsaw- Central Railway Station
Varsovie – le monument de A. Mickiewicz
Varsovie – le centre ville 1
Aleje Jerozolimskie
Varsovie – la rue Świętokrzyska
Varsovie – le Parc de Łazienki, monument de F. Chopin
Je vous invite à Varsovie.
Jan Pluta
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