Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Diversity at Work
4
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Managing Diversity
Establishing
a heterogeneous workforce
Major Reason for Diversity in the workforce
 The
shift from a manufacturing economy to a service
economy
Globalization
of markets
New business strategies that require teamwork
Mergers and alliances that require different
corporate cultures to work together
Changing labor market
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Evolving Changes
in Organizations and Markets
The
Service Economy
 Service
employees need to understand their customers,
to anticipate and monitor their needs and expectations.
 Similarities in culture, dress, and language between
service workers and customers create more efficient
interactions and satisfaction.
 The Globalization of Markets
 Customers have more options available; more power to
insist that their needs and preferences be satisfied
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Evolving Changes
in Organizations and Markets
New
Business Strategies Require More Teamwork
Companies now rely on a team structure
Promotes flexibility, reduces operating costs,
speeds responses to technological change,
requires fewer job classifications, encourages
better response to new worker values, and
attracts and retains top talent
Brings together employees with different
knowledge and perspectives
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Evolving Changes
in Organizations and Markets
Mergers
and Strategic Int’l Alliances
 The
‘marriage’ of two foreign businesses with unique
corporate cultures and customs make the acceptance of
diversity a must in the global market
Changing
Labor Market
 The
influx of more women, more immigrants, more
people of color, and more older workers in the
workforce in the next 25 years makes acceptance of
diversity a must in the future
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Changing Labor Market:
Different Not Deficient
Steps
to attaining the advantages of diversity
All
employees must value different races, ethnic
groups, cultures, languages, religions, sexual
orientations, levels of physical ability and family
structures
Skeptical managers, supervisors, and
policymakers need to understand that different
does not mean deficient
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Link Between Discrimination
& Job Performance
Discrimination:
the underlying culprit of
labor turnover
 Tendency
to feel “burned out”
 Reduced willingness to take initiative on the job
 Greater likelihood of planning to change jobs
Meeting
the needs of the minority employee
 Inclusion
 Encouragement
 Opportunity
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Leading by Example
 Xerox
– “If you don’t value diversity, you can’t manage
it.”
 Supports diversity through recognition and
encouragement of a network of local and regional
caucus groups
 Examining the backgrounds of all top executives and
identifying the key positions they held at lower levels;
then, setting goals for getting minorities and women
into these jobs
 Transforming total employment from male-dominated
to a fully diverse workforce
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Leading by Example
Pacific
Bell
 Developed
a new recruitment strategy to attract
minorities
 Established an internship program for third-year college
students
 Existing minority employees received 6-day off-site
training programs conducted by external consultants
designed to develop their skills and provide a safe place
for participants to talk about sensitive issues such as
covert racism and prejudice
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Leading by Example
IBM
– A Family Friendly Policy
Advance
women through networking groups and
leadership training initiatives
Hosts an internal conference--Women in
Technology
Leave for childbirth gives mothers and fathers
three years of job-guaranteed time off with
benefits
Offer near-site child care centers
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Leading by Example
Strauss & Company – one of the most ethnically and
culturally diverse companies in the U.S;58% of its U.S.
employees belong to a minority group
 Sponsors Valuing Diversity education programs
 Encourages minorities and women to apply
for job openings in its job ads
 Supports in-house networking groups of African
Americans, Hispanics, Asian-Pacific Islanders, women,
lesbians, and gay men
 Levi
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Maximizing the Potential of a Racially
& Ethically Diverse Workforce
Diversity
linked to business strategy
 Focus
on bringing in the best talent
 Establish mentoring programs among employees of
same and different races
 Hold managers accountable for meeting diversity goals
 Develop career plans for employees as part of
performance reviews
 Promote minorities to decision-making positions
 Diversify the company’s board of directors
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Women in the Workforce

“Women’s
issues” as business issues
Women no less committed employees;3/4 of
professional women quit large companies
because of lack of career progress; only 7% left
to stay at home with their children
Companies not offering child care and flexibility
in work scheduling suffer
Accommodating women in the workforce is not
“the right thing to do,” but the smart thing to do
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Women in the Workforce
Providing
women with opportunities not
previously available
Alternate
career paths
Extended leave
Flexible scheduling
Flextime
Job sharing
Teleworking
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Five Generations of Workers
 Swing

generation – born roughly between 1910 and 1929
Most but not all are retired
 Silent
generation – born between 1930 and 1945
Influenced by the swing generation
 Many hold positions of power

 Baby-boom
generation – born between 1946 and 1964
Believe in rights to privacy, due process, and freedom of speech in the
workplace
 Believe the best should be rewarded without regard to age, gender,
race, position, or seniority
 Few leave jobs voluntarily

Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Five Generations of Workers
 Generation
X – born between 1965 and 1977
About 1/3 of the workforce
 Tend to be independent, cynical, and do not expect the security of
long-term employment; also tend to be practical, focused, and future
oriented

 Generation
Y – born between 1977 and 1997
Includes offspring of the baby-boomers and an influx of immigrants th
 Grew up around more sophisticated technologies
 Good at multitasking; downfalls include short attention spans, the
constant need for stimulation or entertainment, and the blurring of the
lines between work and leisure time while on the job

Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Integrating Older Workers
Into the Workforce
Six
priorities to maximize the use of older workers
 Age
and experience profiles
 Job performance requirements
 Performance management
 Workforce interest surveys
 Training and counseling
 Structure of jobs
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sexual Orientation
& Nondiscrimination Policies
Inclusive
new policies and benefits for gay
and lesbian employees
 Over
75 percent of Fortune 1000 firms have elected to
add the words “sexual orientation” to their
nondiscrimination policies
 1 in 8 of all firms – 1 in 4 with more than 5000 workers
– offer domestic partner benefits
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Managing Internal Organizational
Environments of the Future
Suggested
actions for effective future management
 Develop
an age, gender, and race/ethnic
profile of the present workforce
 Carefully assess job performance requirements
 Check for possible unfairness in performance management
 Use interest surveys to determine what current workers want
 Provide opportunities for employee training and career
counseling
 Explore with workers alternatives to traditional work patterns
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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