Computer Literacy Concept
A Random Look
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1
A Computer System?
A Real Computer System?
Computer Terms
meaning not always obvious
Three big uses of PCs
3 Applications on PCs
(b) Spreadsheets
The quick brown fox jumped
over the lazy dog.
(c) Database
Management
2
(a) Word
processing
(d) Current Big Use of Personal Computers
• Browsing the Internet and email
• Digital images (still and movies)
Ways to connect a home system to the Internet
LAN for a School or Work Environment
email
(a) Review Word-processing
From typing to page design and publication quality
Review Tutorials on Word Processing from “Word Basics ”
to “Word Advanced Editing”.
3
(b) Lab--Review Spreadsheets
Spreadsheet Basics
Spreadsheet, a computerized Matrix composed of cells
that can contain labels, values, formulas are functions
and is used for calculations
budgets
simple check balancing
calculations
decision charts
grade calculations
what if computations,
4
* Visicalc the first spreadsheet was created for the Apple
(c) Lab Review DBMS
Storage of data
Retrieval of data
Sorting
Selecting
Reports
Mail Merge
Relational*
5
Don’t forget to review DBMS concepts in “DB Intro”
Relational DBMS
--connecting multiple data bases together
Registration
Library
overdue
books
DB
Dorm
fees
Records
Grades
Incompletes
ELM
DB
At registration all the above data bases are checked to determine
any deficiencies before you are allowed to register
6
Spreadsheets or Data Bases e.g. PeopleSoft
(d) WAN: Why use these
1. Communication E- Mail
Internet
2. Available applications/ information
statistics, databases (library etc.)
3. Sharing information
WWW: World Wide Web: interconnected web content servers and
clients accessing the servers
WAN; Wide Area Networks--interconnected computers
7 LAN; Local Area Networks--interconnected computers, printers, etc.
LAN
& WAN
WAN
Internet
LAN
Labs
CSUB
8
(d) Review uses of the Web
Browsing Basics
HTML
FTP
Netscape Communicator
Internet Explorer
Web Searches
Web Credibility
5
Brief History of the Web
Need info
• Late 60s—Arpanet, the first WAN
• 70s-80s—Gopher (early text browser), early email
90’s—-----------------------------------------• 93 Mosaic (first graphic browser)
• 94 Netscape
• 95 Microsoft Internet Explorer included in Win95
• 95 AltaVista—first successful popular search engine
• 95 Yahoo (Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle
)---First popular directory then later portal
• 98 Google—best general search engine today
ARPANet
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
• The precursor to the Internet. Developed in the late
60’s and early 70’s by the US Department of
Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking
that would survive a nuclear war. Also: An
experimental network designed to see how well
distributed, non-centralized networks work; the
basis for the later evolution of the Internet. –Search
Google for further info on Arpanet.
(c) Review SPSS
Data Sets
Frequency distributions
Tables
Copying SPSS output to Word
5
(e) Lab--Intro to Early IBM Compatibles
DOS (and shells-Windows much later)
WordPerfect (the original successful word processor
on the PC similar to Microsoft Word)
Lotus 1 2 3(the original* PC spreadsheet like EXCEL)
Windows (a Mac like operating system)
Hyperstudeo etc. (like HyperCard but
both worked on IBM’s)
9
History PC Operating Systems
(B) New Concepts “Hackers”
Hackers
—Machine Freaks (like to
tinker with hardware)
—Software Freaks (like to
tinker with programs)
—Explorers (like to examine,
play, experiment)
11
—Destroyers (create
destructive programs)
(d) Computer “Diseases”
1. Viruses*
2. Worms*
3. Bombs*
4. Trojan Horses*
12
Viruses
-Reproduce
-May be malevolent or benign
13
Is Windows a virus?
A JOKE : )
Is Windows a virus?
No, Windows is not a virus. Here's what viruses (viri?) do:
1. They replicate quickly -- okay, Windows does that.
2. Viruses use up valuable system resources, slowing down
the system as they do so -- okay, Windows does that.
3. Viruses will, from time to time, trash your hard disk -okay,-- Windows does that, too.
4. Viruses are usually carried, unknown to the user, along
with valuable programs and systems. Sigh... Windows
does that, too.
5. Viruses will occasionally make the user suspect their
system is too slow (see 2) and the user will buy new
hardware. Yup, that's with Windows, too.
Windows is not a Virus
• Until now it seems Windows is a virus but there are some
fundamental differences:
• Viruses are well supported by their authors
• Viruses run on most systems, their program code is fast,
compact and efficient and they tend to become more
sophisticated as they mature.
• So, Windows is *not* a virus.
• "Life is a game where nothing is real...
• [email protected]
Worms
Programs that move through networks or
computer memory partitions
14
Bombs
15
Logic Bombs
If condition
Then
Action
16
Example; If a date is reached on the computer clock
install micro virus. Examples include
Friday 13 logic bomb and New Years logic bomb
Time Bombs
Act at a particular time
17
Friday 13
Trojan Horse
18
A “gift” that contains evil within. Any of previous examples but
contained in a game or illegal copies of legitimate software and
emailed or downloaded pictures or attachments.
Vaccines
Macafee VirusScan and Symnatic Norton AntiVirus (PC example)
19
Any program that checks software and documents as they are run
or downloaded for viruses
Space 1
(to be continued on through “Space 8”)
[1 page - 4000 bytes]
20
Space 2
Storage for documents
Old 3 1/4 floppy
200 Pages
21
Space 3
22
Becoming Standard:
RW CD’s 650-700 MB
RW DVD 6.4 Gig
*NEW: Mini USB drives, “flash”or “thumb” up to 1 gig
Space 4
{
5000 pages
23
=20 Megabyte [20,000K]
20 MB
Hard Disk
Space 5
Hard drives come in big to gigantic sizes
40 Megabyte
80 Megabyte
80’s
105 Megabyte
185 Megabyte
350 Megabyte
500 Megabyte
Current Directions
HD Gigabytes 80+
CD
650-700 MB
CD R/W 650 MB
DVD 3.8+4.7 GIG-> 17
DVD R/W 3.6 & 4.7 GIG
New DVD formats even
higher
1 Gigabyte
90’s
24
160 + Gig and up is now the large HD standard
and up, up, up –needed for movie editing and
Music files
Space 6
1 text only page = 4K [4000 bytes]
Typical application = 2GB
1 digital photo = typically .6MB
Digital music collection = 250MB per hr
Digital video editing- 2GB per hr of video
Advanced games = 1GB+
25
Internet movie downloads = 2-3 GB per hr
Space 7
Overview: Internal Representation of data
Binary
Internal Memory space in the Computer
(continued from “Space 1”)
•All information is in the form of bits on or
off.
•Counting/math is done as --------------
•It takes 8 bits, ASCII, to express a number
(0-9)
•Or letter a-z as well as math signs and oth
er special characters
25
Binary-1 bit on or off
26
Internal Binary Basics
•The most basic unit of computer information is called a bit
•It is expressed to the computer by the numbers
0 or 1.
•All "characters"[a,b,z..,1,2,3...?,!,/..] are a symbolized by
series of 8 bits,0s and 1s
•All operations in the computer [+,-,*,/] are 0s and 1s
All off or on—like light bulbs.
27
Reading Binary
1 Byte--8 bits
256 64 32 16 8
28
4
2
1
ASCII SAMPLES
29
Binary -base 2
0
1
10
11
100
101
110
Decimal-base 10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
SPEEDOMETERS--counting in binary
30
Space 8
Data Storage: Current
Zip 100, 250, 750mb
Floppies 1.4mb
DVD 4.7 gig
20+ Gig in future
USB Flash Disk 128 Mb
88 floppies (4-5Gig soon)
CD 650-750mb
Smart Media
Cameras 8mb up
Space 9
McBee Keysort
Tape-Still used
Data Storage: Old
IBM/Hollerith Cards
Floppies of all sizes
Bytes-K
One thousand bytes come together
to form 1K.
Let's make this simpler to remember:
31
Bit-Byte-K
1 bit = 1 bit
8 bits = 1 byte
1024 bytes = 1K
32
BINARY / ASCII
The binary code for the letter,
number, or symbol is transferred
to a code, called ASCII (8 bit Byte)*
(American Standard Code for
Information Interchange).
This transfer cycle is;
binary -> ASCII -> Word,
Word -> to ASCII -> binary
33
NOTE: Some fonts e.g.. Kanji, Chinese requires 2 bytes for characters
More ASCII-Binary
Binary
Decimal
(ASCII, 8bit byte)
00110001
00110010
00110011
01000001
01000010
01011001
00100001
34
<--->
<--->
<--->
<--->
<--->
<--->
<--->
1
2
3
A
B
Y
!
ASCII <-> Binary
35
WORD
Memory :Addressing 1 (newest PC CPU is 64 bit address)
Apt 1
Apt 2
Apt 3
Apt 4
Apt 5
Apt 6 Apt 7
Apt 8
Apt 9
Apt 10 Office
Laundry
How many apartments
can we have if they can
have only 1 digit address
Answer-next page
36
The Pizza Man
Addressing 2
One bit has two
addresses
Two bits have
four possible
addresses
37
Previous page: How many apartments
can we have if they can
have only 1 digit address
Answer-10 {don’t forget 0
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
0
1
00
01
10
11
Continue
with
this
How many
addresses
with
4
8
16
32
Bits & Addresses 3
If we string 8 bits
(8 combinations of the numbers 0 and 1)
together we have a byte.
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
256
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Each additional bit doubles the possible addresses
Importance of Addressing
(1) More memory thus
Bigger programs
Bigger data sets
Multi program accessibility
(2) Increased speed of processing
(3) Currently 32 bit standard but 64 will become common
8 bit
39
Apple
IIe
Most frequent
IBM &
Mac
32 bit
64 bit now common
Addressing A Databus
40
Time/Speed 1
Mips Giga (1000) & Hertz
Current PC's
Future PC's and current
Workstation, Mainframe
and Supercomputers
New speed is in GHz or BIPS
Billions of instructions per second
Coming Tarraflops
41
Note:Current fastest available CPUs run at 3.2 GHz
Time/Speed 2
Summary of Speed terms
Hertz –cycles per second
Kilo Hertz (thousands of cycles per second)
Mega [MIPS]Hertz (millions of cycles per second)
Giga [BIPS or GHz] Hertz (billions of cycles per second)
Tarra Hertz (Trillions of cycles per second)
Time/Speed 3 Internet Connection Speed
Home & Small Business connections
From: http://msn.zdnet.com/partners/msn/bandwidth/speedtest50.htm
Government, Business,CSUB Speeds can be much faster:
Current CSUB--- T3 (100 MB, upgrade expected soon)
Time/Speed 1
Common Computer Connector Speeds
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Adb
Atapi
To be completed ASAP
serial,
parallel,
USB,
SCCSI,
Firewire/IEEE1394,
Latest/Fastest
USB2
}
Some Computer Connections
Some Computer Connections
Back of a Desktop will be here
D) More Concept Review
Paint vs. Draw
Bitmapped vs. Postscript
43
Beyond Microsoft Paint and Hyperpaint
1. Drawing vs. painting*
2. Combination programs*
3. Samples of newer programs*
44
Drawing vs. Painting
Paint
-- bit mapped graphics, creative
free form
-- low resolution dependant on screen
resolution
Example*
Draw
—objects
—formula driven
—easy modification (size, position, etc.)
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—output dependant on printer
Example*
Drawing vs. Painting Examples
Painting -- Mac Paint, Microsoft Paint
Created as Paint
when expanded
the line will get ragged
since it is bit defined
Drawing -- ClarisWorks, Canvas, Word
Created as Drawing
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A demo may follow
when expended
the line will not become
ragged
- it is defined by
a math formula
- lines connect points
Bitmapped vs. Formula Script
-Bit mapped is like painting
-Characters are stored as a set of pixels (dots) that look like
the character.
-Problem: the exact set of dots is printed no matter if the
printer is
ImageWriter
140 DPI
LaserWriter
300 DPI or new 600 DPI
Stylewriter
360 DPI
Most inkjet home printers 300-600 DPI (some 1200)
Linotronic(magazine quality) 1600-2400 DPI
thus the print looks only as good as the worst printer allows
47
Postscript (original and most common) TrueType (Microsoft)
Postscript vs. Bitmapped:
John Warnock from Xerox PARC solved the problem
of making printer output look like the screen
WYSIWYG: What you see is what you get!
-Bitmapped is stored as the dots that appear on the screen.
Older dot matrix printers illustrate this method
-Postscript Characters are stored as a set of formulas that
contain the relative sizes of sides, curves, etc.
-Solution: the set of dots printed will use all possible dots
a printer are screen will allow and thus will look as good as
the printer are screen is capable.
48
Bit/Post Examples
New York 72
Can you tell which is the bitmapped font?
49
Bit/Post Examples
On Larger Fonts
Bitmapped
ragged edges are
rougher then postscript
New York 72
50
1. PRE COMPUTER DEVELOPMENTS
1
GEOMETRY
2
ALGEBRA
3
MODELS OF THE UNIVERSE
4
MECHANICAL CALCULATORS
51
OUTLINE
COMPUTER HISTORY
1.
PRE COMPUTER DEVELOPMENTS
2.
EARLY COMPUTER DEVELOPMENT
3.
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
4.
FUTURE COMPUTERS
52
Math concepts
-30BC
GREEKS - PLANETARIUM
GREEKS - GEOMETRY
CHINA, INDIA - ALGEBRA
53
Mechanical Calculators
— MECHANICAL
MODELS OF the UNIVERSE
—ABACUS (frequently called the
first computer)
—SLIDE RULE
The first computers!
54
(e) Libraries and Computers
The “natural superiority” Of library data.
55
Characteristics of Library Data Base and web Searches
56
• Both: Logical searches save time and focus
information
• Both: Speed
• Both: Amount of sources available
• Both: Increasing availability of original full text
material
• Both: Future to-be published documents available
•Both: Difference in how searches in different web
search engines are carried out: e.g. what is the
difference in Yahoo (organized and reviewed),
Google(more quality links returned and AskJeeves
(Natural Language)
•Library: Superior for credibility (peer reviewed),
specialized resources (journals and data bases) and
quantity of quality resources
Disadvantage of Web search---difficulty evaluating credibility
and many professional sources are not available on the web!
Searches
Problems of Computer Searches
especially those not on the WEB
• Cost : free or cheap to us (CSUB) but expensive
for some government and commercial use
(e.g. Nexus & Lexus, etc. cost big bucks
for private and commercial users)
• Skills needed: to develop / refine topic areas,
The human component; logic and
Venn diagrams, filtering out the unrelated stuff
specifics vary with data base
To much data, not enough information or knowledge!
57
Criteria for Computer Types
Cost
Size
Sophistication of operating system*
Speed
* Multiprocessing, distributed processing, multi-user, command or icon
Past, Current and future
Supercomputers Types of computers
Mainframe computers
Mini computers
Workstations
Personal computers
Desktop
Laptop
* Out Fall 02
“Tablet/Slate PC”
• Wireless
• Size of a thick notepad
*Notebooks with wireless built in
* TabletPC/Slate
Palmtop, PDA
}
These also referred to
as portable
(Pilot, etc.)
* Computer Appliances
* Hot Stuff on current market
General Directions in Computers*
•Faster CPU's
•Massive multiprocessing
•Bigger addressing/Memory
• Massive storage
•Decreasing Size
•Lower Cost (for same function and speed)
•Sophistication
•Connectivity (network, wireless)
Hardware - Directions
Time & Space (speed and addressing)
Size
Hertz --> MIPS --> BIPS (CRAY & MMP)
IBM's 16 megabyte chip & 64 bit addressing
Current fastest speed is the and Intel 2+ GHz CPU
Mainframe --> Mini --> desktop --> portable --> Notebook
Palmtop --> PDA's (personal digital assistants)
Cost
Mac System
1984
1994
$3000
$1000
Spe ed 7
16+
1 meg
4 Meg m em
2 Floppys 80 HD
B/W
24 Bit color
Down---> Down---->Down 2001
(a $299 system
Walmart
Lindows)
Sophistication
Voice/Hand recognition, voice synthesis, neural networks
multitasking, multiprocessing, virtual reality,
protected memory, connectivity , DVD read and write
Directions in software
Desktop Publishing
Wordprocessing
English Queries, AI
Database Management
3D, Virtual, Motion (iMovie)
Paint/Draw
Graphics, GIS & AI
Statistics
Natural language Retrieval
Reference Search
Networked-Simulations
(Sim City)
Groupware, Virtual reality
Games
Printed output
Ease of use
Directions in Languages
Unix, C++ and Java
Pascal
Lisp (logo) and Prolog
LOGO (my judgement ) best for educators
Turtle
paints a trail when the turtle moves
Moves
Forward 10
Right
90
Procedures and iterations
To Square
Repeat 4 [ Fd 100 Rt 90]
End
A
OOPs (Object Oriented Programming --HyperCard)
Directions in
Operating Systems Interface
Windows
Lunux: open
operating system
that looks like a
Mice
potential for some of
*Handwriting recognition
Microsoft’s market.
Based on UNIX and
Voice recognition
available free or
with small cost for
Touch
documentation and
Virtual Reality (hand, foot control, etc) some support. Not
ready for the popular
Agents
market.
Icons
65 Connectivity
[web & interface to applications]
Computers and Society
Culture and computers--desktops, Microsoft and Monopolies
Some Issues. Will Computers and computer technology aid:
(1) Freedom (empowerment) or provide for control by gov etc.
(2) Increase differences: Digital Divide (access to technology
and knowledge) or provide access to all
(3) Decrease Personal Privacy or provide individualized
access
You should be able to think of other issues (check class
discussions and Computers and Society links). For example:
Will computers humanize or dehumanize human relations?
Are Computers and the Web addicting?
Are computers useful and cost effective in k-6 education?
Are we loosing our privacy to computer technology
Recent Computer History:The Information Industry US
--5% Workers US are in information communication,
Entertainment etc. [Computer game sales compete
with movies]
--Last 10 years Microsoft worth, sales up, General
Motors relatively flat
--Software and Hardware value 500 billion
--Hardware/Software are 10% 0f GNP
--10% workers are home workers on PC's
--Richest man US is Bill Gates head of Microsoft
(How much is he currently worth? depends on stock
market and tech stocks not doing as well—check C&S
links for specific $)
67
Tech stocks took a dive in 2001-2003
NPR survey
Recent Studies
-- More then 2/3 American households have a personal
computer (70%) and 73% of these have internet and/or email access.
-- Virtually all Americans under 60 have used computers and (92%)
have used the internet.
-- 4 of 5 under 60 with incomes > $30,000 year use computer at work.
--1/2 of employees under 60 < $30,000 income use computer at work
-- 95% of all house-holds have a VCR.
78% percent are hooked to a cable TV system.
--29% have more then 1 computer while 20% have a computer less
then 1 year old
--Recent study shows digital divide closing except for older generation
(Source) A large survey by National Public Radio, the Kaiser Family Foundation,
and Harvard's Kennedy School of Government shows that people
overwhelmingly think that computers and the Internet have made Americans'
lives better. Check out the survey and results at:
http://www.npr.org/programs/specials/poll/technology/
68
Technology an Improvement?
If it doesn't help or improve don’t use technology!
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WEEK 10 S95 GS190/390 - California State University