Facilitator name
Organisation name
Supported by funding from the
Australian Government Department of Immigration and
Citizenship under the Settlement
Grants Program funding program
Cultural Awareness in Volunteering Programs:
Workshop Outline
• Why we need cultural awareness
• Our Values and Opportunities
• Benefits to the Organisation
• Benefits to Communities
• How to develop cultural awareness
• Understanding cultures
• Understanding cultural adaptation
• How to work across cultures
• Hints for fostering acceptance and belonging
• Working together; finding the 3rd Culture
2
Why We Need Cultural Awareness
in Volunteering Programs
• Our Values
• Service
• Respect
• Inclusion
• Our Opportunities
• Build awareness and use of our services
• Develop strong community relationships
• Attract volunteers from new communities
3
Cultural Diversity in Volunteering:
Key Statistics* for South Australia
• 21% born in more than 200 countries:
• 10% from English-speaking countries
• 11% from non-English speaking countries
• Top 10 new migrant source countries:
• United Kingdom, India, China, Philippines, Afghanistan,
South Africa, Korea, Malaysia, Vietnam and Iran
• Other new and emerging communities:
• Sudan, Thailand, Congo, Burma, Bhutan, Iraq, Kenya,
Liberia, Zimbabwe, Burundi and Ethiopia
*ABS Census 2006
4
The Benefits to Our Organisation
of Developing Cultural Awareness
• Better understanding of the needs and views of the wider
community
• Engagement with new communities
• Improved community awareness of our values, goals and
services
• Stronger community relationships based on the values of
mutual understanding, respect, acceptance and belonging
5
The Benefits to Our Organisation
of Developing Cultural Awareness
• Ability to recruit and support volunteers from culturally
diverse backgrounds who bring us
• New perspectives
• New skills
• Languages
• Knowledge of and networks in new and emerging
community cultures
• A wider pool of potential volunteers and future staff
6
The Benefits to Culturally Diverse Community
Members of Volunteering
• Increased understanding of available services among
diverse communities
• Increased understanding of and adjustment to
Australian society
• Improved English and communication skills
• Increased relationships and networks
• Increased sense of acceptance and belonging
7
To Attract and Support Culturally Diverse Volunteers
We Need To;
• Understand the nature of culture and its influence
on relationships
• Learn about our own and other cultures
• Inform culturally diverse communities about our services,
values and opportunities
• Adapt our recruitment and support processes to meet
culturally unique needs
• Help recently arrived volunteers understand our national
and organisational cultures
8
Understanding the Motivations of
Culturally Diverse Volunteers
• Motivations to volunteer are common across all cultures
• Volunteering is seen in different ways but ‘helping the
community’ is a universal value
• Length of residence in Australia, age and gender influence
volunteers’ motivations more than their cultural
background does
9
Understanding the Motivations of
Culturally Diverse Volunteers
Volunteers who are recent arrivals to Australia tend to be more
motivated by;
• Sense of duty to the broader community
• Making social contacts and having fun
• Improving English skills
• Gaining skills and work experience
• Gaining acceptance and a sense of belonging
10
Understanding the Motivations of
Culturally Diverse Volunteers
Volunteers who have been in Australia for a longer time tend
to be more motivated by;
• Helping their own communities
• Personal satisfaction
• Putting spiritual beliefs into practice
11
Understanding the Motivations of
Culturally Diverse Volunteers:
Stages of Settlement in a New Country
1. Survival
2. Establishment
3. Embracing their immediate community
4. Moving into the wider community. This can be assisted
by volunteering.
12
Steps that Volunteer Organisations Can Take During
the Stages of Settlement
• Raise awareness. Explain ‘how we are relevant to you’
• Clearly express our organisation’s values: community
safety, water safety, family health, healthy sport, helping
vulnerable people, saving lives
• Seek to match your organisation’s values, with those
of the community and members
• Act to build trust
13
Ways of engaging with communities
• Speak with community groups about the role of the
organisation and its services
• Create ‘new’ volunteering roles that provide a bridge
between organisations and communities
• Review orientation and training information for plain
English and simplicity
• Review internal policies and procedures
• Cultural awareness training for current volunteers and staff
14
Key Points: Culturally Diverse Volunteers
• Are available and want to volunteer
• Bring extra value to your organisation
• Will value what your organisation represents
• Want to learn more about the culture of volunteering
in Australia
• May need your organisation to provide culturally
aware support
15
Understanding Culture
What is "Culture"?
• The learned and shared behaviour of a society
• A society’s ‘common sense’
• A society’s set of distinctive spiritual, material,
intellectual and emotional features
• “It’s the way we do things around here.”
16
Cultural Diversity in Australia:
Group Profile
Group Profile
• Your name
• Your country of birth
• Your parents’ country or countries of birth
17
Cultural Diversity in Australia:
Community Profile
Community Profile
• Which culturally diverse communities do you and others
in the organisation work with?
• Which newly arrived culturally diverse communities
might we work with in future?
18
Understanding Cultural Differences
High Context
Cultures
Low Context
Cultures
Spanish
Greek
Arabic
African
Vietnamese
Indian
Chinese
Aboriginal
Cultures
Italian
English
USA
Australian
Swedish
German
Organisational
Cultures
19
Understanding Culture
Generalising vs Stereotyping
• When we study and compare cultures we need
to make general observations of the way people do things.
• But we also need to remember we are dealing with
individuals, not cultures.
• It is necessary to understanding the difference between
generalising and stereotyping.
20
Generalising
vs
• Grouping elements
to form logical
categories to make
sense of a complex
world
• Australians tend to
be individualistic
• Germans tend to
value efficiency and
formality
• U.S. Americans tend
to praise personal
success highly
Stereotyping
• Categorising people
as a group, ignoring
individual differences
• Australians are
selfish
• Germans are uptight
• Americans are
show-offs
21
Understanding "Culture"
The central question to ask about different cultural views
and actions is:
“Why?”
Why do ‘they’ do things that way?
Why do ‘we’ do things this way?
22
The Four Basic Elements of Cross-Cultural Communication
Verbal Behaviour
What we say and how we say it
• Accent & tone
• Volume & rate
• Idiom & slang
Non-Verbal Behaviour
What we say without talking
• Body language
• Object language
• Environmental language
Communication Style
How we prefer to express ourselves
• Making a point
• Ways of speaking
• Ways of interacting
Values and Attitudes
What we believe is right
• Beliefs & feelings
• Ethics & standards
• Prejudices
23
Verbal Behaviour
Accent
“I love/can’t stand that accent!”
Tone of Voice
“Don’t take that tone with me!”
Volume
“Why do they talk so loudly?”
Rates of Speech
“Australians talk so fast!”
Joking
“Just kidding. Can’t you take a joke?”
24
Verbal Behaviour
Jargon
“Downsizing. Ramp up.”
Slang
“Bludger. Whinger.”
Swearing
“G’day you old bastard.”
Metaphors
“Don’t beat around the bush.”
Idioms
“Pull your socks up.”
Proverbs
“Too many cooks spoil the broth.”
25
Non-Verbal Behaviour:
Body Language Questions
• How far apart do people normally stand?
• How much eye contact is expected?
• How much do people touch each other?
• What do gestures mean?
• How do people greet each other?
• How do people physically show respect?
• How do facial expressions convey meaning?
• What are personal hygiene expectations?
26
Non-Verbal Behaviour:
Object Language
• Signs and designs carry cultural messages. e.g hats,
flags, tatoos, crosses or crescents
• Objects and artifacts have significant meanings; e.g.
roses, art, monuments, medals
• Different dress standards are expected
• Adornments and accessories send signals about
the wearer
27
Non-Verbal Behaviour:
Environmental Language
• Colours can be very significant:
e.g.red for wealth, blue for piety, yellow for royalty
• Architecture and town design influences and reflects
society
• People need differing amounts of personal space in
public, in the workplace, in homes
• Styles of buildings, office layout, furniture and lighting
send messages
28
Communication Style
• Ways of stating your case: direct or roundabout
• Tolerance of silence
• Use of humour and irony
• Speech rules, politeness, turntaking in conversation
• Different meanings of ‘yes’ and ‘no’
• Structuring information, views of what is logical:
particular, general
29
Values and Attitudes
What we believe is right.
How we feel about the world and how we judge other people
and situations.
Values are the least visible element of cross-cultural
communication.
“Keep your eye on the things
that cannot be seen.” Confucius
30
Values and Attitudes
• [Our Organisation’s] Values
• Insert
• Insert
• Insert
31
All Cultures Share Core Human Values
• Respect for human dignity
• Respect for basic rights
• Good citizenship
• The Golden Rule: Do unto others…
These values are expressed and upheld in culturally
different ways.
32
The Dimensions of Cultural Values
High Context
Cultures
Low Context
Cultures
Spanish
Greek
Arabic
African
Vietnamese
Indian
Chinese
Aboriginal
Cultures
Italian
English
USA
Australian
Swedish
German
Organisational
Cultures
33
The Dimensions of Cultural Values
• High Context Cultures
• Members share and need to have a deeper, more
complex body of understood experience and
assumptions as the basis of cooperation. “Who you
are”
• Low Context Cultures
• Members have and need less shared knowledge as
basis for cooperation. Defined roles and codes take the
place of assumptions. “What you do”
34
Values and Attitudes
High Context Cultures
Low Context Cultures
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Collectivist
Being
Long term view
Given status
Verbal agreements
Formal
Individualist
Doing
Short term view
Achieved status
Written agreements
Informal
35
Understanding Cross-Cultural Adaptation
• Immigrants: Change by choice
• Own decision. Preparation. Resources. Networks.
• Stronger sense of identity, self-worth, competence,
security, belonging and acceptance. Looking forward.
• Refugees: Change by chance
• Others’ decision. Little or no preparation. No or very few
resources and networks.
• Strong sense of self-reliance but weaker sense of
identity, self-worth, competence, security, belonging and
acceptance. Looking backward.
36
5 Stages of Cultural Adaptation
• Most people experience distinct psychological stages
when adapting to a new culture, from first contact to
full adjustment.
• Some people adapt more easily and quickly than others.
• Understanding that it is a common experience helps us to
adjust to new cultures and enables us to help others adjust
to Australian culture.
37
Common Fears About Entering
Another Culture
• Making a fool of oneself
• Being ridiculed, offended or embarrassed
• Embarrassing or offending someone
• Giving or getting wrong information
• Making or forming a bad impression
• Becoming or appearing confused
• Being excluded, rejected, lonely
38
Understanding Australian Culture
Newcomers to a culture take time to understand;
• The basis of relationships; equality,
individualism, status
• Informality and formality
• Ways of handling conflict
• Humour
• Gender and generational relationships
• Language; verbal and non-verbal
39
Stages of Cultural Adaptation
Stage 1: Contact/ Honeymoon
• Differences are interesting
• We are insulated by our own culture
• Perceptions of new culture screened by own culture
• Excitement, stimulation, discovery
• Curious, assured, positive
40
Stages of Cultural Adaptation
Stage 2: Disintegration/Disorientation
• Differences have more impact and begin to intrude on
our sense of well-being
• We miss the cultural support of our home culture
• We misread or miss new cultural cues
• We may feel confused, isolated, apathetic, inadequate.
We lose some self-esteem
• We may become depressed, withdrawn
41
Stages of Cultural Adaptation
Stage 3: Reintegration/Irritability and Hostility
• We begin to reject and criticise the new culture
• We can feel angry, nervous, anxious, frustrated
• We become pre-occupied with our likes and dislikes
• We become more self-assertive, opinionated
• Growing self-esteem and determination
42
Stages of Cultural Adaptation
Stage 4: Autonomy/Adjustment & Integration
• We recognise and understand the differences and
similarities
• We become more self-assured, confident, relaxed, warm
to others
• We can negotiate most new situations
• We feel assured of our ability to deal with new
experiences in the new culture
43
Stages of Cultural Adaptation
Stage 5: Independence/Biculturality
• We become more accepting of differences and
similarities, valuing the diversity within our
adopted society
• We are able to fully express our personality with trust,
humour and affection
• We are once again fully capable of choice, and of
creating meaning for situations
44
The Intensity of the Cultural Adaptation Experience
Increases when…
• Cultures and languages are very different
• We are immersed in the new culture
• We feel isolated from our own culture
• We have little intercultural experience
• Our expectations are not met
• We are visibly different from the majority
• We have lost status, power and control
45
Cultural Adaptation: Questions for Volunteer
Involving Organisations
• What stages of adaptation are being experienced among
the community?
• Do staff and other volunteers understand the effects and
stages of cultural adaptation?
• How can we best respect the feelings of recently arrived
volunteers and support them in adapting to Australia and
our organisation?
46
Cross-Cultural Bridge Building:
The Iceberg Metaphor
Visible: Words & Actions
Invisible:
A
Values & Attitudes
B
47
Cross-Cultural Bridge Building:
The Iceberg Metaphor
• Culture A: Visible
• Little eye contact
• Low volume speech
• Invisible: Values
• Respect
• Politeness
• Interpretation of B
• Aggressive & Rude
• Culture B: Visible
• Direct eye contact
• High volume speech
• Invisible: Values
• Equality
• Directness
• Interpretation of A
• Evasive & Weak
48
Cross-Cultural Bridge Building
• Talk about and explain your feelings and reactions to
observed words and actions
• Ask about the other’s feelings and reactions to your
words and actions
• Explore and agree on ways of communicating that are
mutually comfortable and acceptable
49
Key Factors for
Cross-Cultural Bridge Building
• Understand your own cultural values, assumptions
and expectations
• Why do we behave the way we do?
• Learn about those of other cultures
• Why do they behave the way they do?
• Discover ways to work as equals
• Discuss and explain key differences
• Find the ‘Third Culture’
50
Cross-Cultural Bridge Building
Finding the Third Culture
1
2
3
51
Cross-Cultural Bridge Building:
Finding the Third Culture
When people from differing cultures meet and talk about their
preferred ways of communicating and working, they start to
build a bridge of understanding between them that enables
them to work together as equals in a ‘third culture’
52
Hints for Engaging with
Culturally Diverse Communities
• Develop cultural awareness programs that send a
clear message;
Example: “Surf Life Saving is a unique and welcoming
organisation.
On The Same Wave is about making sure everyone
knows this.
No special treatment, just a special welcome.”
53
Linking personal and organisational values
through volunteering
• Having an alignment between a volunteer’s values and your
organisation’s is important
• A successful volunteering experience =
• Matching the individual’s values with those of your
organisation and
• Helping your organisation fulfill its mission
54
Hints for Engaging with Culturally Diverse
Communities
• Learn about your local communities and build relationships
with them
• Engage community leaders to help you inform members
of your services and your volunteering opportunities
• Communicate face-to-face
• Involve volunteers from diverse cultural backgrounds in
communications and relationship building with
communities
55
Hints for Engaging with Culturally
Diverse Communities
• Advertise your programs and volunteering opportunities
• Use ethnic media: radio & newspapers
• Use on line volunteer matching services
• Translate promotional materials into community
languages
• Network with councils, resource centres and
multicultural staff in other organisations to support
volunteers and communities
56
Hints for Engaging with
Culturally Diverse Communities
• Build cultural awareness into your recruitment process
to make it easier for volunteers to get involved
• Clearly promote the benefits of volunteering
• Reduce the paperwork or complete it during the
interview
• Use plain language and explain key terms; for example:
‘volunteering’ is another way of saying ‘helping your
community’
57
Hints for Engaging with Culturally
Diverse Communities
• Build cultural awareness into your workplace culture to
ensure all volunteers feel they are accepted and belong.
• Communicate your values and your inclusive policies
and practices to all members
• Provide cultural awareness training and key information
about local community groups
• Support culturally diverse volunteers through
mentoring, training and recognition
58
Cultural Awareness in Volunteering:
Close
Involving volunteers from diverse cultural and linguistic
backgrounds can bring many benefits to our organisation and
the communities we serve.
Developing our cultural awareness will help us reap the
benefits that Australia’s rich diversity has to offer.
59
Cultural Awareness in Volunteering
• Questions
• Discussion
• Where to from here?
• Feedback and Evaluation
60
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Close Encounters of the Cultural Kind