Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter
2
Theoretical Foundations
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Country Specific Advantages (CSAs)

The fundamental aim of business strategy


To create and sustain competitive advantage
When doing competitive analysis in the global context

It is important to identify whether a company’s strength is firmspecific or not.

If the company’s strength is not firm-specific

The competitive advantage is usually less sustainable since the company
cannot prevent imitation
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Country Specific Advantages (CSAs)

Comparative and Absolute Advantages

Comparative Advantage

Provides the fundamental rationale for the existence of international trade

Free trade between two countries yields economic payoffs to the countries
(in terms of higher welfare)


It is not important if one country is better than another in producing all
kinds of products


provided the countries have different advantages
That is, that producers there have an absolute advantage
It is necessary that trade be free

In the absence of free trade, each country has to be more self-sufficient, and
less specialization is possible
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Country Specific Advantages (CSAs)

The International Product Cycle (IPC)

The IPC was initially proposed by Raymond Vernon in 1966

Vernon used the IPC to demonstrate how the manufacturing of new
products in the U.S. shifted over time to new locations overseas

The IPC Stages

Stage 1 – the innovator produces and markets the product at home

Stage 2 –the firm exports and markets to other developed countries

Stage 3 – the firm exports from these countries to third-world markets

Stage 4 – the third-world markets develop their own manufacturing capability

Stage 5 – third-world market exports back to the original country’s market
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Country Specific Advantages (CSAs)

National Competitive Advantages

Four factors that determine the competitive advantage of a country

Factor Conditions


Demand Conditions


The nature of the home demand for the industry’s product or service
Related and Supporting Industries


The nation’s position in factors of production, such as skilled labor or
infrastructure, necessary to compete in a given industry
The presence or absence in the nation of supplier industries and related
industries that are internationally competitive
Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry

The conditions in the nation governing how companies are created, organized,
and managed, and the nature of domestic rivalry
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Country Specific Advantages (CSAs)

The New Trade Theory

Explains the development of high-technology areas


Such as Silicon Valley south of San Francisco, Bangalore in India, and the
Stuttgart-Munich area in Germany
Country-of-Origin Effects

The effect refers to the impact on customers of the “made-in” label or
the country a branded product or service is perceived to be from

Products or services from countries with a positive image tend to be
favorably evaluated

Products from less positively perceived countries tend to be downgraded

Country-of-origin effects also differ by product category
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Firm-Specific Advantages (FSAs)

Firm-specific advantages may be of several kinds


Examples include a patent, trademark, or brand name or the control of raw
materials required for the manufacturing of the product
Knowledge-Based FSAs

Knowledge is recognized as one of the key resources of the firm

Resource-Based Strategy

Defines the firm not in terms of the products or services it markets, or in
terms of the needs it seeks to satisfy, but in terms of what it is capable of

Whereas a market orientation focuses on competitive advantages in the
marketplace, the resources perspective fosters a view of the company as a
leveraging force for its resources
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Firm-Specific Advantages (FSAs)

Marketing FSAs

From a marketing perspective


A clear understanding of the FSAs


It is important to recognize that the source of a firm-specific advantage
can depend on specific market know-how
Is a key to the formulation of a successful marketing strategy in a country
Differing levels of market acceptance of the firm-specific advantages

Limits the degree to which a company can be successful abroad

The level of acceptance also limits the degree to which the marketing effort
can be standardized
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Firm-Specific Advantages (FSAs)

Transferability of FSAs

Not all FSAs can be transferred

Various factors make the employment of marketing FSAs difficult in
other countries

These include TV advertising and distribution channels in local markets

A major difficulty in transferring marketing skills abroad

Is that these factors often represent intangibles, not skills “embodied” in the
product itself (as technology typically is)
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Firm-Specific Advantages (FSAs)

FSAs and Mode of Entry

In principle, four different modes can be identified as ways in which a
company can enter a given country market

Straight exporting


Licensing and Alliances


These modes of entry “transfer” some ownership advantages via a contractual
agreement to an enterprise in the market country
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)


The product is exported to a distributor appointed in the market country
The company invests money in subsidiary operations in the country
The basic question of choice of entry mode is how the company can get a reasonable
payoff or return on its firm-specific advantages
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Firm-Specific Advantages (FSAs)

FSAs and Transaction Costs

Transaction costs are costs incurred when completing a transaction
between a buyer and seller

Apart from obvious costs such as transportation charges, sales taxes,
and brokerage fees, there are often other costs incurred as well


Examples include how to establish contact between buyer and seller,
translations in order to communicate in different languages, and
misunderstandings in price negotiations
From a transaction costs viewpoint

An established brand name serves to lower the cost of the exchange

The buyer can trust the quality of the product, and “search” costs are reduced
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Firm-Specific Advantages (FSAs)

FSAs in the Value Chain

The value chain concept

Suggests that the firm’s activities in transforming raw materials and other
inputs to final goods can be viewed as a collection of complementary and
sequential tasks


Each adding value to the product
The value chain is the “internalized” sequence of operations
undertaken by the firm
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Extending Porter’s “Five Forces” Model

Porter’s “Five Forces” Model

Identifies five sources of competitive pressures on the firm

Rivalry


Intensity of rivalry between firms competing directly in a country market
New Entrants

Threat of new entrants applies to potential entrants in a foreign market


First-mover advantages
 Higher brand recognition, more positive brand image, more customer
loyalty, more distribution, longer market experience
First-mover disadvantages

Channel members may need training, customers might have to be
educated, advertising has to be more generic, tastes and standards are
unknown and perhaps unformed
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Extending Porter’s “Five Forces” Model

Porter’s “Five Forces” Model (cont’d)

Substitutes

In new markets where conditions are very different from the home market
and consumer preferences differ


Buyer Power

Where buyers are strong


The product or service can face new varieties of substitutes
They have the power to counter a seller’s attempts to raise prices
Supplier Power

If suppliers are large or there are few supply alternatives

The seller will be forced to pay higher prices for inputs than otherwise,
squeezing profit margins
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rivalry Between Global Competitors

Competitive Strength

Global competitors tend to possess greater financial resources than
other companies

Primarily because their presence in many countries makes it easier to raise
funds in the most favorable locations


This is usually where the company has high market share and little
competition, using their brands as cash generators
Competitive Repertoire

The competitive repertoire of the global competitor includes

The capability of attacking a competitor in several markets and the
capability of defending a market by countering elsewhere

The global competitor can engage in integrated competitive moves
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rivalry Between Global Competitors

Global Rivalry

The increased strength and widened repertoire of the global
competitor

Means that the scope of marketing competition is enlarged


Global competitors can elect in which markets to battle a competitor
Hypercompetition

The basic notion underlying hypercompetition

Since advantages erode, the firm has to compete by continuously moving
to new ground

In the process possibly destroying its own existing advantage
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rivalry Between Global Competitors

Hypercompetition (cont’d)

There are four areas in which hypercompetition may be seen

Cost and Quality


Timing and Know-How


Being first is important when exploiting the firm’s special know-how
Strongholds


Higher quality has to be achieved even as costs are being lowered
The company needs to define some geographic or other market segment in
which it is strong, and there some entry barriers can be built and defended
Financial Resources

Financial strength is necessary for the company to keep the leading
competitive edge by accessing new technology and acquiring competitors
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Descargar

Slide 1