A strategy for all sessions
How many sessions will you have with your students?
How do you visualize the School year?
Minutes per session
Grading period
Staff development days
Counting days until the
• Semester
• End of course
We’ve got text.
Teachers are proficient readers.
“The problem is that they are expert readers. This means…that they
are probably not aware of the things they automatically do as readers.
These strategies are seamless, under the level of consciousness,
automatic. As a result, they do not struggle as our students do, don’t
experience the ruptures and difficulties , and don’t have the same
reading experiences as students do.”
– Jeffrey D. Wilhelm, Strategic Reading: Guiding Students to Lifelong
Literacy, 6-12 (2001)
Loading Instructions for Reading
1. Unpack reading to load skills by separate strategies.
2. Bring students on board.
Community of Readers
“Good readers have a repertoire of thinking strategies they
use to comprehend texts. Those tricks you used, trying to
make sense of the …text, weren’t random and they weren’t
spontaneous. You were actually drawing from a set of specific
thinking skills that you have developed and used through your
life as a reader.”
Harvey Daniels and Steven Zemelman, Subjects Matter: Every
Teacher’s Guide to Content-Area Reading (2004)
Thinking Strategies of Effective
(Daniels and Zemelman, 2004)
“A story is really just ink on a page, but a reader takes
that text, infuses it with meaning, and creates a full and
complete secondary world that can be lived through,
deeply experienced, elaborated upon, enjoyed, used to
think with, and much more.”
Jeffrey D. Wilhelm, Strategic Reading
The reader creates a secondary world ….
Uses for this visualized world
Where does meaning reside?
Any meaning must take into account clear features of the text.
Meaning (visualization)
• Text
• Experience and purpose/ Reader
• Code
A transactional theory posits a reader bringing
experience and strategies to interact with a text
and to negotiate an interpretation or meaning.
Visualization: A meaning or a
Pre-reading/ Predict
Activate prior knowledge
Build schema
Mediate possibilities
Test hypotheses
Each of these strategies involves deliberate acts of visualization.
Minilesson #1 Strategy Instruction
• Select only one teaching point per lesson.
While the possibilities for teaching points
are endless, it is critical to select a teaching
point that is targeted to the needs of this
group of students. Demonstrate how the
strategy works, provide practice, and then
make it clear that you expect them to
implement the strategy while reading.
Linda Hoyt, et al. Exploring Informational Texts (2003)
Visualization with a literary device:
the simile
» Look for text features:
1. Can you find the word “like” or “as”?
2. Are two things being compared?
3. What are the two things?
4. How are these two things alike?
5. What is the idea in this comparison?
6. How does this idea add to your understanding ?
Visualize a Simile
1. Find the word “like” or “as.”
2. Locate objects in front and behind “like.”
3. Draw a picture with sensory detail.
4. Find the two things being compared.
5. Chart space for three words associated with
each of the two item compared.
• 6. Brainstorm words applied to the two
• 7. Make a general statement about the thing
before the word “like” or “as.”
Use Similes to Make Pictures
show comparison and contrast
create a picture
examine elements of similarity: analysis
make inferences
generalize from a particular: synthesis
10 point assessment
• 3 points for a drawing
• 2 points for identifying the two items
• 3 points for descriptive words applying to
the items
• 2 points for a statement applying the
concept or idea in the comparison
Some TAKS Objectives and TEKS
Expectations for Grade 9 Reading
Objective 1 The student will demonstrate a basic understanding of culturally diverse
written texts.
9.6 The student is expected to
(B) rely on context to determine meanings of words and phrases such as figurative language….
(E) use reference material such a glossary, dictionary, thesaurus…to determine precise meaning
and usage; and
(F) identify the relation of word meanings in analogies, homonyms, synonyms/antonyms, and
Objective 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the effects of literary
elements and techniques in culturally diverse written texts. 9.10 The student expresses and
supports responses to various types of texts. The student is expected to
(B) use elements of text to defend his/her own responses and interpretations.
9.11 The student analyzes literary elements for their contributions to meaning in literary texts. The
student is expected to
(F) recognize and interpret important symbols
(G) recognize and interpret poetic elements like metaphor, simile, personification….
Objective 3 The student will demonstrate the ability to analyze and critically evaluate
culturally diverse written texts and visual representations. 9.7 The student is expected to
(H) draw inferences such as conclusions, generalizations, and predictions and support them from
G/T: Have students transition to metaphor. Have students create similes to
fit characters in a narrative. Have students evaluate possibilities for
additional application in a personal essay.
Special Education: Choose similes with direct correspondence to emotions
and emotional states. Have students compare pets to other animals in the
wild or in the zoo. Have students make comparisons with family members
and their likes and dislikes.
LEP and ESL: Ask students to compare new experiences in their adopted
culture with elements from holiday celebrations in their native culture. Have
students make comparisons using their knowledge from two different
Works Cited
Bertrand, Diane Gonzles. Trino’s Choice. Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1999.
Daniels, Harvey and Steven Zemelman. Subjects Matter: Every Teacher’s Guide
to Content-Area Reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2004.
Hoyt, Linda, Margaret Mooney, and Brenda Parkes, eds. Exploring Informational
Texts: From Theory to Practice. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2003.
Langan, John. Ten Steps to Advancing College Reading Skills. West Berlin, NJ:
Townsend Press, 2004.
Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Tanya N. Baker, and Julie Dube. Strategic Reading: Guiding
Students to Lifelong Literacy, 6-12. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2001.