Q
Chapter
10
Groups, Teams, and Their
Leadership
“We are born for cooperation, as are the
feet, the hands, the eyelids, and the upper
and lower jaws.”
~Marcus Aurelius
Introduction
Groups and teams are different than solely the
skills, abilities, values, and motives of those who
comprise them.
 Groups are essential if leaders are to impact
anything beyond their own behavior.
 The group perspective looks at how different
group characteristics can affect relationships both
with the leader and among the followers.
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Individuals Versus Groups Versus Teams
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Team members usually have a stronger sense of
identification among themselves than group members do.
Teams have common goals or tasks; these may range
from the development of a new product to an athletic
league championship.
Task independence typically is greater with teams than
with groups.
Team members often have more differentiated and
specialized roles than group members.
Teams should be considered as highly specialized
groups.
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The Nature of Groups
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A group can be thought of as two or more persons
who are interacting with one another in such a
manner that each person influences and is
influenced by each other person.
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This definition incorporates the concept of reciprocal
influence between leaders and followers.
Group members interact and influence each other.
Everyone belongs to a number of different groups.
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Group Size
Leader emergence is partly a function of group
size.
 As groups become larger, cliques are more likely
to develop.
 Group size can affect a leader’s behavioral style.
 Group size affects group effectiveness.
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Process loss
Social loafing
Social facilitation
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Group Size (continued)
Additive task – a task where the group’s output
simply involves the combination of individual
outputs.
 Process losses – inefficiencies created by more
and more people working together.
 Social loafing – phenomenon of reduced effort by
people when they are not individually accountable
for their work.
 Social facilitation – people increasing their level of
work due to the presence of others.
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Developmental Stages of Groups
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Stages of Groups:
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The four stages of group development are important
because:
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Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing
People are in many more leaderless groups than they may
realize.
The potential relationships between leadership behaviors and
group cohesiveness and productivity.
Gersick proposed a better model for teams in organization
settings by studying project teams and identifying the
process of punctual equilibrium.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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Group Roles
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Group roles are the sets of expected behaviors
associated with particular jobs or positions.
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Task role
Relationship role
Types of role problems:
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Dysfunctional roles
Role conflict
Intrasender role conflict
Intersender role conflict
Interrole conflict
Person-role conflict
Role ambiguity
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Group Norms
Norms are the informal rules groups adopt to
regulate and regularize group members’ behavior.
 Norms are more likely to be seen as important and
apt to be enforced if they:
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Facilitate group survival.
Simplify, or make more predictable, what behavior is
expected of group members.
Help the group to avoid embarrassing interpersonal
problems.
Express the central values of the group and clarify what is
distinctive about the group’s identity.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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Group Cohesion (Positive)
Group cohesion is the glue that keeps a group
together.
 Highly cohesive groups interact with and influence
each other more than do less cohesive groups.
 Highly cohesive groups may have lower
absenteeism and lower turnover than a less
cohesive group.
 Leaders will be better off thinking of ways to create
and maintain highly cohesive teams, than not
developing these teams out of concern for
potential groupthink or overbounding situations.
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Group Cohesion (Negative)
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Some groups can become so cohesive they erect
what amount to fences or boundaries between
themselves and others.
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People in highly cohesive groups often become
more concerned with striving for unanimity than
in objectively appraising different courses of
action.
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Over-bounding
Groupthink
Ollieism is when illegal actions are taken by overly
zealous and loyal subordinates who believe that
what they are doing will please their leaders.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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Effective Team Characteristics and Team
Building
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Key characteristics for effective team performance:
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Effective teams have a clear mission and high
performance standards.
Leaders of successful teams often take stock of their
equipment, training facilities and opportunities, and outside
resources available to help the team.
Good leaders work to secure those resources and
equipment necessary for team effectiveness.
Leaders of effective teams spend a considerable amount of
time planning and organizing in order to make optimal
use of available resources.
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Effective Team Characteristics and Team
Building (continued)
 Four
variables that need to be in place for a
team to work effectively:
 Task
structure
 Group boundaries
 Norms
 Authority
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Organizational Shells
Figure 10-1
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Ginnett’s Team Effectiveness Leadership
Model
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Stages of the Team Effectiveness Leadership
Model:
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Input
Process
Output
This model is a mechanism to first identify what a
team needs to be effective, and then to point the
leader either toward the roadblocks that are
hindering the team or toward ways to make the
team even more effective than it already is.
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Basic TELM Components
Figure 10-3
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Leadership Prescriptions of the
Model
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A team should be built like a house or automobile:
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Start with a concept
Create a design
Engineer it to do what you want it to do
Manufacture it to meet those specifications
The three critical functions for team leadership:
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Dream
Design
Development
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Diagnosis and Leverage Points
Figure 10-5
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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Concluding Thoughts about Ginnett’s
Team Effectiveness Leadership Model
Leaders can influence team effectiveness
by:
Ensuring the team has a clear sense of purpose
and performance expectations.
 Designing or redesigning input stage variables at
the individual, organizational, and team design
levels.
 Improving team performance through ongoing
coaching at various stages, but particularly while
the team is actually performing its task.
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McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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Virtual Teams
Virtual teams are sometimes referred to as
Geographically Dispersed Teams (GDTs).
 Five major areas that need to change for global
teams to work:
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Senior management leadership
Innovative use of communication technology
Adoption of an organization design that enhances global
operations
The ability to capture the strengths of diverse cultures,
languages, and people
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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Virtual Teams (continued)
The distance between members of virtual teams is
multidimensional.
 The impact of distance on the performance of a
distributed work group is not directly proportional to
objective measures of distance.
 The difference in the effects that distance seems to
have on work groups is due at least partially to two
intervening variables:
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Integrating practices within a virtual team
Integrating practices between a virtual team and its larger
host organization
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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Summary
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Group factors that can affect followers’ behaviors
include:
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Group size
Stages of group development
Roles
Norms
Cohesion
Leaders should use a team perspective for
understanding follower behavior and group
performance.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Summary (continued)
The Team Effectiveness Leadership Model posited
that team effectiveness can best be understood in
terms of input, processes, and outcomes.
 By identifying certain process problems in
teams, leaders can use the TELM to diagnose
appropriate leverage points for action at the
individual, team design, or organizational levels, or
for ongoing development at the process level.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin
10-24
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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