Chapter 16 – Southern Europe
Section Notes
Video
Physical Geography
Greece
Italy
Spain and Portugal
Impact of the Olympics on
Athens
Close-up
Mediterranean Climate
World Almanac
Per Capita GDP of Greece
Quick Facts
Chapter 16 Visual Summary
Maps
Southern Europe: Political
Southern Europe: Physical
Europe: Climate
Greece: Population
Spain and Portugal: Languages
Southern Europe
Spain and Portugal: Climate
Images
Geography
Italian History: The Renaissance
Naples
Moorish Tower
Focus on Culture: Flamenco
Physical Geography
The Big Idea
The peninsulas of Southern Europe have
rocky terrains and sunny, mild climates.
Main Ideas
• Southern Europe’s physical features include rugged
mountains and narrow coastal plains.
• The region’s climate and resources support such
industries as agriculture, fishing, and tourism.
Main Idea 1:
Southern Europe’s physical features include
rugged mountains and narrow coastal plains.
• Southern Europe is largely made up of three large
peninsulas.
– Iberian Peninsula
– Italian Peninsula
– Balkan Peninsula
• Southern Europe also includes many islands. Some,
such as Crete and Sicily, are very large.
• Because the peninsulas and islands all border on the
Mediterranean Sea, the region of Southern Europe
is also called Mediterranean Europe.
Features of Southern Europe
Landforms
• Rugged mountain
ranges
– Pyrenees
– Apennines
– Alps
– Pindus
• Islands
Water Features
• Seas
– Mediterranean
– Adriatic
– Aegean
– Ionian
• Few large rivers
• Coastal plains
– Tagus
• River valley plains
– Po
Main Idea 2:
The region’s climate and resources
support such industries as
agriculture, fishing, and tourism.
Southern Europe is famous for its pleasant climate.
Most of the region enjoys warm, sunny days and mild nights for
most of the year. Little rain falls during the summer, but rain is
more common in the winter.
Geographers call the type of climate found in Southern Europe a
Mediterranean climate.
Industries of Southern Europe
Agriculture
Fishing
• The Mediterranean climate is ideal for growing
many types of crops.
• Farmers plant citrus fruits, grapes, olives,
wheat, and many other products.
• The seas of Southern Europe are full of
various types of fish and shellfish.
• Fishing is a profitable industry.
Tourism
• Millions of tourists visit Southern Europe each
year because of its mild climate.
• Sunny beaches and breathtaking scenery are
also tourist attractions.
Greece
The Big Idea
The home of one of the Western world’s
oldest civilizations, Greece is trying to
reclaim its place as a leading country
in Europe.
Main Ideas
• Early in its history, Greece was the home of a great civilization, but
it was later ruled by foreign powers.
• The Greek language, the Orthodox Church, and varied customs
have helped shape Greece’s culture.
• In Greece today, many people are looking for new economic
opportunities.
Main Idea 1:
Early in its history, Greece was the home of
a great civilization, but it was later ruled by
foreign powers.
Greece has been called the birthplace of Western culture.
The ancient Greeks were pioneers in many fields and
made great achievements. They created great art,
designed amazing buildings, invented new forms of
literature, explored many fields of science, and developed
democracy.
In the 300s BC Greece became part of Alexander the
Great’s empire. As a result, Greek culture spread through
Egypt and much of Southwest Asia.
Later History of Greece
Foreign Rulers
•The Roman Empire conquered and
ruled Greece.
•When the Roman Empire split around
400, Greece became part of the eastern
half, the Byzantine Empire.
•The Muslim Ottoman Turks invaded
Greece in the 1300s and 1400s. At that
time some elements of Greek culture
faded.
Later History of Greece
Independence
•Many Greeks were not happy with
Turkish rule. In the 1800s they
revolted. With help, the Greeks won
their freedom and became a monarchy.
•Greece’s government has changed
many times since it won its
independence. It is now a democracy.
Main Idea 2:
The Greek language, the Orthodox
Church, and varied customs have
helped shape Greece’s culture.
Language • Greek language
• One of the oldest languages spoken in Europe
Religion • Most people belong to the Orthodox Church, a
branch of Christianity that dates back to the
Byzantine Empire.
• Religion is very important to most people.
Customs • Greek cuisine uses local ingredients such as
lamb and olives, plus recipes borrowed from
people such as the Italians and Turks.
• Family is central to Greek culture.
Main Idea 3:
In Greece today, many people are looking
for new economic opportunities.
Life in Urban Greece
• About three-fifths of
Greece’s population lives in
cities.
• Athens, the capital, is the
largest city. One-third of
all people in Greece live
there.
• Athens is an industrial
center.
• Industry has led to
pollution, which damages
the ruins and causes
health problems.
Life in Rural Greece
• Life in the country is very
different from life in the city.
• Many people live in isolated
mountain villages, as Greeks
have for thousands of years.
• Rural Greeks grow crops and
raise sheep and goats.
• Village life often centers
around the village square,
where people meet to chat
and make decisions.
The Greek Economy
• Greece’s economy is growing rapidly, but the
country faces some challenges to further
economic growth.
– Few mineral resources
– Relatively little farmland
• Greece’s shipping industry is one of the world’s
most successful. It has one of the largest fleets
of shipping vessels in the world.
• Tourism is another major industry.
– Millions of people visit Greece each year.
– Tourist attractions include ancient ruins, beaches, and
islands.
– The Greek government has worked to increase tourism.
The Big Idea
Once the center of a huge empire, Italy is
now one of the most prosperous
countries in Europe.
Main Ideas
• Italian history can be divided into three
periods: ancient Rome, the Renaissance,
and unified Italy.
• Religion and local traditions have helped
shape Italy’s culture.
• Italy today has two distinct economic
regions—northern Italy and southern
Italy.
Main Idea 1:
Italian history can be divided into
three periods: ancient Rome, the
Renaissance, and unified Italy.
Ancient Rome
•Founded in the 700s BC
•Formed empire that stretched
from Britain to the Persian Gulf
•Famous for great art, literature,
and political ideas
•Helped spread Christianity
Renaissance
•Lasted from about 1350 through the
1500s
•Period of great creativity that began in
Italy and spread through the rest of
Europe
•Saw the creation of some of the world’s
greatest works of art and literature
Unified Italy
•Italy was not unified as a
country until 1861.
•In the 1920s Mussolini took
power as a dictator. He led Italy
into World War II.
•After the war Italy became a
democracy.
Main Idea 2:
Religion and local traditions
have helped shape Italy’s
culture.
• Most people in Italy belong to the
Roman Catholic Church.
• In the past, the Catholic Church was
the single most important influence
in Italian culture.
Main Idea 2
• The pope, the spiritual head of the
Roman Catholic Church, lives in
Vatican City, an independent state
located within the city of Rome.
Main Idea 2
• The importance of the Catholic
Church in Italy can be seen in many
ways:
– Italian cities are filled with Catholic
churches. Rome alone contains
hundreds of churches from various
periods of history.
– Religious holidays and festivals are
major events in Italy.
Italian Culture
Food
•Olives, tomatoes, rice, and pasta are
common.
•Recipes vary widely from region to
region.
•For example, in the south people often
serve pasta with tomato sauces, while
in the north they serve creamier
sauces.
Italian Culture
Art
•Italy has been known as a center of the
arts for centuries.
•Italian artists set trends that are
followed all over the world.
•Italy has been home to some of the
world’s greatest painters, sculptors,
authors, composers, fashion designers,
and filmmakers.
Main Idea 3:
Italy today has two distinct
economic regions—northern
Italy and southern Italy.
Main Idea 3
Northern Italy
•Strong economy
•Italy’s most fertile farmland is in the Po
Valley.
•Major industrial centers: Milan, Turin,
and Genoa
•Tourists visit many northern cities, such
as Florence, Pisa, and Venice.
Main Idea 3
Southern Italy
•Poorer than the north
•Depends heavily on agriculture
•Tourists visit the region’s beaches
and ruins.
•Italy’s government is trying to
promote industry in the south,
especially in the city of Naples.
Italy’s capital, Rome, is in central Italy and has
ties to both the north and the south.
Spain and Portugal
The Big Idea
Spain and Portugal have rich cultures,
stable governments, and growing
economies.
Main Ideas
• Over the centuries, Spain and Portugal have been part
of many large and powerful empires.
• The cultures of Spain and Portugal reflect their long
histories.
• Having been both rich and poor in the past, Spain and
Portugal today have growing economies.
Main Idea 1:
Over the centuries, Spain and Portugal
have been part of many large and
powerful empires.
Both Phoenicia and Greece founded colonies in Iberia, the
peninsula on which Spain and Portugal are located.
Iberia later became part of the Roman Empire.
The Moors, Muslims from North Africa, invaded Iberia after
Rome fell. They ruled the area for about 600 years.
By the end of 1400s Christian rulers from Spain and Portugal
had banded together to drive the Moors from Iberia.
Spain and Portugal built huge empires that included lands in
Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas.
Main Idea 2:
The cultures of Spain and Portugal
reflect their long histories.
Language
• Most people speak Spanish or Portuguese.
• Other languages, such as Catalan and Galician, are also spoken in
parts of Spain.
• The Basque people of northern Spain have their own language and
customs. Many of them want independence.
Religion
• Most people in Iberia are Roman Catholic.
• People gather to celebrate Christian holidays and saints’ festivals.
Music and Art
• Portuguese fados and Spanish flamenco are popular music styles.
• Muslim influence can be seen in much Iberian architecture.
Main Idea 2
Religion
•Most people in Iberia are Roman
Catholic.
•People gather to celebrate Christian
holidays and saints’ festivals.
Music and Art
• Portuguese fados and Spanish flamenco are
popular music styles.
• Muslim influence can be seen in much Iberian
architecture.
Main Idea 3:
Having been both rich and poor
in the past, Spain and Portugal today
have growing economies.
• Spain and Portugal were once the wealthiest
countries in Europe, thanks to gold and silver
from the Americas.
• Spain and Portugal did not develop industrial
economies like other countries in Europe
because they were already rich.
• As Spanish and Portuguese colonies became
independent, the source of gold and silver
disappeared.
Main Idea 3
• Because they had not developed
industrial economies, Spain and
Portugal were unable to compete
with other countries. As a result,
they became poor.
• The economies of Spain and Portugal
are growing rapidly, largely because
of new industries such as tourism.
Spain Today
•Spain’s government is a
parliamentary monarchy, which
means it is ruled by a king with the
help of an elected parliament.
•Manufacturing is a major economic
activity.
•Cities such as Madrid and Barcelona
are centers of industry, tourism, and
commerce.
Portugal Today
•Portugal is a republic with elected
leaders.
•Lisbon, the capital and largest
city, is an industrial center.
•In rural areas, agriculture is still
very important to the economy.
•Portuguese farmers are famous
for growing grapes and cork.
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Chapter 16 - Southern Europe