EUROPE- Overview
© 2009 TESCCC
Geographic
Characteristics
– Western edge of Eurasia
– Pervasive world influence
– Industrialized
– Numerous nation-states
– Urbanized population
– High standards of living in more developed
countries
– East v. West differences
© 2009 TESCCC
Importance of Location
 Centrally
located with capability of
contact with rest of world.
 Every part of Europe is close to the
sea (within 300 miles).
 Navigable waterways
 Moderate distances
© 2009 TESCCC
PHYSICAL
LANDSCAPES
• Alpine Areas: The Alps, Pyrenees, Dolomites,
Carpathians
• Peninsulas: Scandinavia, Italian, Iberian, Balkan
• North European Plain
© 2009 TESCCC
Europe’s Islands
•
Iceland, an island south of the Arctic Circle in the North
Atlantic Ocean, features volcanoes, hot springs, and
geysers.
• The British Isles–primarily Ireland and Great Britain–are
cool, hilly, and rainy.
• In the Mediterranean, five large islands–Sicily, Corsica,
Sardinia, Cyprus, and Crete–all have rugged terrain and
volcanic mountains.
• Greece’s nearly 2,000 islands in the Aegean Sea have
rugged landscapes and a sunny climate that attracts
tourists
© 2009 TESCCC
Europe’s Climates
Marine West Coast dominates Western Europe
while Humid Continental dominates eastern
Europe. There are pockets of arid areas (steppe) and
highland climate. The dry summers of
Mediterranean climate are found along the
Mediterranean coastline.
© 2009 TESCCC
Generalizations on Climate
•
Countries closer to warm Atlantic ocean
currents and winds have milder temperatures
than those farther east and north.
•
European climates vary according to
distance from the sea (idea of
continentality).
© 2009 TESCCC
Biomes and Land Use in Europe
Most of Europe is Temperate Mixed Forest, that is
typically cleared for farming. Areas of Scandinavia are
Coniferous forests while the Mediterranean coastline has
scrubby vegetation known as chaparral.
Land Use is typically Mixed Farming or Dairy Farming.
Mediterranean farming would include the wine industry
and olive oil production. Much of the highlands in the
British Isles is used for grazing.
© 2009 TESCCC
Historical Geography of Europe
Ancient Greece and Rome (B.C.E. and
first four centuries A.D.)
 Dark Ages (4-10th century)
 Middle Ages (10-14th century)
 Renaissance (15th and 16th century)
 Enlightenment (18th century)
 Age of Conquests (15th-20th century)

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AGRARIAN REVOLUTION
Began in Europe in the 1750s
 Based on new agricultural innovations
 Enabled increased food production
 Enabled sustained population increase

© 2009 TESCCC
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Developed in the UK between 1750-1850
 Evolved from technical innovations that
occurred in British industry
 Proved to be a major catalyst towards
increased urbanization

© 2009 TESCCC
EUROPE’S CHANGING
POPULATION
 Falling share of the world’s population
 Fertility at an all-time low
 Fewer young people
 Smaller working age population
 Immigration partially offsetting losses
© 2009 TESCCC
URBAN TRADITION
Urbanization- 73% of Europe is urbanized.
 Related concepts

– Primate city- largest city that encompasses
the cultural ideals
– CBD- downtown (business and commerce)
– Metropolis- terms used to describe central
city and suburbs
© 2009 TESCCC
20th Century
Major Political Events
World War I
 World War II and Holocaust
 Cold War (primarily USSR)
 Decrease in Imperialism (primarily
British Empire)
 Rise and Fall of Communism

© 2009 TESCCC
Supranationalism

A venture involving three or more nations
 Political, economic, and/or cultural
cooperation to promote shared objectives
New “Euro”Currency
© 2009 TESCCC
European
Union (EU)
 Original
Members: (12) Belgium, Denmark,
France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK
 Established: 1992
 Aimed to coordinate policy among
the members in three ways:
-- economics
-- defense
-- justice and home affairs
© 2009 TESCCC
Supranationalism
Problems
 Loss
of autonomy and control
 Differences
in levels of economic
development
 Cultural
© 2009 TESCCC
barriers
Languages
In Europe, there are about 50 different
languages and more than 100 dialects,
most of which belong to the IndoEuropean language family
 The Slavic languages of eastern Europe,
the Germanic languages of northern
Europe, and the Romance languages of
southern Europe are Indo-European
languages.

© 2009 TESCCC
Religions
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© 2009 TESCCC
Europe is predominantly Christian.
Most of southern/western Europe’s
Christians are Roman Catholics,
whereas most northern European
Christians are Protestants.
In much of southeastern Europe,
Eastern Orthodox Christians
predominate.
Many Muslims also live in southeastern
Europe (Turkish influence), and Jewish
communities exist in all major European
cities.
SUBDIVISIONS OF THE REALM




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Western Europe
Eastern Europe
British Isles
Northern Europe
Mediterranean
Europe
© 2009 TESCCC
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EUROPE- Overview