Indirect Objects and Indirect
Object Pronouns
(Los complementos indirectos y los
pronombres de complemento indirecto)
¿Me puede mostrar
los modelos más
económicos?
An indirect object is almost always a person
(occasionally a thing) that is indirectly
affected by the action of the verb.
What did Paco
give? The book.
That’s our direct Paco gave the book to me.
object.
To whom did
Paco give the
Paco
me
dio
el
libro.
book? To me.
That’s our
It is important to distinguish direct
indirect object.
objects from indirect objects.
The indirect object pronouns in Spanish
are as follows:
These are used
for people
These are used
mostly for
people and
sometimes
things
me
te
nos
os
le
les
Notice that the forms of the indirect
object pronouns are identical to the direct
object pronouns, except for the thirdperson singular and plural forms.
The prepositional forms that often accompany
the object pronouns are as follows:
These are mandatory
me (a mí)
te (a ti)
nos (a nosotros)
os (a vosotros)
le
les (a ustedes)
(a ellos)
(a ellas)
(a Juan)
(a Marta)
etc.
(a usted)
(a él)
(a ella)
These are optional
(for clarification or emphasis)
(More about this shortly)
An indirect object indicates to or for whom an action is
carried out. An indirect object can also be used to indicate
from whom something is bought, borrowed, or taken
away. In English these relationships are simply expressed
with prepositions.
I’ll send the book to Alfredo.
I’ll buy the book for Alfredo.
I’ll take the book from Alfredo.
In Spanish, the to, for, and from relationships are all
expressed with an indirect object pronoun and the single
preposition a. The verb, then, or the situational context will
clarify whether a represents to, for, or from.
Le voy a mandar el libro a Alfredo.
to send
to
to buy
for (or from, depending
on context)
Le voy a comprar el libro a Alfredo.
Le voy a quitar el libro a Alfredo.
to take away
from
The repetition of Le with a Alfredo may seem redundant, but
Spanish grammar requires the co-occurrence of the indirect object
pronoun and the indirect object itself, unless the latter has already
been established in the conversation or is understood.
Notice the following example:
¿Alfredo quiere leer los cuentos?
Does Alfredo want to read the stories?
Sí, le voy a mandar el libro.
Yes, I’m going to send the book to him.
Since the question establishes that Alfredo is the one
being referred to, a Alfredo is omitted in the answer.
Clarification and Emphasis
The pronouns le and les are ambiguous since they can
refer to many different individuals or groups,
respectively; thus, the prepositional forms are used to
clarify. Notice the following exchange:
¿A quién le vas a mandar el libro?
To whom are you going to send the book?
Le voy a mandar el libro a Alfredo.
I’m going to send the book to Alfredo.
An answer such as Le voy a mandar el libro
would obviously not be sufficient.
Clarification and Emphasis
Some might then logically ask “Why not just say Voy a
mandar el libro a Alfredo.” But . . .
. . . proper Spanish requires the use of the indirect
object pronoun.
Le voy a mandar el libro a Alfredo.
In this case, for instance, le must co-occur with a Alfredo.
Voy a mandar el libro a Alfredo.
. . . is considered ungrammatical.
Clarification and Emphasis
Prepositional forms are also used to emphasize. Notice
the following exchange.
Tanto Alfredo como Isabel quieren leer el libro.
¿A quién le vas a mandar el libro primero?
Both Alfredo and Isabel want to read the book. Who are
you going to send it to first?
Primero le voy a mandar el libro a él (a Alfredo).
First I’m going to send the book to him (to Alfredo).
Again, an answer such as Primero le voy a
mandar el libro would not be sufficient.
Omission of the indirect object pronoun
The indirect object pronoun is normally not used,
however, when the indirect object is considered
corporate, as opposed to personal.
Voy a mandar el libro a la biblioteca.
I’m going to send the book to the library.
Donamos dinero a la Cruz Roja.
We donate money to the Red Cross.
Indirect object pronouns, like all object pronouns,
come in front of the conjugated verb . . .
Le voy a mandar el libro a Alfredo.
. . . or after and attached to an infinitive . . .
Voy a mandarle el libro a Alfredo.
. . . or a gerund.
Estoy mandándole el libro a Alfredo.
As mentioned, occasionally a thing can be expressed
as an indirect object.
Van a ponerle un motor nuevo al coche.
They’re going to put a new engine in the car.
Think of the installation of the new engine as
an action that is being carried out on the car.
Remember that the indirect object pronoun in Spanish
can represent (at least) three different relationships.
Paco gave the book to me.
Paco me dio el libro (a mí).
Paco took the book from me.
Paco me quitó el libro (a mí).
All three—to, from
and for— are
represented by the
single preposition a
in Spanish.
Paco bought the book for me.
Paco me compró el libro (a mí).
FIN
Descargar

Pronombres de complemento indirecto