Chapter 10
10.0
CURRICULUM, STANDARDS,
AND TESTING
Teachers, Schools, and Society
A Brief Introduction to Education
David Miller Sadker
Karen R. Zittleman
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.1
EDUCATIONAL TIME LINE
EDUCATIONAL
PHILOSOPHY
TIME
FOCUS OF CURRICULUM
Seventeenth
Century
“Two R’s”
Secondary education for males
only; reading and religion
Eighteenth
Century
Life in the present
Reading, religion, morality,
writing, and arithmetic; vocational
skills; academy open to females
Nineteenth
Century
Secular education
Secondary education in Latin or
English curriculum
Early Twentieth Progressive education Creative expression; junior high
Century
school developed; secondary
education for all students
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.2
EDUCATIONAL TIME LINE (continued)
TIME
EDUCATIONAL
PHILOSOPHY
1940s-1960s
Discipline-oriented
Congress funded programs in
science, math, languages, and
guidance
1960s-1970s
Social concern and
humanistic education
Gender-based courses;
multiethnic curricula
1980s
Back to basics
Academic subjects emphasized;
increased discipline; elimination
of electives; competency exams
1990s
Widening of the core
curriculum
Expansion of the core curriculum
to include more people of color
and women
Current
_____________
________________
FOCUS OF CURRICULUM
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.3
HIDDEN CURRICULUM?
Student Generated Responses: What else did you learn in school?
GRADE LEVEL
“HIDDEN” LESSONS
Elementary
Middle
High School
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.4
HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS’
ATTITUDES AND ASPIRATIONS
Source: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Monitoring the Future Survey: 1998.
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.5
THE IMPORTANCE OF
EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
AND ACADEMIC SUBJECTS
Do you consider extracurricular activities as important as the academic
subjects, or do you consider them as only a supplement to the academic
subjects?
National Totals
%
No Children in
School
%
Public School
Parents
%
As important as
academic subjects
42
40
46
A supplement to
academic subjects
56
58
52
Don’t know
2
2
2
Source: Lowell C. Rose and Alec M. Gallup (2000), The 32nd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the
Public’s Attitudes Toward the Public Schools, http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kpol0009.htm#1a
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.6
SHAPING THE CURRICULUM
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.7
WHO AND WHAT
SHAPE THE CURRICULUM?
Student Generated Responses
WHO & WHAT
1.
Students
2.
Parental & Community Groups
3.
Teachers
4.
Administrators
5.
Federal Govt.
6.
State Govt.
7.
Local Govt.
8.
Colleges and Universities
9.
Standardized Tests
10.
Education Commissions &
Committees
11.
Professional Organizations
12.
Special Interest Groups
EXAMPLES OF HOW
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.8
DECISION-MAKING POWER
As I name a specific group or individual, please tell me whether you think that
group or individual has too much, too little, or just about the right amount of say in
the decisions that affect the local public schools.
Too
Much
%
Too
Little
%
About the
Right
Amount %
Don’t Know
%
Federal government
49
16
29
6
State government
43
15
36
6
Local board of education
29
18
49
4
School superintendent
25
18
51
6
Local teachers union
21
32
35
12
Principals
14
31
51
4
Students
11
56
30
3
Parents
7
66
25
2
Teachers
7
57
33
3
Source: Lowell C. Rose and Alec M. Gallup (2000), The 32nd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public’s Attitudes Toward the Public Schools, http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kpol0009.htm#1a
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.9
INTERNET ACCESS IN
SCHOOLS AND CLASSROOMS
Source: Internet Access in Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2001.
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.10
TEXTBOOK ADOPTION STATES
Source: American Association of Publishers, Washington, DC, 2003.
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.11
FORMS OF BIAS
Student Generated Responses
BIAS
EXAMPLES
Invisibility
Stereotyping
Imbalance/Selectivity
Unreality
Fragmentation/Isolation
Linguistic Bias
Cosmetic Bias
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.12
THREE TYPES OF STANDARDS
Student Generated Responses
1. Content Standards
2. Performance Standards
3. Opportunity-to-Learn Standards
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.13
NO DESIRE TO TURN BACK
Student Generated Responses
When it comes to your school district’s effort toward higher academic
standards, do you think the school district should:
•
•
•
•
Continue the effort as planned.
Continue the effort, but make some adjustments.
Stop the effort.
Don’t know.
How do we vote?
Source: Parents who are aware of standards effort (n=437), Public Agenda September 2000.
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.14
WHEN STUDENTS DO POORLY
Student Generated Responses
If students in your district did poorly on a standardized test, which might be
your reaction?
•
•
•
•
The schools failed to prepare students.
Something was wrong with the test design.
The students lack ability.
Don’t know.
How do we vote?
Source: Public Agenda, September 2000.
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.15
NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND
• Annual Testing
• Academic Yearly Progress
• Report Cards
• Highly Qualified Faculty
• What Other Areas of the Law are Less Well
Known?
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.16
SEVEN REASONS WHY
STANDARDIZED TESTS
ARE NOT WORKING
1.
At-Risk Students Placed at Greater Risk
2.
Lower Graduation Rates
3.
Higher Test Scores Do Not Mean More Learning
4.
Standardized Testing Shrinks the Curriculum
5.
Tests Errors
6.
Teacher Stress
7.
What’s Worth Knowing?
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.17
TEACHING TO THE TEST
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.18
TEACHER STRESS
Source: A female teacher with a literature specialty teaching in a suburban elementary
school. http://ganesh.ed.asu.edu/aims/view_image.php?image_id=72&grade_range_id=3
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.19
EXAMPLES OF CENSORSHIP
Mary Rodgers’ Freaky Friday: “Makes fun of parents and parental responsibility.”
George Eliot’s Silas Marner: “You can’t prove what that dirty old man is doing with that
child between the chapters.”
Plato’s Republic: “This book is un-Christian.”
Jules Verne’s Around the World in Eighty Days: “Very unfavorable to Mormons.”
William Shakespeare’s Macbeth: “Too violent for children.”
Fodor Dostoyevsky’s Crime and Punishment: “Serves as a poor model for young
people.”
Herman Melville’s Moby Dick: “Contains homosexuality.”
Anne Frank’s Diary of a Young Girl: “Obscene and blasphemous.”
E. B. White’s Charlotte’s Web: “Morbid picture of death.”
Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island: “You know what men are like and what
they do when they’ve been away from women that long.”
J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit: “Subversive elements.”
Roald Dahl’s Charlie and the Chocolate Factory: “Racist.”
William Steig’s Sylvester and the Magic Pebble: “Anti-police” (one of the police officers
is drawn as a pig).
Webster’s Dictionary: “Contains sexually explicit definitions.”
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
10.20
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
DESIGN ELEMENTS
1. KNOWLEDGE ANTICIPATION
Purpose: Connect student’s world to the learning unit; develop
focus or essential questions; introduce plans for final
projects
2. KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION
Purpose: Present information (with a variety of strategies);
process information; practice new skills
3. KNOWLEDGE APPLICATION
Purpose: Work that promotes engagement; perform assessment
tasks; plan the project; develop assessment criteria;
model creative process
4. KNOWLEDGE REFLECTION
Purpose: Reflection and celebration
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education. © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
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