Introduction to Computing
CSCI101
Marguerite Doman, PhD
v
r
Communications
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Syllabus
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Blackboard - online.winthrop.edu
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Homework to be turned in through
Blackboard
Quizzes will be done through Blackboard
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Grading
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HTML Assignments: 15%
Gamemaker Assignments: 25%
Online Quizzes: 10%
Exam 1 : 15%
Exam 2 : 15%
Cumulative Final Exam: 20%
Late Homework Policy
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Online quizzes must be completed on time.
The quizzes will be closed at the end of day
of the lecture.
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4 slip days
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Extra Credit
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Remaining slip days (.5%)
Extra credit assignment: ..%
History of Computing
… Very Short
Marguerite Doman, PhD
What is a Computer?
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Perform the repetitive calculations for –
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Sheep
Grain
Astronomy
Census information
Navigational tides
Finance
----- Anything we want
In the beginning…
Calculating Machines
photos from en.wikipedia.org
Counting Tables
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A stone with grooves on one
side used as place values.
Small stones were used within
the lines for calculating
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Thought to be the precursors of the
Abacus.
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Medieval device with 2000 years of
documented use
Store ‘counter’ derived from counting tables
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Pullan, J.M, The History of the abacus. Lunodon: Books that Matter, 1986;
Young, Liz, A short history of the Abacus, Http://fenris.net!lizyoung/abacus.html
The Salamis Tablet
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The oldest surviving counting board
used by the Babylonians circa 300
B.C.
Gaming board
“The gaming boards used by ancient cultures such as
the Babylonians and the Romans are thought to be
the precursors of the Abacus.
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The Salamis tablet is approximately 150 x 75 x
4.5 cm and is made of marble.
Pullan, J.M, The History of the abacus. Lunodon: Books that Matter, 1986;
Salamis Tablet; Jacksonville University http://users.ju.edu/ssundbe/salamis.html
Young, Liz, A short history of the Abacus, Http://fenris.net!lizyoung/abacus.html
Abacus
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Often called the earliest calculating machine
in the world.
3000 B.C or 500 B.C
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Abacus was invented in Babylon
depending on source
1300 A.D.
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The 2/5 abacus (2 on the upper part, 5 on the
lower) made its first appearance in China
Fernandes, Luis. "Introduction", The Abacus, the Art of Calculating with Beads http://www.ee.ryerson.ca:8080/~elf/abacus: 28 March 1999
Grado, Victor M. "Nepohualtzitzin, A Mesoamerican Abacus" http://www.ironhorse.com/~nagual/abacus: 28 March 1999
Young, Liz, A short history of the Abacus, Http://fenris.net!lizyoung/abacus.html
Abacus
An form of the abacus was found during
archeological excavations in Central America.
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dates to around 900 AD and is
constructed from maize kernels threaded on a
string, all contained within a wooden frame
7 beads by 13 columns.
Fernandes, Luis. "Introduction", The Abacus, the Art of Calculating with Beads http://www.ee.ryerson.ca:8080/~elf/abacus: 28 March 1999
Grado, Victor M. "Nepohualtzitzin, A Mesoamerican Abacus" http://www.ironhorse.com/~nagual/abacus: 28 March 1999
Young, Liz, A short history of the Abacus, Http://fenris.net!lizyoung/abacus.html
Napier’s Bones 1600
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1600 A. D.
John Napier invented
strips to help with
mulitiplication
Napier’s bones
demonstration
Calculating Machines
… with Logic
photos from en.wikipedia.org
Difference Engine, 1821
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Proposed by Charles Babbage
“Father of computing”
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Invented to compile mathematical tables
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Designed to tabulate polynomial function
Logarithmic and trigonometric functions can be
approximated by polynomial functions.
photos from en.wikipedia.org
Analytical Engine, 1833
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Abilities
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add
subtract
loop (repeat instructions
over and over)
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compare two
numbers
etc…
photos from en.wikipedia.org
Analytical Engine, 1833
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The engine was designed in great detail on
paper but it was never completed.
Had characteristics of today’s computers:
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It was designed to contain a memory or "store,"
an arithmetic unit .
Capable of performing the four operations of
arithmetic
An input/output system which used punched
cards, and a printer to display the results.
The engine would have been steam-driven
Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace
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Daughter of Lord Byron
Suggests to Babbage that he
use the binary system.
She writes programs for his
analytical engine, becoming
the world's first
programmer
photos from en.wikipedia.org
Internet Related Developments
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1844 – Samuel Morse sends the first
telegraphic message from Washing ton to
Baltimore.
1856 -1866 Europe and all of America is
connected by telegraph
1876 - Alexander Graham Bell invents the
telephone.
1901 Marconi sends the first transatlantic
wireless message.
Modern Computers
1st Generation - Vacuum Tubes
1946-1958
Vacuum Tube, 1906
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A glass tube surrounding a vacuum.
When electrical contacts are put on the
ends, a current flows though that vacuum.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, is used to
amplify, switch, otherwise modify, or
create an electrical signal by controlling
the movement of electrons in a lowpressure space.
Inventor: Lee DeForest
From www.pbs.org/transitor/science/events/vacuumt.html
Atanasoff-Berry Computer, 1930
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Created by John
Atanasoff and
Clifford Berry
The first electrically
powered digital
computer
Used vacuum
tubes to store data
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First computer to use the binary system
photos from en.wikipedia.org
Colossus 1944
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Developed in UK during WWII
Used by British codebreakers to help read
encrypted German messages in World War
II.
photos from en.wikipedia.org
Harvard Mark 1, 1944
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Created by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper
Electro-mechanical mechanism
used to compute artillery tables
Handled 4 arithmetic functions, with special
programs for logs and trig.
storage = 72 numbers
photos from en.wikipedia.org
Grace Hopper
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Grace Hopper: Technology Pioneer
Grace Hopper on Letterman
Grace Hopper: short overview
Pioneer in the field,
One of the first programmers of the Harvard
Mark I computer,
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Developed the first complier for a computer
programming language.
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COBOL, one of the first modern
programming languages.
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She is also credited with popularizing the term
"debugging" for fixing computer glitches
(motivated by an actual moth removed from
the computer).
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Because of the breadth of her
accomplishments and her naval rank, she is
sometimes referred to as "Amazing Grace".
photos from en.wikipedia.org
Grace Hopper
“ If it’s a good idea,
you should do it.”
Grace Hopper
Grace Hopper: Technology Pioneer
Grace Hopper on Letterman
Grace Hopper: short overview
photos from en.wikipedia.org
ENIAC 1946
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First General Purpose Computer
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-Turing complete machine
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ENIAC
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EDVAC
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1946 - Univ of Pennsylvania
programmed via wires
based on ENIAC
program stored
in memory
UNIVAC
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1951
first commercial machine
photos from en.wikipedia.org
Modern Computers
2nd Generation - Transistors
1959-1964
Transistors
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Invented at Bell Laboratories
The Bell Labs team of John Bardeen,
Walter Brattain and William Shockley
won the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for
their work in developing transistors.
Vacuum tubes were far from ideal. They
had to warm up before they worked (and
sometimes overheated when they did),
they were unreliable and bulky and they
used too much energy. In the years after
World War II, scientists were looking for
alternatives to vacuum tubes.
Transistors, made from silicon, have 2
different states. They are either on or off
based on the current
photos from http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/transistor.htm
Successful
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2
Generation Computers
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Time of big computers in big companies
Proprietary and basically free software
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Successful companies:
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IBM
Burroughs
Control Data
Honeywell
Example: IBM 1400
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A general purpose system
Used in conjunction with IBM punched card
equipment.
Modern Computers
3rd Generation
Integrated Circuit
1965-1970
Integrated Circuits
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Small chip containing thousands of
transistors
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Inventor: Jack Kilby, Nobel Laureate of
Physics
System Examples: Burroughs B5000
•First offered in 1960
•Consider the first of the 3rd generation
computers
photo from http://jack.hoaroots.org/Burr104.html
http://www.vikingwaters.com/htmlpages/MFHistory.htm
System Examples: IBM 360
•First offered in 1964
•Equally suited for business or science
•From 8K to 8M of memory
photo from IBM (www.ibm.com)
Other advances of the
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Generation
Evolution of operating systems
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rd
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Becoming more general purpose
Separate pricing for hardware and software.
Internet Related Developments
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1962 – The Telstar communications satellite is
launched and relays the first transatlantic
television broadcast
1968 – Intel formed
1969 - ARPA-Net, the forerunner of the
Internet, is established by the US Department
of Defense.
Modern Computers
4th Generation Computers
The Microprocessor
1971 - Today
Microprocessor
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Based on VLSI
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VLSI = Very Large Scale Integration
thousands of transistors per chip
Microprocessors
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Created by Intel Corp
Small chip containing
millions of transistors
Functions as a central
processing unit (CPU)
photo from www.cs.indiana.edu, www.comet.rs
Computers are getting faster,
more powerful, smaller and
cheaper
Altair 8800
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The first microcomputer
Sold as a kit
Switches for input
Lights for output
The first PC, the Altair 8800, was introduced in
kit form and was featured in an article in
Popular Electronics magazine. The response
for orders was unexpectedly overwhelming.
Apple Computer
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1976 - Two other young hacker
geeks, Steven Jobs and Stephen
Wozniac build a computer in Steve's
parents garage. They call it the Apple.
From Computer Hope: www.compyterhope.com/history
Photo from Http://inventors.about.com
Microsoft
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1980 IBM hires Paul Allen and Bill Gates to
create an operating system for a new PC.
The pair buy the rights to a simple operating
system manufactured by Seattle Computer
Products and use it as a template.
IBM allows the two to keep the marketing
rights to the operating system, called DOS.
From Computer Hope: www.compyterhope.com/history
Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic
Instruction Code (BASIC)
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Revolutionized software industry
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Easy to learn
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Lead to the creation of Microsoft
Made programming easier for the
masses
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Other advancements: User Interface
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Switches/Cards/tape
Previously: Command line interface
WYSIWYG: What you see is what you get
Cellular Phones and Smartphones
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Features include
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Auto-redial
Voice mail
Voice-activated dialing
Internet access
Text messaging
Personal information management (PIM)
The most full-featured cell phones are
categorized as smartphones
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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Ubiquitous Computing
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Computing that is inseparable from our
everyday lifestyle
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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Internet Related Developments
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1962 – The Telstar communications satellite is
launched and relays the first transatlantic
television broadcast
1968 – Intel formed
1969 - ARPA-Net, the forerunner of the
Internet, is established by the US Department
of Defense.
Fifth Generation
 Based
on ??? technology
Software Industry in the U.S.
 Current Job Market?
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"software engineer" tops the Money Magazine Best
Jobs list
software development in U.S. is a $150Billion business
 Who hires CS graduates?
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Any company that owns a computer.
 How much do CS graduates make?
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starting salary = $43K to $55K
average software engineer = $80K to $150K
Specialties within
Computer Science
 Web Application Design
 Networking and Computer Security
 Graphics
 Artificial Intelligence
 Database Analysis
Future Software Trends
 Continued Movement to the Web
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Delivering Home and Mobile Entertainment
New Services
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e.g. Google Medical
 Handheld Devices
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multi-media / intelligent / interconnected
 Unknown
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integration of devices
Next Class…
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Computer Guts
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Components of a modern computer
What to look for when buying a computer
Operating Systems
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Differences in Windows and Linux
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Dannelly's Short History of Computing