CHAPTER
3
Hardware: Input,
Processing, and
Output Devices
Hardware
• Hardware
 Any machinery
(most of which uses
digital circuits) that
assists in the input,
processing, storage,
and output activities
of an information
system.
Some Examples of Hardware
LECTURE OBJECTIVES
1. To learn the functions and elements of a motherboard
2. To learn how microprocessors function
3. To learn the purpose of cache memory and
characteristics other types of memory
4. To learn the latest processors
5. To learn the latest buses
THE MAIN OBJECTIVE
These hardware slides will teach you how to
purchase a computer so that you get the
maximum value for your money.
These slides will aid you in understanding enough
about hardware so you can make
wise purchases for you and your company.
Clock Speed
• Clock Speed
Waves on a scope
 The number of
1 cycle
Start at 7 min.
pulses or cycles
or pulse
generated per
second.
• Hertz
 Pulses or cycles per
second.
• MegaHertz (MHz)
 Million pulses or
In years past, the pulse generator, called an oscillator,
cycles per second,
was a chip on the motherboard. Today, the oscillator is
built into the processor without a separate component
• GigaHertz (GHz)
on the motherboard.
 Billion pulses or
These pluses supply the fuel for the computer, like
gasoline does for a car.
cycles per second.
Character Stored in Memory
• Byte
 Eight bits together represent a single character of data, such as any
character on a computer keyboard.
When 8 bits are used to store a single character, the code is typically ASCII,
American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
 Today's computers use 16 bits ( 2 bytes) to store a character so that most
languages can be represented. It uses a code call Unicode (16 bit code) that
incorporates ASCII code.
Bytes are stored in
memory. Memory
provides working
storage for program
instructions.
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
A
Storage
Data is represented
in on/off circuit
states.
Word length
• Word length (computer word)
 Number of bits the CPU can process at any
one time.
 Computer words vary from 8, 16, 32, 64,
128 bits, depending on the CPU.
 BIT
 Binary Digit - 0 or 1.
 Today's latest processors for PC's have
64 bit words, and they are called 64-bit
processors.
Bus
• Bus
• Physical (Copper Traces) wiring connecting
computer components.
• Try to think of this as a single lane in a
highway.
• Bus Width
 Number bus lanes making up the bus.
 Try to think of this as a road or highway
made up of many lanes. Instead of cars,
electrical pulses travel down these lanes.
Asus P5W Motherboard
An example of a motherboard, which is the “heart” of a computer,
with many busses (highways) for transmitting data from one
component to another.
Motherboard
Power input from power supply
2 SATA
connections
4 memory slots
16GB DDR3 (Total)
Front panel
connections
(See next slide)
2 SATA
RAID
-- DDR3 (Double Data Rate 3)
1600 MHz
CPU:
Intel Core i5
Processor
2.66GHz
Internal
USB
connections
Heat radiator
2 PCI Express
slots-x1 (single lane)
2 PCI Express
slots-x16 (16 lanes)
3 regular
PCI slots
Older bus
Asus P5W Core 2 Duo Motherboard
(Side View)
PS/2 Mouse Port
Older bus
Serial Port
Older bus
PS/2 Keyboard Port
Older bus
IEEE 1394
High Speed
Serial Bus
Older bus
(Apple
Firewire)
2 LAN Network
Ports
Rear Speakers
Line-in
Line-out
4 USB Ports
Side Speakers
Microphone
Center/Subwoofer
1 SATA
Connection
Motherboard Buses
PCI Bus OLDER BUS
•Peripheral Component Interconnect
•32/64 bit bus; transfer speed 133 MB/s
•This is an older bus, and it is almost obsolete and is slow compared to other buses.
•Plug cards into this bus to expand the functionality of the computer.
EXPANSION BUSES
•PCI (32/64 bit bus)
•Peripheral Component
Interconnect
Video Card using PCI Express Buss
•PCI Express Bus (Newest bus)
•Much faster than regular PCI bus.
•Peripheral Component Interconnect Express
•PCIe 3.0 transfers data at 1 GB/s per lane.
With a maximum of 32 lanes, PCIe allows
for a total combined transfer rate of 32 GB/s.
This video card uses 16 lanes and
transfers 16 GB/s
•PCIe 2.0 can transfer 16 GB/s using 32
lanes.
•PCIe 3.0 available 2012, was 2010.
•~Twice the speed of PCIe 2.0.
Video Card using
PCI Express Bus
Serial-ATA BUS
Serial-ATA
•Serial Advanced Technology
Attachment
•Hard drives
•CD ROM
•CD RW
•DVD Drives
•SPEED 150/300/750 MB/s
to 6 Gb/s (750 MB/s) 4-pin
cable for connection.
Serial-ATA BUS
(SATA vs. PATA cables)
SATA
•4-pin cable for connection.
•Transfers data serially
MEMORY BUS
DDR2: (Double Data Rate 2) (OLDER, BUT STILL AROUND;
COULD BE IN A REFERBISHED MODEL. SOMETIMES FOUND IN TABLETS.)
•800 MHz (Typical) (1800 MHz, Maximum)
•Transfers 64 bits 800 million times per second
between the processor and memory.
•6.4 GB/s Transfer rate (Typical)
• 64 bits x 800,000,000 / 8 = 6.4GB/s
Memory Module
MEMORY BUS
DDR3 twice as fast as DDR2
DDR3: (Double Data Rate 3)
•1,600 MHz (Typical)
•Transfers 64 bits 1,600 million times per second
between the processor and memory.
•12.8 GB/s Transfer rate (Typical)
• 64 bits x 1,600,000,000 MHz / 8 = 12.8GB/s
Memory Module
Advertisement (2014)
Speed of memory
expressed two ways:
1. 1600 MHz
2. 12.8 GB/s transfer rate
Speed of memory
expressed two ways:
1. 1333 MHz
2. 10.664 GB/s transfer rate
Speed of memory
Older but
expressed two ways: still around;
1. 800 MHz
VERY SLOW.
2. 6.4 GB/s transfer rate
64 bits are accessed 1,600,000,000 times
per second. Thus 8 bytes are accessed
1,600,000,000 times per second.
Thus 8 x 1,600,000 ,000 = 12.800 GB/s
transfer rate.
64 bits are accessed 1,333,000,000
times per second. Thus 8 bytes are
accessed 1,333,000,000 times per
second.
Thus 8 x 1,333,000 ,000 = 10.664
GB/s transfer rate.
64 bits are accessed 800,000 ,000
times per second. Thus 8 bytes are
accessed 800,000 ,000 times per
second.
Thus 8 x 800,000 ,000 = 6.4 GB/s
transfer rate.
M stands for Mega which equals 1,000,000 (one million)
G stands for Giga which equals 1,000,000 ,000 (one billion)
B stands for one byte (8 bits equals one byte)
b stands for bit (One byte contains 8 bits.)
When you purchase a computer be sure there is a
match between the speed of the microprocessor
and the microprocessor’s the highway between
the processor and the memory and the memory
speed. Faster speed usually, but not always,
means faster processing.
Fast Memory
Speed of memory expressed three ways:
1. 12.8 GB/s transfer rate
2. 1600 MHz (Memory access speed)
3. PC3-12800
4. Price: $140.00
$80 for 6GB
5.
6.
7.
DDR3 has twice the data transfer rate as DDR2
What is a FSB (Front-Side-Bus)?
The motherboard must be able to use DDR3
$80 new
Fastest Memory Now Available
Speed of memory expressed two ways:
1. 19.2 GB/s transfer rate
2. 2400 MHz (Memory access speed)
3. PC3 19200
4. Price: $214.00 for 4GB
5. DDR3 has twice the data transfer rate as DDR2
6. The microprocessor and the motherboard must be able to use DDR3.
$214 at Frys
USB-2 Ports (Bus)
USB-2 Ports
Universal Serial BUS
•127 different devices
•480 Megabits/second
•60 MegaBytes/second
•Cameras, gaming devices, monitors, printers,
speakers, microphones,
telephones, scanners, etc.
USB 3.0 WILL TRANSFER AT up to 5 Gb/s
The latest USB is USB-3.1 (10 Gb/s or 1.25 GB/s) and
it is twice as fast as USB-3.0) . USB-3 and USB-3.1 are
backward compatible with USB-2. In other words,
you can plug a USB-2 male connector into a USB-3
female port.
USB 3.0 is 10 times faster than USB 2.00
USB 3.1 is 2 times faster than USB 3.0
Note: If you can get a computer with USB 3.1, go for it.
USB 3.1 article
4 USB ports
Network (Bus)
Network connection
•1Gb/s transfer rate
•Type: Ethernet
•Used in networks
WiFi Antenna
WiFi: (Wireless Fidelity)
1. IEEE 802.11g
Bit transfer rate: 54 Mb/s
2. IEEE 802.11n
Bit transfer rate: 248 Mb/s
3. IEEE 802.11ac
Bit transfer rate: 1.3 Gb/s
Read this article
Note: Most computers now come
with IEEE 802.11ac.
Past and future WiFi specifications
IMPORTANT
IMPORTANT
These frequencies are MICROWAVE frequencies.
Same frequencies as your MICROWAVE oven.
CONNECT COMPUTERS THROUGH
YOUR HOME OR OFFICE POWERLINE.
Using your home or office power line
you can eliminate Wifi.
It uses Ethernet.
- Speed: 500mb/s
- More Secure than WiFi
- Eliminate dangers WiFi
microwave radiation.
- Much faster than WiFi
- Not as fast as Ethernet cabling.
Video on Ethernet wire vs. WiFi vs. Ethernet over power line (7min)
RAID INTERFACE Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
SATA RAID
connections
See next slide for more on RAID>>>>
RAID CONTROLLER CARD USING SATA
RAID 1 (DISK MIRRORING)
RAID 1 =
+
HighPoint RAID
disk controller card
$61.00
+
$49.00 (120GB)
$49.00 (120GB)
RAID INTERFACE CARD
1. HighPoint RAID cards sell for as little as $61.00.
2. Hard drives should be identical, or as close as possible.
3. Usually support RAID 0, 1, 0+1
4. RAID 0 = SPEED; RAID 1 = MIRRORING; RAID 0+1 = SPEED AND MIRRORING
5. Raid 1 is currently the easiest way for backing up disks.
6. Use the above card the when motherboard does not come equipped with RAID ports.
Raid Video 0, 1 10 min
Intel Core 2 Duo processor
The latest version of Excel can take advantage
of Intel’s multi-core processors.
Cache memory
High speed
memory that a
processor can
access more
rapidly than
main memory.
Hardware
Memory Cache
Slow
4 GB
4 MB
Cache video lecture 9 Minutes
Core 2 Duo Cache
Core 1 and Core 2 silicon
Note that L2 cache is not on the core silicon.
Intel Core 2 Duo
PriceWatch.com
Core 1 & Core 2 share L2
cache, 4 M Byte
Core 2:
L1 Cache 32 K Byte
Core 1:
L1 Cache 32 K Byte
L1
Cache
controller
chip
DDR3 Main Memory
4 M Byte
L1
Memory Cache
This chip is not the Core 2 Duo but it illustrates L1 and L2 cache.
Note:
1. L1 cache is on the MPU silicon
2. L2 cache is NOT on the MPU silicon
Memory
MPU
64 data
lines
800 MHz
L1 CACHE 64K
CACHE
L2 4MB
MULTI CORE MICROCONTROLLER
Most advanced microcontroller in the world
HAS 8 CORES
1
Parallax Corp
8
LATEST PROCSSORS
Intel i3 Processor Family
Intel i3 Processor Family
___________________________________________________
-Two cores
-Threaded so that the operating systems can execute two
instructions at exactly the same time in each core. Essentially, the
operating system thinks there are four cores.
-Threaded core: The processor is designed to appear to the
operating system as if there are two cores when there is actually only
just one.
- Does not have Turbo Boost; thus it always stays at the same
clock speed unlike the i5 or the i7.
- 64 bit instruction set
- Integrated graphics
When purchasing a computer today, look for the i3,
i5, or i7
LATEST PROCSSORS
Intel i5 Processor Family
Intel i5 Processors
_________________________________________________
-Two cores
-Threaded so that the operating systems can execute two instructions
at exactly the same time in each core. Essentially, the operating
system thinks there are four cores.
-Threaded core: The processor is designed to appear to the
operating system as if there are two cores when there is actually only
just one.
- Has Turbo Boost so that clock speed can be increased for
demanding tasks, and reduced for less demanding tasks.
- 64 bit instruction set
- Integrated graphics
When purchasing a computer today, look for the i3,
i5, or i7
LATEST PROCSSORS
Intel i7 Processor Family
Intel i7 Processors
_________________________________________________
-Four cores
-Threaded so that the operating systems can execute two instructions
at exactly the same time in each core. Essentially, the operating
system thinks there are eight cores.
-Threaded core: The processor is designed to appear to the operating
system as if there are two cores when there is actually only just one.
- Has Turbo Boost so that clock speed can be increased for
demanding tasks, and reduced for less demanding tasks.
- 64 bit instruction set
- Integrated graphics
When purchasing a computer today, look for the i3, i5, or
i7
LATEST PROCSSORS
Passmark processor performance test
• This is a performance test for thousands of processors.
• Is used to compare performance of almost all processors.
Test results
Passmark test measures:
•Graphics speed
•Memory Speed
•Processor throughput
•Hard Disk performance
•etc
Generic Computer
COMMUNICATION DEVICES
Control Unit
CPU
32 K Bytes
Cache (L1)
INPUT
ALU
Registers
RAM
SECONDARY STORAGE
OUTPUT
Hardware Components
• Central Processing Unit (CPU)
 A hardware component that performs computing functions
utilizing the ALU, control unit, and registers.
• Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)
 Performs mathematical calculations and makes logical
comparisons.
• Control Unit
 Sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them,
coordinates flow of data in/out of ALU, registers, primary and
secondary storage, and various output devices.
• Registers
 High-speed storage areas used to temporarily hold small units of
program instructions and data immediately before, during, and
after execution by the CPU.
The hottest trend: The UltraBook
Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution
ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 UltraBook
Hybrid Hard Drive
ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 Ultrabook - 3rd generation Intel Core i7-3517U 1.9GHz, 4GB DDR3,
500GB HDD + 24GB SSD Cache, 13.3" Full HD, Windows 8 64-bit, 1-Yr Warranty, 1-Yr Accidental
The hottest trend: The UltraBook
Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution
ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 UltraBook
The hottest trend: The UltraBook
Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution
ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 UltraBook
to 3.0 GHz
The hottest trend: The UltraBook
Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution
ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 UltraBook
Intel Wireless Display, most commonly known as WiDi, is
a wireless display standard developed by Intel, based on
the existing Wi-Fi standard. It allows a portable device or
computer to send up to 1080p HD video and 5.1 surround
sound to a compatible display wirelessly.[1] Such as a TV set.
The hottest trend: The UltraBook
Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution
ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 UltraBook
The hottest trend: The UltraBook
Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution
ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 UltraBook
-- Most give it a 5 star rating
-- 5-6 Hours of battery live
-- 4 GB RAM soldered in the motherboard
-- Easy to scratch
-- Love the 1920x1080 screen resolution
-- Bright screen
-- Takes an SD card (Secure Disc)
-- Love backlit keyboard
-- Pad works great
-- It is really fast
-- Great service by BestBuy
Video Review of ASUS UltraBook (6 min)
Best Business Computer
Dr. Scanlan just purchased this computer on EBay.
8 to 10 hrs.
4 Cores in Dr. Scanlan’s
6 MB in Dr. Scanlan’s
The hottest trend: The UltraBook
Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution
Dell XPS Convertible Ultrabook 12.5 inch Touch Screen
http://www.dell.com/us/p/xps-12-l221x/pd
ASUS NetBook
28
ASUS NetBook
DDR3 Memory
Memory size
Wide Super Video Graphics Array
Hard drive 5400 RPM
Dual Core 1.50 GHz
28
ASUS NetBook
WiFi
Battery Life
28
Apple iPad 4th Generation
Product Features and Technical Details
Capacity: 64GB | Connectivity: Wifi + AT&T 4G | Color: Black
Apple's newest generation of iPads.
9.7 Retina Display; 2048 x1536 resolution
1.4 GHz dual-core Apple A6X custom-designed processor, with quad-core graphics
Forward facing and rear facing cameras. 5 megapixel, 1080 video recording
Apple's iOS 6 and access to Apple's app store.
Over 100,000 Applications (APPS)
RAM Type: 1024 MB DDR2 SIMM (Single-Inline-Memory-Module)
Drive Size: 16, 32, 64 GB (Type Raid)
Modem: Wireless cellular modem
Size (LWH): 9.5 inches, 7.31 inches, 0.37 inches
Weight: 1.4 pounds
Battery: 10 hours
Wireless Type: 802.11abgn
Price: $499, $629, $711 for 16, 32, and 64 GB respectively
iPad 4 vs Amazon Kindle
28
Acer Tablet
Key Features Video
10.1” HD Multi-Touch Display: (1280 x 800) resolution, 16:10 aspect ratio
NVIDIA® Tegra™ 2 Dual Core Mobile Processor
1GB DDR2 Memory
NVIDIA® GeForce® GPU
Android "Honeycomb" OS
Flash Drive 32GB on board
MicroSD memory card up to 32GB
Dolby® Mobile Technology
Dual Analog Microphone
Dual Speaker
802.11b/g/n Wireless(802.11n 2.4GHz only)
Bluetooth® 2.1+EDR
1- Micro USB 2.0 Port
1- USB 2.0 Port
1- Micro HDMI™ Out (support Dual Display)
5MP Rear Facing Camerawith Auto Focus and single LED flash
2MP Front Facing Camera
Sensors: G-Sensor, E-Compass, L-Sensor, Gyro-meter
Rechargeable Lithium-ion polymer Battery
Up to 8-hours battery life
More Information
28
Samsung Smart Phone
3G and 4G Network
16GB storage 1 GB RAM
64 GB SD (Secure Digital)
1.4 GHz Quad-core processor
WiFi a/b/g/n
Talk time: 660 minutes
Standby 770 hours
SIRI STEVE JOBS DIED (iPhone)
Samsung Galaxy S III
Samsung Galaxy S III
IRIS VS SIRI
iPhone 5 vs Samsung Galaxy S III
28
Machine Cycle Time
• Slow machines
 Measured in microseconds (one-millionth of a
second)
• Fast machines
 Measured in nanoseconds (one-billionth of a
second) to picoseconds (one-trillionth of a
second)
• MIPS
 Millions of instructions per second.
• GIPS
 Billions of instructions per second.
Moore’s Law
• Moore’s Law
 A hypothesis that
states transistor
densities in a single
chip will double
every 18 to 24
months.
Intel is working on an 80 core processor.
Moore’s Law and Intel’s 80 core processor Video
5 Minutes
Working Transistor comprised of
a single atom.
This technology may shatter Moore’s Law
Full Article
Moore's Law could be safe for another decade or so. An international team of scientists has demonstrated a
working transistor comprised of a single atom–nearly 100 times smaller than the 22-nanometer cutting-edge
transistors fabricated by Intel.
More importantly, the research team led by Michelle Simmons of the University of New South Wales in Sydney was
able to show a method for repeating the process with great accuracy and in a fashion that is compatible with the
CMOS technology used in transistor fabrication today.
"This is the first time anyone has shown control of a single atom in a substrate with this level of precise accuracy,"
said Simmons, who worked with colleagues from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information,
Purdue University, the University of Sydney, the University of Melbourne, and the University of New South Wales
on the project.
The "law" associated with Intel co-founder Gordon Moore predicts a steady rate at which the density of transistors
on silicon-based semiconductors increases over time. That steady procession of ever-smaller computer circuitry has
held up for decades, but as the size of transistors approaches atomic scales, there have been serious questions as to
whether Moore's Law can last much longer than another five years or so.
Volatile vs. Nonvolatile Memory
• Volatile Memory
 Loses contents when electrical power is turned off.
• Nonvolatile memory
 Keeps contents when electrical power is turned off.
Multiprocessing
• Multiprocessing
 Two or more PROCERSSORS or CORES executing
instructions in a single computer.
• Coprocessor
 Speeds processing by executing specific types of
instructions while the CPU works on another
processing activity. Examples: Processors
(Coprocessors) on video card, sound card, Keyboard.
Parallel Processing
• Parallel processing
 A form of
multiprocessing
that speeds the
processing by
linking several
processors to
operate at the same
time or in parallel.
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