CHAPTER 3 Hardware: Input, Processing, and Output Devices Hardware • Hardware Any machinery (most of which uses digital circuits) that assists in the input, processing, storage, and output activities of an information system. Some Examples of Hardware LECTURE OBJECTIVES 1. To learn the functions and elements of a motherboard 2. To learn how microprocessors function 3. To learn the purpose of cache memory and characteristics other types of memory 4. To learn the latest processors 5. To learn the latest buses THE MAIN OBJECTIVE These hardware slides will teach you how to purchase a computer so that you get the maximum value for your money. These slides will aid you in understanding enough about hardware so you can make wise purchases for you and your company. Clock Speed • Clock Speed Waves on a scope The number of 1 cycle Start at 7 min. pulses or cycles or pulse generated per second. • Hertz Pulses or cycles per second. • MegaHertz (MHz) Million pulses or In years past, the pulse generator, called an oscillator, cycles per second, was a chip on the motherboard. Today, the oscillator is built into the processor without a separate component • GigaHertz (GHz) on the motherboard. Billion pulses or These pluses supply the fuel for the computer, like gasoline does for a car. cycles per second. Character Stored in Memory • Byte Eight bits together represent a single character of data, such as any character on a computer keyboard. When 8 bits are used to store a single character, the code is typically ASCII, American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Today's computers use 16 bits ( 2 bytes) to store a character so that most languages can be represented. It uses a code call Unicode (16 bit code) that incorporates ASCII code. Bytes are stored in memory. Memory provides working storage for program instructions. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 A Storage Data is represented in on/off circuit states. Word length • Word length (computer word) Number of bits the CPU can process at any one time. Computer words vary from 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 bits, depending on the CPU. BIT Binary Digit - 0 or 1. Today's latest processors for PC's have 64 bit words, and they are called 64-bit processors. Bus • Bus • Physical (Copper Traces) wiring connecting computer components. • Try to think of this as a single lane in a highway. • Bus Width Number bus lanes making up the bus. Try to think of this as a road or highway made up of many lanes. Instead of cars, electrical pulses travel down these lanes. Asus P5W Motherboard An example of a motherboard, which is the “heart” of a computer, with many busses (highways) for transmitting data from one component to another. Motherboard Power input from power supply 2 SATA connections 4 memory slots 16GB DDR3 (Total) Front panel connections (See next slide) 2 SATA RAID -- DDR3 (Double Data Rate 3) 1600 MHz CPU: Intel Core i5 Processor 2.66GHz Internal USB connections Heat radiator 2 PCI Express slots-x1 (single lane) 2 PCI Express slots-x16 (16 lanes) 3 regular PCI slots Older bus Asus P5W Core 2 Duo Motherboard (Side View) PS/2 Mouse Port Older bus Serial Port Older bus PS/2 Keyboard Port Older bus IEEE 1394 High Speed Serial Bus Older bus (Apple Firewire) 2 LAN Network Ports Rear Speakers Line-in Line-out 4 USB Ports Side Speakers Microphone Center/Subwoofer 1 SATA Connection Motherboard Buses PCI Bus OLDER BUS •Peripheral Component Interconnect •32/64 bit bus; transfer speed 133 MB/s •This is an older bus, and it is almost obsolete and is slow compared to other buses. •Plug cards into this bus to expand the functionality of the computer. EXPANSION BUSES •PCI (32/64 bit bus) •Peripheral Component Interconnect Video Card using PCI Express Buss •PCI Express Bus (Newest bus) •Much faster than regular PCI bus. •Peripheral Component Interconnect Express •PCIe 3.0 transfers data at 1 GB/s per lane. With a maximum of 32 lanes, PCIe allows for a total combined transfer rate of 32 GB/s. This video card uses 16 lanes and transfers 16 GB/s •PCIe 2.0 can transfer 16 GB/s using 32 lanes. •PCIe 3.0 available 2012, was 2010. •~Twice the speed of PCIe 2.0. Video Card using PCI Express Bus Serial-ATA BUS Serial-ATA •Serial Advanced Technology Attachment •Hard drives •CD ROM •CD RW •DVD Drives •SPEED 150/300/750 MB/s to 6 Gb/s (750 MB/s) 4-pin cable for connection. Serial-ATA BUS (SATA vs. PATA cables) SATA •4-pin cable for connection. •Transfers data serially MEMORY BUS DDR2: (Double Data Rate 2) (OLDER, BUT STILL AROUND; COULD BE IN A REFERBISHED MODEL. SOMETIMES FOUND IN TABLETS.) •800 MHz (Typical) (1800 MHz, Maximum) •Transfers 64 bits 800 million times per second between the processor and memory. •6.4 GB/s Transfer rate (Typical) • 64 bits x 800,000,000 / 8 = 6.4GB/s Memory Module MEMORY BUS DDR3 twice as fast as DDR2 DDR3: (Double Data Rate 3) •1,600 MHz (Typical) •Transfers 64 bits 1,600 million times per second between the processor and memory. •12.8 GB/s Transfer rate (Typical) • 64 bits x 1,600,000,000 MHz / 8 = 12.8GB/s Memory Module Advertisement (2014) Speed of memory expressed two ways: 1. 1600 MHz 2. 12.8 GB/s transfer rate Speed of memory expressed two ways: 1. 1333 MHz 2. 10.664 GB/s transfer rate Speed of memory Older but expressed two ways: still around; 1. 800 MHz VERY SLOW. 2. 6.4 GB/s transfer rate 64 bits are accessed 1,600,000,000 times per second. Thus 8 bytes are accessed 1,600,000,000 times per second. Thus 8 x 1,600,000 ,000 = 12.800 GB/s transfer rate. 64 bits are accessed 1,333,000,000 times per second. Thus 8 bytes are accessed 1,333,000,000 times per second. Thus 8 x 1,333,000 ,000 = 10.664 GB/s transfer rate. 64 bits are accessed 800,000 ,000 times per second. Thus 8 bytes are accessed 800,000 ,000 times per second. Thus 8 x 800,000 ,000 = 6.4 GB/s transfer rate. M stands for Mega which equals 1,000,000 (one million) G stands for Giga which equals 1,000,000 ,000 (one billion) B stands for one byte (8 bits equals one byte) b stands for bit (One byte contains 8 bits.) When you purchase a computer be sure there is a match between the speed of the microprocessor and the microprocessor’s the highway between the processor and the memory and the memory speed. Faster speed usually, but not always, means faster processing. Fast Memory Speed of memory expressed three ways: 1. 12.8 GB/s transfer rate 2. 1600 MHz (Memory access speed) 3. PC3-12800 4. Price: $140.00 $80 for 6GB 5. 6. 7. DDR3 has twice the data transfer rate as DDR2 What is a FSB (Front-Side-Bus)? The motherboard must be able to use DDR3 $80 new Fastest Memory Now Available Speed of memory expressed two ways: 1. 19.2 GB/s transfer rate 2. 2400 MHz (Memory access speed) 3. PC3 19200 4. Price: $214.00 for 4GB 5. DDR3 has twice the data transfer rate as DDR2 6. The microprocessor and the motherboard must be able to use DDR3. $214 at Frys USB-2 Ports (Bus) USB-2 Ports Universal Serial BUS •127 different devices •480 Megabits/second •60 MegaBytes/second •Cameras, gaming devices, monitors, printers, speakers, microphones, telephones, scanners, etc. USB 3.0 WILL TRANSFER AT up to 5 Gb/s The latest USB is USB-3.1 (10 Gb/s or 1.25 GB/s) and it is twice as fast as USB-3.0) . USB-3 and USB-3.1 are backward compatible with USB-2. In other words, you can plug a USB-2 male connector into a USB-3 female port. USB 3.0 is 10 times faster than USB 2.00 USB 3.1 is 2 times faster than USB 3.0 Note: If you can get a computer with USB 3.1, go for it. USB 3.1 article 4 USB ports Network (Bus) Network connection •1Gb/s transfer rate •Type: Ethernet •Used in networks WiFi Antenna WiFi: (Wireless Fidelity) 1. IEEE 802.11g Bit transfer rate: 54 Mb/s 2. IEEE 802.11n Bit transfer rate: 248 Mb/s 3. IEEE 802.11ac Bit transfer rate: 1.3 Gb/s Read this article Note: Most computers now come with IEEE 802.11ac. Past and future WiFi specifications IMPORTANT IMPORTANT These frequencies are MICROWAVE frequencies. Same frequencies as your MICROWAVE oven. CONNECT COMPUTERS THROUGH YOUR HOME OR OFFICE POWERLINE. Using your home or office power line you can eliminate Wifi. It uses Ethernet. - Speed: 500mb/s - More Secure than WiFi - Eliminate dangers WiFi microwave radiation. - Much faster than WiFi - Not as fast as Ethernet cabling. Video on Ethernet wire vs. WiFi vs. Ethernet over power line (7min) RAID INTERFACE Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks SATA RAID connections See next slide for more on RAID>>>> RAID CONTROLLER CARD USING SATA RAID 1 (DISK MIRRORING) RAID 1 = + HighPoint RAID disk controller card $61.00 + $49.00 (120GB) $49.00 (120GB) RAID INTERFACE CARD 1. HighPoint RAID cards sell for as little as $61.00. 2. Hard drives should be identical, or as close as possible. 3. Usually support RAID 0, 1, 0+1 4. RAID 0 = SPEED; RAID 1 = MIRRORING; RAID 0+1 = SPEED AND MIRRORING 5. Raid 1 is currently the easiest way for backing up disks. 6. Use the above card the when motherboard does not come equipped with RAID ports. Raid Video 0, 1 10 min Intel Core 2 Duo processor The latest version of Excel can take advantage of Intel’s multi-core processors. Cache memory High speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly than main memory. Hardware Memory Cache Slow 4 GB 4 MB Cache video lecture 9 Minutes Core 2 Duo Cache Core 1 and Core 2 silicon Note that L2 cache is not on the core silicon. Intel Core 2 Duo PriceWatch.com Core 1 & Core 2 share L2 cache, 4 M Byte Core 2: L1 Cache 32 K Byte Core 1: L1 Cache 32 K Byte L1 Cache controller chip DDR3 Main Memory 4 M Byte L1 Memory Cache This chip is not the Core 2 Duo but it illustrates L1 and L2 cache. Note: 1. L1 cache is on the MPU silicon 2. L2 cache is NOT on the MPU silicon Memory MPU 64 data lines 800 MHz L1 CACHE 64K CACHE L2 4MB MULTI CORE MICROCONTROLLER Most advanced microcontroller in the world HAS 8 CORES 1 Parallax Corp 8 LATEST PROCSSORS Intel i3 Processor Family Intel i3 Processor Family ___________________________________________________ -Two cores -Threaded so that the operating systems can execute two instructions at exactly the same time in each core. Essentially, the operating system thinks there are four cores. -Threaded core: The processor is designed to appear to the operating system as if there are two cores when there is actually only just one. - Does not have Turbo Boost; thus it always stays at the same clock speed unlike the i5 or the i7. - 64 bit instruction set - Integrated graphics When purchasing a computer today, look for the i3, i5, or i7 LATEST PROCSSORS Intel i5 Processor Family Intel i5 Processors _________________________________________________ -Two cores -Threaded so that the operating systems can execute two instructions at exactly the same time in each core. Essentially, the operating system thinks there are four cores. -Threaded core: The processor is designed to appear to the operating system as if there are two cores when there is actually only just one. - Has Turbo Boost so that clock speed can be increased for demanding tasks, and reduced for less demanding tasks. - 64 bit instruction set - Integrated graphics When purchasing a computer today, look for the i3, i5, or i7 LATEST PROCSSORS Intel i7 Processor Family Intel i7 Processors _________________________________________________ -Four cores -Threaded so that the operating systems can execute two instructions at exactly the same time in each core. Essentially, the operating system thinks there are eight cores. -Threaded core: The processor is designed to appear to the operating system as if there are two cores when there is actually only just one. - Has Turbo Boost so that clock speed can be increased for demanding tasks, and reduced for less demanding tasks. - 64 bit instruction set - Integrated graphics When purchasing a computer today, look for the i3, i5, or i7 LATEST PROCSSORS Passmark processor performance test • This is a performance test for thousands of processors. • Is used to compare performance of almost all processors. Test results Passmark test measures: •Graphics speed •Memory Speed •Processor throughput •Hard Disk performance •etc Generic Computer COMMUNICATION DEVICES Control Unit CPU 32 K Bytes Cache (L1) INPUT ALU Registers RAM SECONDARY STORAGE OUTPUT Hardware Components • Central Processing Unit (CPU) A hardware component that performs computing functions utilizing the ALU, control unit, and registers. • Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) Performs mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons. • Control Unit Sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, coordinates flow of data in/out of ALU, registers, primary and secondary storage, and various output devices. • Registers High-speed storage areas used to temporarily hold small units of program instructions and data immediately before, during, and after execution by the CPU. The hottest trend: The UltraBook Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 UltraBook Hybrid Hard Drive ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 Ultrabook - 3rd generation Intel Core i7-3517U 1.9GHz, 4GB DDR3, 500GB HDD + 24GB SSD Cache, 13.3" Full HD, Windows 8 64-bit, 1-Yr Warranty, 1-Yr Accidental The hottest trend: The UltraBook Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 UltraBook The hottest trend: The UltraBook Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 UltraBook to 3.0 GHz The hottest trend: The UltraBook Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 UltraBook Intel Wireless Display, most commonly known as WiDi, is a wireless display standard developed by Intel, based on the existing Wi-Fi standard. It allows a portable device or computer to send up to 1080p HD video and 5.1 surround sound to a compatible display wirelessly. Such as a TV set. The hottest trend: The UltraBook Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 UltraBook The hottest trend: The UltraBook Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution ASUS ZENBOOK UX32VD-DH71 UltraBook -- Most give it a 5 star rating -- 5-6 Hours of battery live -- 4 GB RAM soldered in the motherboard -- Easy to scratch -- Love the 1920x1080 screen resolution -- Bright screen -- Takes an SD card (Secure Disc) -- Love backlit keyboard -- Pad works great -- It is really fast -- Great service by BestBuy Video Review of ASUS UltraBook (6 min) Best Business Computer Dr. Scanlan just purchased this computer on EBay. 8 to 10 hrs. 4 Cores in Dr. Scanlan’s 6 MB in Dr. Scanlan’s The hottest trend: The UltraBook Light, Fast, High Screen Resolution Dell XPS Convertible Ultrabook 12.5 inch Touch Screen http://www.dell.com/us/p/xps-12-l221x/pd ASUS NetBook 28 ASUS NetBook DDR3 Memory Memory size Wide Super Video Graphics Array Hard drive 5400 RPM Dual Core 1.50 GHz 28 ASUS NetBook WiFi Battery Life 28 Apple iPad 4th Generation Product Features and Technical Details Capacity: 64GB | Connectivity: Wifi + AT&T 4G | Color: Black Apple's newest generation of iPads. 9.7 Retina Display; 2048 x1536 resolution 1.4 GHz dual-core Apple A6X custom-designed processor, with quad-core graphics Forward facing and rear facing cameras. 5 megapixel, 1080 video recording Apple's iOS 6 and access to Apple's app store. Over 100,000 Applications (APPS) RAM Type: 1024 MB DDR2 SIMM (Single-Inline-Memory-Module) Drive Size: 16, 32, 64 GB (Type Raid) Modem: Wireless cellular modem Size (LWH): 9.5 inches, 7.31 inches, 0.37 inches Weight: 1.4 pounds Battery: 10 hours Wireless Type: 802.11abgn Price: $499, $629, $711 for 16, 32, and 64 GB respectively iPad 4 vs Amazon Kindle 28 Acer Tablet Key Features Video 10.1” HD Multi-Touch Display: (1280 x 800) resolution, 16:10 aspect ratio NVIDIA® Tegra™ 2 Dual Core Mobile Processor 1GB DDR2 Memory NVIDIA® GeForce® GPU Android "Honeycomb" OS Flash Drive 32GB on board MicroSD memory card up to 32GB Dolby® Mobile Technology Dual Analog Microphone Dual Speaker 802.11b/g/n Wireless(802.11n 2.4GHz only) Bluetooth® 2.1+EDR 1- Micro USB 2.0 Port 1- USB 2.0 Port 1- Micro HDMI™ Out (support Dual Display) 5MP Rear Facing Camerawith Auto Focus and single LED flash 2MP Front Facing Camera Sensors: G-Sensor, E-Compass, L-Sensor, Gyro-meter Rechargeable Lithium-ion polymer Battery Up to 8-hours battery life More Information 28 Samsung Smart Phone 3G and 4G Network 16GB storage 1 GB RAM 64 GB SD (Secure Digital) 1.4 GHz Quad-core processor WiFi a/b/g/n Talk time: 660 minutes Standby 770 hours SIRI STEVE JOBS DIED (iPhone) Samsung Galaxy S III Samsung Galaxy S III IRIS VS SIRI iPhone 5 vs Samsung Galaxy S III 28 Machine Cycle Time • Slow machines Measured in microseconds (one-millionth of a second) • Fast machines Measured in nanoseconds (one-billionth of a second) to picoseconds (one-trillionth of a second) • MIPS Millions of instructions per second. • GIPS Billions of instructions per second. Moore’s Law • Moore’s Law A hypothesis that states transistor densities in a single chip will double every 18 to 24 months. Intel is working on an 80 core processor. Moore’s Law and Intel’s 80 core processor Video 5 Minutes Working Transistor comprised of a single atom. This technology may shatter Moore’s Law Full Article Moore's Law could be safe for another decade or so. An international team of scientists has demonstrated a working transistor comprised of a single atom–nearly 100 times smaller than the 22-nanometer cutting-edge transistors fabricated by Intel. More importantly, the research team led by Michelle Simmons of the University of New South Wales in Sydney was able to show a method for repeating the process with great accuracy and in a fashion that is compatible with the CMOS technology used in transistor fabrication today. "This is the first time anyone has shown control of a single atom in a substrate with this level of precise accuracy," said Simmons, who worked with colleagues from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Purdue University, the University of Sydney, the University of Melbourne, and the University of New South Wales on the project. The "law" associated with Intel co-founder Gordon Moore predicts a steady rate at which the density of transistors on silicon-based semiconductors increases over time. That steady procession of ever-smaller computer circuitry has held up for decades, but as the size of transistors approaches atomic scales, there have been serious questions as to whether Moore's Law can last much longer than another five years or so. Volatile vs. Nonvolatile Memory • Volatile Memory Loses contents when electrical power is turned off. • Nonvolatile memory Keeps contents when electrical power is turned off. Multiprocessing • Multiprocessing Two or more PROCERSSORS or CORES executing instructions in a single computer. • Coprocessor Speeds processing by executing specific types of instructions while the CPU works on another processing activity. Examples: Processors (Coprocessors) on video card, sound card, Keyboard. Parallel Processing • Parallel processing A form of multiprocessing that speeds the processing by linking several processors to operate at the same time or in parallel.