R = re a d
A = a c tiv e le a rn e r
S = s y s te m
P = p ro c e s s
REA D W ITH A PEN CIL IN
YOUR HAND.
Did you
memorize
my tenets for
the test?
B E A N A CTIVE PA RTICIPA N T
IN YO U R O W N LEA RN IN G .
DEVELOP YOUR OW N
SYSTEM O F LEA RN IN G .
D U R IN G
BEFORE
U SE TH E REA D IN G
PROCESS.
AFTER
STUDY GUIDE
PACKET #3
Main Idea & Inferences
MAIN IDEA
CENTRAL POINT
(stated or implied)
Major Details = Proof
Minor Details = Fluff
st
1 :
find real TOPIC
• Specific angle about a subject
(best way to hold a football-not just football)
• Phrase
(2 or more words)
Hint: ask “what is this about? Raising kids, feeding
cats, or
Training dogs? No, it’s about…”
Ask: so what about the best way to hold
a football?
• You’ll find the ‘main idea’
• You’ll find the central message
• You’ll be able to write a general summary of
the section of writing
• You’ll find a possible test question
What is a topic? 1 or 2 words
NOT A SENTENCE
Topic
is the
anchor
Thesis: what I want to prove
I.
Main Idea sentence
A. Proof (major detail)
1. Example (minor detail)
II.
Main Idea sentence
A. Proof (major detail)
1. Example (minor detail)
What is a main idea?
• Central message/all-inclusive or general
summary
• It’s the answer to
“so what about the TOPIC?”
“The author thinks that…..”
“He’s trying to get across that…..”
• IT’S ALWAYS A SENTENCE.
Recognizing the main idea in a piece
of writing.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Someone’s most important point
Someone’s main argument
Someone’s stand on an issue
Someone’s central focus bout a thing, a person
Someone’s controlling idea
Someone’s central thought in an essay
Someone’s thesis in a longer piece of writing
What are details?
• MAJOR details prove your point
who – what – when – where – how • MINOR details
what kind of – colors – times - feelings
Title: “My Years as a BLAH”
Topic: How to succeed at Blah Blah
Thesis: You should Blah Blah Blah
(introductory paragraph gives your
opinion and how you will prove it.)
I. Main idea for success reason 1
A. Major Detail proof
1. Minor Detail Fluff
II.Main idea for success reason 2
A. Major Detail proof
1. Minor Detail Fluff
MAIN IDEAS
CAN
NEVER
BE A
DETAIL!!!
Hubble’s Hint
• In a multiple choice situation, find the
details first.
• Mark off
• Left with MAIN IDEA
BECAUSE
Main ideas/central points can’t be in 2 places
at once-can you?
Grasp Vocab
Infer Meaning:
Metaphors
Similes
Irony
Test items
essays
See others’
point of view
You must get the MAIN IDEA from someone’s thoughts
COMP
I & II
Lab Reports
Speeches
Draw
Conclusions
Think back to Annotating
Think back to Reading Process
• Before = previewing
• During = integrating new to old
• Recall = after each section recall what they
said. It forces you to select the main idea
THEN
Put those thoughts in the margins as you read
and only re-read your ANNOTATIONS!!
What is
Annotating?
Remember!
• We usually talk in main ideas so talk out
loud to yourself as you study.
• You will spit out main ideas!!
• Keep paying attention =concentration= for
sentences that summarize all his/her points.
Watch out for implied main ideas or
unstated thoughts.
–
–
–
–
Don’t panic – you do this all the time!
You say: what did you mean by that?
So, I see how it is.
Do I have to spell it out for you?
The main idea may be in the details or hints or
veiled words someone is saying to you.
All writing is someone talking to you.
STYLE = SUGGESTIONS
they just don’t come out and and say it!!
SPEAKERS
LISTENERS
AND
AND
WRITERS
READERS
IMPLY ideas
INFER ideas
For
Instance…
Authors can
infer
point of view…
ONE
My name was Salmon, like the fish; first name,
Susie. I was fourteen when I was murdered on December
6, 1973. In newspaper photos of missing girls from the
seventies, most looked like me: white girls with mousy
brown hair. This was before kids of all races and genders
started appearing on milk cartons or in the daily mail. It
was back when people still believed things like that didn't
happen.
Let’s review…
• What is the difference between the topic
and the man idea in someone’s writing?
• What is the difference between a main idea
that is stated and one that is implied?
• Why is it important for students to know
how to determine the main ideas of
paragraphs?
NEXT STEPS
• Complete Cornell notes and Exercises in
packet
• Complete practices in textbook as assigned
Reading Skill
Anyone can draw an inference….
Monkey see, monkey
infer
Monkeys draw novel conclusions,
researchers say
By William J. Cromie
Harvard News Office
Monkeys keep turning out to be smarter than people
think they are. Researchers have shown that they can
count to four and are aware of differences between
languages like Dutch and Japanese, even though they
don't known what is being said. Now, Harvard
psychologists find that monkeys can draw correct
conclusions about novel situations. For example,
shown a white towel that turns blue, a blue knife, and
a glass of blue paint, they can figure out that the paint
not the knife is responsible for the change in color.
"Our studies reveal a striking continuity between
humans and monkeys in their capacity to draw causal
inferences …….
Getting the M.I. Through Inferences
Inferences are ideas that are:
Suggested, assumed, hinted
NOT literal
Inferential Reading describes:
Motives, feelings, Judgments
Uses figurative language [similes, metaphors]
Figurative Language Types:
Simile: comparing using like or as
“Your brain is like a walnut in many ways.”
My mother was the oak
in my life.
Metaphors:
direct comparison (no like or as)
Keep on the right pathway to be a success!
Not the usual metaphor….
• Nobel Prize winner G. Becker says,
“children are really refrigerators: expensive
to have them, to maintain them and to repair
them, but they live a long time and can
return great services to their parents for
years.”
Personification: human characteristics to
nonhuman things
•My mirror has a mean streak in it.
•The wind sang her mournful song.
•The microwave timer told me it was time to
eat.
•The video camera observed the whole scene.
•The rain kissed my cheeks as it fell.
•The water beckoned invitingly to the hot
swimmers.
Idioms: phrases, expressions to make a point, not
literal
•Don’t get stuck in the rat race at work!
•Sometimes I feel like a fish out of water here.
•I always put my foot in my mouth around my boss.
Verbal Irony: used to express a thought that is the
opposite of what you mean
• My bosses are a regular
Laurel and Hardy!
• You break a date with your girlfriend so you can go to
the ball game with the guys. When you go to the
concession stand, you run into your date who is with
another guy!
MARK
TWAIN
on ‘irony’
• It’s ironic that every time you stop a school,
you will have to build a jail. What you gain at
one end you lose at the other. It's like feeding
a dog on his own tail. It won't fatten the dog.
speech 11/23/1900
To understand comedy & jokes…is to
understand main ideas, inferences & figurative
language. Have you ever said “I don’t get it!”
when listening to a comedian?
"Comedy is the only branch
of writing that is defined
by the effect it has on
people," he said. "It's no
easy task; but you're
always able to tell if
you've succeeded."
Garrison Keillor
Warning:
•When detecting inferences, keep
your prejudices in check. Listen.
•Don’t leap to conclusions-- check
your facts! Printed words are not
absolute truth.
•If you can’t back up what you say,
you’re inferring; called gossiping!!
To Get Ready for Test #3
•
•
•
•
•
•
Complete ‘Metacognitive Thoughts’
Complete Study Guide in Packet #3
Finish 5 worksheets in Packet #3
Finish the questions about “Scouts”
Complete book assignments
Complete Vocab Quizzes on Blackboard
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STUDY GUIDE PACKET #3 Main Idea & Inferences