CSUN Information Systems
Systems Analysis & Design
http://www.csun.edu/~dn58412/IS431/IS431_SP15.htm
System Proposal &
Project Management
IS 431: Lecture 7
1
System Proposal &
Project Management
 Feasibility Analysis
 Alternative (Candidate) System Solutions.
 Cost-benefit Analysis
 System Proposal Reports
 Project Management
IS 431 : Lecture 7
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Feasibility Analysis
• Feasibility is the measure of how beneficial or
practical the development of an information system
will be to an organization.
• Creeping Commitment approach to feasibility
proposes that feasibility should be measured
throughout the life cycle.
• Feasibility Analysis Checkpoints:
• Systems Analysis — Preliminary Investigation
• Systems Analysis — Problem Analysis
• Systems Design — Decision Analysis
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Feasibility Analysis …
 Technical feasibility is a measure of the
practicality of a specific technical solution and the
availability of technical resources and expertise.
 Operational feasibility is a measure of how well
the solution will work in the organization. It is also
a measure of how people feel about the
system/project.
 Economic feasibility is a measure of the costeffectiveness of a project or solution.
 Schedule feasibility is a measure of how reasonable
the project timetable is.
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Cost-Benefit Analysis
Costs:
 Development costs are one time costs that will not recur
after the project has been completed.
 Operating costs are costs that tend to recur throughout the
lifetime of the system. Such costs can be classified as:
– Fixed costs — occur at regular intervals but at relatively fixed rates.
– Variable costs — occur in proportion to some usage factor.
Benefits:
 Tangible benefits are those that can be easily quantified.
 Intangible benefits are those benefits believed to be
difficult or impossible to quantify.
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Costs for a Proposed
Systems Solution
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Economic Feasibility
 Payback Analysis
– Payback analysis is to determine if and when an
investment will pay for itself.
– Payback period is the period of time that will lapse
before accrued benefits overtake accrued and continuing
costs.
 Net Present Value
– a dollar today is worth more than a dollar one year from
now
– Discount rate – a percentage that the business earns on
investing money in other projects or investments:
opportunity cost
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Economic Feasibility …
 Return-on-Investment (ROI) Analysis – a
technique that compares the lifetime profitability of
alternative solutions.
– ROI for a solution or project is a percentage rate that
measures the relationship between the amount the
business gets back from an investment and the amount
invested.
– Lifetime ROI =(estimated lifetime benefits –
estimated lifetime costs) / estimated lifetime costs
– Annual ROI = lifetime ROI / lifetime of the system
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Payback Analysis
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Net Present Value (NPV)
Analysis
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Candidate Systems Matrix
Characteristics
Candidate 1
Portion of System
Computerized
Brief description of that
portion of the system that
would be computerized in this
candidate.
COTS package from
Entertainment
Software Solutions
would be purchased
and customized to
satisfy required
functionality.
Benefits
Brief description of the
business benefits that would
be realized for this candidate.
This solution can be
implemented quickly
because it’s a
purchased solution.
Servers and Workstations
A description of the servers
and workstations needed to
support this candidate.
Technically
architecture dictates
Pentium III, MS
Windows 2000 class
servers and
workstations (clients).
Software Tools Needed
Software tools needed to
design and build the candidate
(e.g., database management
system, emulators, operating
systems, languages, etc.). Not
generally applicable if
applications software
packages are to be purchased.
MS Visual C++ and
MS Access for
customization of
package to provide
report writing and
integration.
IS 431 : Lecture 7
Candidate 2
Member Services and
warehouse operations
in relation to order
fulfillment.
Fully supports user
required business
processes for
SoundStage Inc. Plus
more efficient
interaction with
member accounts.
Candidate 3
Same as candidate 2.
Same as candidate 2.
Same as candidate 1.
Same as candidate 1.
MS Visual Basic 5.0
System Architect 2001
Internet Explorer
MS Visual Basic 5.0
System Architect 2001
Internet Explorer
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Candidate Systems Matrix …
Characteristics
Application Software
A description of the software
to be purchased, built,
accessed, or some
combination of these
techniques.
Candidate 1
Package solution
Output Devices and
Implications
A description of output
devices that would be used,
special output requirements,
(e.g., network, preprinted
forms, etc.), and output
considerations (e.g., timing
constratints)
Candidate 3
Custom solution
Same as candidate 2.
Client/Server
Method of Data Processing
Generally some combination
of: on-line, batch, deferred
batch, remote batch, and realtime.
Candidate 2
Same as candidate 1.
Same as candidate 1.
(2) HP4MV
department laser
printers
(2) HP5SI LAN laser
printers
(2) HP4MV
department laser
printers.
(2) HP5SI LAN laser
printers
(1) PRINTRONIX barcode printer (includes
software & drivers)
Same as candidate 2.
Web pages must be
designed to VGA
resolution. All internal
screens will be
designed for SVGA
resolution.
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Candidate Systems Matrix …
Characteristics
Input devices and
Implications
A description of input
methods to be used, input
devices (e.g., keyboard,
mouse, etc.), special input
requirements (e.g., new or
revised forms from which
data would be input), and
input considerations (e.g.,
timing of actual inputs).
Storage Devices and
Implications
Brief description of what
data would be stored, what
data would be accessed from
existing stores, what storage
media would be used, how
much storage capacity would
be needed, and how data
would be organized.
Candidate 1
Candidate 2
Candidate 3
Keyboard & mouse.
Apple “Quick Take”
digital camera and
software
(15) PSC Quickscan
laser bar-code
scanners
(1) HP Scanjet 4C
Flatbed Scanner
Keyboard and mouse
Same as candidate 2.
MS SQL Server
DBMS with 1000GB
arrayed capability.
Same as candidate 1.
Same as candidate 1.
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Feasibility Matrix
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Requirements Statement
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Project vs. Process
Management
Project Management is the process of scoping, planning,
staffing, organizing, directing, and controlling the
development of an acceptable system at a minimum cost
within a specified time frame.
Process Management is an ongoing activity that
documents, manages the use of, and improves an
organization’s chosen methodology (the “process”) for
system development. Process management is concerned
with the activities, deliverables, and quality standards to be
applied to all projects.
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Measures of Project
Success
– The resulting information system is
acceptable to the customer.
– The system was delivered “on time.”
– The system was delivered “within budget.”
– The system development process had a
minimal impact on ongoing business
operations.
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Poor Expectations
Management
Scope Creep – the unexpected and gradual
growth of requirements during an information
systems project.
Feature Creep– the uncontrolled addition of
technical features to a system.
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Causes of Project Failure
 Failure to establish upper-management commitment to the
project
 Lack of organization’s commitment to the system
development methodology
 Taking shortcuts through or around the system
development methodology
 Poor expectations management
 Premature commitment to a fixed budget and schedule
 Poor estimating techniques
 Overoptimism
 The mythical man-month (Brooks, 1975)
 Inadequate people management skills
 Failure to adapt to business change
 Insufficient resources
 Failure to “manage to the plan”
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Inter-task Dependencies
 Finish-to-start (FS)—The finish of one task
triggers the start of another task.
 Start-to-start (SS)—The start of one task triggers
the start of another task.
 Finish-to-finish (FF)—Two tasks must finish at the
same time.
 Start-to-finish (SF)—The start of one task signifies
the finish of another task.
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Task Splitting & Delaying
 Critical Path – the sequence of dependent tasks that
determines the earliest possible completion date of the
project.
– Tasks that are on the critical path cannot be delayed without
delaying the entire project schedule. To achieve resource
leveling, critical tasks can only be split.
 Slack Time – the amount of delay that can be tolerated
between the starting time and completion time of a task
without causing a delay in the completion date of the entire
project.
– Tasks that have slack time can be delayed to achieve resource
leveling
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PERT Chart
Project Initiation
5-3-2001
N/A
5-3-2001
N/A
Legend
Task
Scheduled Scheduled
Start
Finish
Actual
Actual Start
Finish
Preliminary Investigation
5-3-2001
5-12-2001
5-3-2001
5-11-2001
Problem Analysis
Task
Requirements Analysis
intertask
dependency
Scheduled Scheduled
Start
Finish
Actual
Actual Start
Finish
Decision Analysis
5-12-2001
6-12-2001
5-28-2001
7-15-2001
6-13-2001
7-30-2001
5-12-2001
6-14-2001
5-30-2001
7-18-2001
6-13-2001
8-3-2001
Design
Construction
7-3-2001
9-25-2001
7-19-2001
11-13-2001
7-5-2001
10-9-2001
7-20-2001
In Progress
Implementation
IS 431 : Lecture 7
9-10-2001
12-14-2001
TBD
TBD
22
Microsoft Project
PERT Chart
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Critical Path
TASK D
Duration
Tue 2/20/01 7 days
Tue 2/20/01 0 days
TASK A
TASK B
TASK C
TASK E
TASK I
Mon 2/5/01
3 days
Wed 2/7/01
2 days
Fri 2/9/01
2 days
Mon 2/19/01 6 days
Tue 2/27/01 5 days
Mon 2/5/01
0 days
Wed 2/7/01
0 days
Fri 2/9/01
0 days
Tue 2/20/01 1 day
Tue 2/27/01 0 days
TASK F
The critical
path is
highlighted
in red
TASK G
Wed 2/14/01 3 days
Fri 2/16/01
Fri 2/16/01
Tue 2/20/01 2 days
2 days
2 days
Slack Time
TASK H
Thu 2/15/01 1 day
Tue 2/20/01 3 days
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Gantt Chart
ID
Task Name
2001
May
1
Preliminary investigation
2
Problem analysis
3
Requirements analysis
4
Decision analysis
5
Design
6
Construction
7
Implementation
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Today
Complete Task
Legend
Incomplete Task
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Microsoft Project
Gantt Chart
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Scheduling Strategies
Forward Scheduling – a project scheduling
approach that establishes a project start date and
then schedules forward from that date.
Reverse Scheduling – a project scheduling strategy
that establishes a project deadline and then
schedules backward from that date.
IS 431 : Lecture 7
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