User-Centred Design:
The Design Process
(lecture 2)
Prof. dr. Matthias Rauterberg
Faculty Industrial Design
Technical University of Eindhoven
[email protected]
The Groupwork Themes:
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C2 next generation of a learning environment
FE environment of plants and factories
HC design of a home consumer product
OB (re)design of old and/or public buildings
PE environment for poor and moneyless people
PT design of a public transportation system
RE environment for recreation and entertainment
RP design of a recycable product
SE environment with sustainable energy resources
UW non-pollution urban environment with parks
WF design of a way finding system
WH integrated environment for working and living
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e
(N = 5)
(N = 8)
(N = 5)
(N = 5)
(N = 8)
(N = 7)
(N = 9)
(N = 5)
(N = 11)
(N = 7)
(N = 4)
(N = 3)
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Milestones for Groupwork:
• First:
organize regular group meetings
» once a week for 1-2 hours
• Second: collect material about your theme
» WHAT: newspapers, books, journals, internet
» WHERE: publisher, library (abstracts), museum, your PC
• Third:
present your preliminary results
» Thursday, 14 January 1999
» about 5 minutes for each group, 1-2 transparencies
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Two General Design Strategies
1.
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Five Design Characteristics
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Three Elementary Activities
– The complex activity called “designing”interconnects three constituent activities:
imaging, presenting,and testing/evaluation.
Two Types of Information
– Information used in designing tends to be useful in two ways: as a heuristic catalyst
for imaging and as a body of knowledge for testing.
Shifting Visions of Final Product
– Designers continually modify predictions about their final result in response to new
information and insight. The design process is thus a series of conceptual shifts or
creative leaps.
Toward a Domain of Acceptable Responses
– Designers aim to reach one acceptable response within a range of possible solutions.
This domain of acceptance is measured largely by how well a product is adapted to its
environment and how coherent constituent parts of the product are with one another.
Development through Linked Cycles: A Spiral Metaphor
– Conceptual shifts and product development in design occur as the result of repeated,
iterative movement through the three elementary design activities.
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The Spiral Model of Zeisel
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The Imaging-Present-Test Cycle
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The Spiral Model of Philips Design
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The Analysis-Creation-Evaluation Cycle
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The Three Levels of Abstractions
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What is User-Centred Design?
• ...based on expertise:
• ...based on participation:
– state-of-the-art
knowledge for the
design
– end-user involvement in
analysis, design and
evaluation
– expert as a designer
– expert as a moderator
– models of users
– real users
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Why is User-Centred Design necessary?
• decreased time to
market
• reduced costs
• rapid development
• innovative and
usable products
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Relationship between Effort and Costs
• Fixing an error in the early
product development phase
costs about 2-10 $
• Fixing an error in the late
product development phase
costs about 500-1000 $
• Conclusion:
the more effort at the
beginning,
the less cost at the end!
(ref.: Barry Boehm, Software Engineering Economics. 1981, Englewood Cliffs, ISBN 3-7719-6301-X)
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Conceptual Model-I
user participation
system success
empirical results:
4 s tudies " support ",
2 s tudies " mix ",
2 s tudies " not supported
"
Conceptual Model-II
user participation
system success
situational conditions
empirical results:
3 studies " support ",
0 studies " mix ",
1 studies " not supported
empirical results:
3 studies " support ",
1 studies " mix ",
0 studies " not supported
"
"
Conceptual Model-III
user participation
system success
situational conditions
(ref.: Lei Lei, User participation and the success of information system development, 1994, ISBN 90-5170-285-X)
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e
empirical results:
2 studies " support ",
0 studies " mix ",
1 studies " not supported
empirical results:
1 studies " support ",
1 studies " mix ",
1 studies " not supported
empirical results:
0 studies " support ",
3 studies " mix ",
0 studies " not supported
14
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What are the barriers for knowledge integration?
• discipline oriented mind set
• different “languages”
• naive “user-models”
• users as domain experts
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How to achieve User-Centred Design?
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User Involvement in the Product Creation Process
• Users can become involved in a direct and productive way right through
the design process--from the very start until the design is finally complete.
• The video from Philips Corporate Design demonstrates the work of the
Applied Ergonomics Group of Philips Corporate Design. Clips from real
evaluations are used to demonstrate just of the range of methods used by
the group. Those shown methods are:
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Field Studies
User Workshops
Interviews
Private Camera Conversations
Think Aloud Protocols
Experiments
• First hand experience of users opinions and attitudes is essential in the
process of creating useful, usable products that will
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User-Centred Design: design principles