Chapter 12:
Advanced
Operating Systems
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0
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Purpose of this Presentation
To provide to instructors an overview of Chapter 12:
 List of chapter objectives
 Overview of the chapter contents, including
student worksheets
student activities
student labs
 Reflection/Activities for instructors to complete to
prepare to teach
 Additional resources
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Chapter 12 Objectives
 12.1 Select the appropriate operating system based on
customer needs
 12.2 Install, configure, and optimize an operating
system
 12.3 Describe how to upgrade operating systems
 12.4 Describe preventive maintenance procedures for
operating systems
 12.5 Troubleshoot operating systems
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Chapter 12 Worksheets, Activities, and Labs
 12.1.2 Activity: Network Protocols
 12.2.2 Lab: Advanced Installation of Windows XP
 12.2.3 Lab: Create a Partition in Windows XP Pro
 12.2.4 Lab: Customize Virtual Memory Settings
 12.2.5 Lab: Install an Alternate Browser (Optional)
 12.2.6 Activity: E-Mail Protocols
 12.4.1 Lab: Schedule Task Using GUI and at Command
 12.5.3 Lab: Fix an Operating System Problem
 12.5.3 Remote Technician: Fix an Operating System
Problem
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Brands and Versions of Operating Systems
 Various brands of operating systems
Microsoft Windows
Apple Mac OS
UNIX and Linux
 Several versions or distributions
Windows 2000 Professional
Windows XP Home, Professional or Media Center Editions
Windows Vista Home Basic, Business and Premium Editions
 Compare OS versions or editions to find the best one
for your customer
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Select the Appropriate Operating System
 Select hardware that meets or exceeds the minimum
requirements for the OS
Remote
Desktop
Network
Sharing
Scalable
CPU
Support
EFS
Support
Enhanced
Security
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
No
YES
No
No
No
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
Add-On
YES
YES
YES
YES
Microsoft
Windowsxp
Professional
Microsoft
Windowsxp
Home Edition
Microsoft
Windowsxp
Media Center Edition
Microsoft
Windows2000
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Operating Systems Capabilities
 An operating system is the interface between the user
and the computer.
Provides a bridge between the hardware and applications
Creates a file system to store data
Manages applications
Interprets user commands
 Operating systems have minimum requirements for
hardware.
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Network Operating System (NOS)
 A network operating system (NOS) is an operating
system that contains additional features to increase
functionality and manageability in a networked
environment.
 Examples of network operating systems:
Windows 2000 Server
Windows 2003 Server
UNIX
Linux
Novell NetWare
Mac OS X
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Server NOS
The NOS is designed to provide network resources to
clients:
 Server applications, such as shared databases
 Centralized data storage
 Directory services that provide a centralized repository
of user accounts and resources on the network, such
as LDAP or Active Directory
 Network print queue
 Network access and security
 Redundant storage systems, such as RAID and
backups
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Network Protocols
Network operating systems provide several protocols
designed to perform network functions.
Defines how files are exchanged on the web
Provides services for file transfer and manipulation
Retrieves e-mail messages from an e-mail server
Resolves URLs for websites to their IP addresses
Automates assignment of IP addresses
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Install, Configure, and Optimize an OS
To install Windows XP Professional:
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Insert the installation CD

An installation wizard asks a series of questions

The wizard completes the installation automatically
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Default and Custom Installations
 A default installation requires minimal user interaction.
 A custom installation allows the user to customize the
regional settings and the network settings.
 The technician can automate and customize a Windows
XP Pro installation to include the following features:
Productivity applications, such as Microsoft Office
Custom applications
Support for multiple languages
OS Deployment Feature Pack
using Microsoft Systems
Management Server (SMS)
Hardware device drivers
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Windows XP Custom Install Methods
 Unattended installation from a network distribution
point using an answer file.
 Image-based installation using Sysprep and a diskimaging program, which copies an image of the
operating system directly to the hard drive with no user
intervention.
 Remote installation using Remote Installation
Services (RIS), which can download the installation
across the network.
 OS Deployment Feature Pack using Microsoft
Systems Management Server (SMS), which can
dramatically simplify deployment of an operating
system across the organization.
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Disk Structure
Create, view, and manage disks, directories, and files
 Types of partitions on a hard drive:
Primary partitions
Extended partitions
Logical drives
 NOTE: Only one partition may be designated as the
active partition for booting the system.
 In most cases, the C: drive is the active partition and
contains the boot and system files.
 Additional partitions can be created as needed for
organizing files or dual-booting.
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Disk Management Utility
Create, view, and manage disks, directories, and files
 Used to display information and perform services such
as partitioning and formatting disks in Windows
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File Systems of Windows XP
Create, view, and manage disks, directories, and files
 Partitions are formatted with a file system. Two file
systems available in Windows XP:
FAT32
NTFS - greater stability and security features
 The type of file system, NTFS or FAT32, provides the
rules that files within each directory must follow.
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File Extensions
Create, view, and manage disks, directories, and files
 Windows file systems require at least three characters
after the last period (.) of a file extension
Valid file name:
My_file.txt
Invalid file name:
My_file.xt
 By default, Windows does not display the file extension
This practice can cause security problems
Some viruses are executable files disguised as a nonexecutable file
 To avoid this security breach, you should always show
file extensions:
Start > Control Panel > Folder Options > File Types tab >
Advanced > Always show extension
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System Tools
Optimize the performance of operating systems
To maintain and optimize an
operating system:
 Disk error checking which can
scan the hard drive for file
structure errors
 Hard drive defragmentation
consolidates files for faster
access
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Virtual Memory
Optimize the performance of operating systems
 Swap file uses free space on the hard drive to
temporarily store segments of an application or data
 The OS uses the swap file to mimic RAM
 To adjust the size of the swap file, you must be logged
in as an administrator
 Typically, you should let Windows manage the size of
the swap file
 Increasing the size of the swap space is not always
helpful and may slow down the computer
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Virtual Memory Settings in Windows XP
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Disk Defragmenter
Optimize the performance of operating systems
 Disk Defragmenter makes files on the hard drive
contiguous and speeds up the reading of files.
 To defragment a drive
Double-click My Computer on the desktop
Right-click the drive that you want to optimize
Choose Properties. On the Tools tab, click Defragment Now
 Temporary Files are used by many programs
Are designed to be automatically deleted later
Some must be deleted manually. Check these locations:
C:\temp, C:\tmp, C:\windows\temp, C:\windows\tmp,
C:\documents and settings\%USERPROFILE%\local
settings\temp
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Services
Optimize the performance of operating systems
 Services are a type of application that runs in the
background and waits for requests
Only necessary services should be started
Services may be enabled if clients need them
Services may be stopped for troubleshooting purposes
 Four settings, or states, used to control services:
Automatic - Starts when the PC starts
Manual - Administrator must enable or disable the service
Disabled - Administrator may disable or stop a service
Stopped - The state of a service that has been disabled
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Optimize Web Browser and Email
Optimize the performance of browsers
 Web browsers and e-mail
Typically the most-used applications
Optimizing them should increase the computer’s performance
 Microsoft’s Internet Explorer (IE), general settings:
Change the homepage and browser appearance
 View or delete the information saved by the browser:
History
Cookies are information transmitted between a
Temporary files
web browser and a web server with the purpose of
Cookies
tracking user information to customize the page
Passwords
delivered
to the user.
Web-form information
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Internet Explorer Browser Options
To access these
settings:
 Open an IE window
 Go to Tools menu
 Select Internet
Options
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Caching in a Web Browser
 Caching is a feature of the web browser
Speeds up access to previously visited websites
IE copies the images or the HTML files of visited sites
Files are retrieved from the local cache rather than downloaded
 Cached files may become outdated or large. Adjustable
settings are:
Refresh at every visit to the page
Refresh every time you start IE
Refresh automatically
Never refresh
 To access the cached settings in IE:
Tools > Internet Options > General tab > Temporary Internet
Files > click Settings
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Configure Email Client Software
Use the following information to set up an email
account in the email client software:
 Display name
 E-mail address
 Type of incoming mail server
(POP3 or IMAP)
 Incoming mail server name
 Outgoing mail server name
 Username
 Account password
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Email Protocols
 Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3)
Downloads email from a server to manipulate and store on local
computer.
 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
Accesses email on a server to manipulate and store on the
server.
User can also decide to download the email to local computer.
 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Sends text-only email across a TCP/IP network and is, normally,
used with POP3 or IMAP.
 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
Transmits audio, video, pictures, word processor documents,
applications.
Normally, used in conjunction with SMTP.
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Set Display Properties
Set screen resolution and update video driver
 Screen resolution
Determines the number of pixels displayed. A higher number of
pixels will display a better picture.
 Refresh rate
The rate the screen image is refreshed. Refresh rates are
measured in Hertz (Hz) or times per second.
 Display colors
Colors created by varying the light intensity of the three basic
colors.
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Upgrade the Video Driver
 The Windows default video driver may work, but may not
provide all performance options.
 To upgrade the driver:
Download most recent driver
Remove the current driver
Disable anti-virus software
Install the new driver
Enable anti-virus software
Restart the computer
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Troubleshoot Video Driver Issues
Set screen resolution and update video driver
 Troubleshooting problems after installing video driver
Example: After performing the graphical performance steps and
restart the computer, you are unable to view the screen.
 To investigate the problem and restore the settings:
Reboot the computer again
During the boot phase, use the F8 key
Enter the boot options when prompted
Select the Enable VGA Mode to boot using a 640 x 480
resolution
 Once the operating system is loaded:
Select Roll Back Driver from graphics card Properties
Research possible driver issues
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Dual-Boot Process
Installation of a second operating system
 There is a dual-boot process for multiple operating
systems on a computer.
 During the dual-boot process:
The boot.ini file indicates that more than one OS is present
You are prompted to choose the OS that you want to load
 To create a dual-boot system in Microsoft Windows:
More than one hard drive or a hard drive with more than one
partition
Install the oldest OS on the primary partition or the hard drive
marked with an active partition
Install the second OS on the second partition or hard drive
The boot files are automatically installed in the active partition
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The boot.ini File
Installation of a second operating system
 During installation, the boot.ini file is created on the
active partition to allow choice of OS to boot.
 boot.ini can be edited to change
the order of the operating systems
the length of time to select an OS (default is 30 seconds)
 To edit the boot.ini file:
Right-click My Computer > Properties > Advanced Tab. In the
Startup and Recovery area, select Settings. Click Edit.
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Upgrading Operating Systems
Describe how to upgrade operating systems
 Operating systems must be upgraded periodically
To remain compatible with the latest hardware and software
Because support for older OS is eventually withdrawn
 A Windows XP upgrade can be performed from a CD or
over a network
 Ensure that the new OS is compatible with the
computer
Use Microsoft Upgrade Advisor to scan the system for
incompatibility issues before upgrading
Upgrade Advisor is free and downloadable from the Microsoft
Windows website
 Backup all data prior to beginning the upgrade
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Preventive Maintenance for OS
 Automating scheduled
updates
 Installing service packs
 Using Restore Points if
necessary to restore the
system to a previous
state
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Schedule Automatic Tasks and Updates
Scheduled Tasks utility is a Windows-based GUI utility.
Use the Scheduled Tasks utility to automate:
 Disk cleanup
 Backup
 Disk defragmenter
 Starting other applications
To open the Scheduled Tasks wizard:
 Select Start > All Programs > Accessories >
System Tools > Scheduled Tasks
 Double-click Add Scheduled Task
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Schedule Automatic Tasks and Updates
CLI automatic updates in the command line.
 Use the at command to automatically schedule a
command, a script file, or an application to run at a
specific date and time.
 To use the at command, you must be logged in as a
member of the Administrators group.
 To learn more about the at command, choose Start >
Run. At the CLI prompt, type cmd, and then press
Return. At the command prompt, type at/?
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Automatically Update Windows XP
Schedule automatic tasks and updates
 Settings to choose from regarding Windows XP
updates:
Automatic (need to specify a date and time)
Download updates for me, but let me choose when to install
them
Notify me but don't automatically download or install them
Turn off Automatic Updates
 To access Automatic Updates:
Select Start > Control Panel > double-click Automatic
Updates
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Restore Points
Set restore points
 Restore points return the OS to a predefined point in
time.
 If installation of an application or a hardware driver
causes problems, try uninstalling the application or
driver
 If uninstalling does not help, try to restore the computer
to an earlier time when the system worked properly
 To access the System Restore utility:
Select Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools >
System Restore
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Windows XP Restore Points
Set restore points
 Windows XP may create restore points:
When an install or upgrade takes place
Every 24 hours, if the computer is running
Manually, at any time
 Restore points contain information about the system
and registry settings used by the Windows OS.
 System restore does not back up personal data files
or recover corrupted or deleted personal files.
 To backup data, use a dedicated backup system,
such as a tape drive, CDs, or even a USB storage
device.
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Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Gather data from the customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer
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Level-one Technician Gathers Data
Step 1: Gather data from the customer
 Description of problem by the level-one helpdesk
technician:
Customer cannot surf the Internet or access any network
resources.
Customer can login to the network using other computers.
Customer has verified that their username, password, and
domain name are correct.
 The helpdesk technician was unable to resolve the
problem, so the work order is escalated to a level-two
technician.
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Level-two Technician Gathers Data
Step 1: Gather data from the customer
 Level-two technician asks open-ended questions:
Which specific network resources are you trying to access with
your desktop computer?
Are there any network resources that you can access?
When were you last able to access the network from your
desktop?
 Level-two technician draws these conclusions:
In the office, no resources can be accessed.
When using the modem to connect, no problems are
experienced.
The problems started just after a new update was installed.
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Level-two Technician Gathers Data
Step 1: Gather data from the customer
 Technician asks closed-ended questions:
Is your network cable plugged in?
Does anyone else have this problem?
Have you changed your password recently?
Have you received any error messages on your computer?
 Technician gets this information:
Customer's computer experiences unexpected errors.
Customer reports an on-screen error regarding the OS; unsure of
details.
 Technician draws these conclusions:
Focus on an operating system problem.
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Verify the Obvious Issues
Step 2: Verify the obvious issues
Technician asks some general questions and some
related to the functioning of the OS:
 Is the power turned on?
 Has any software been added or upgraded?
 Has any hardware been added or removed?
 Is the NIC link light on?
 Is the NIC listed in the Device Manager as a properly
working device?
 Do the mouse and keyboard work?
 Have any cables been added or disconnected?
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Conclusions from Checking the Obvious
Step 2: Verify the obvious issues
 Technician gets this information:
The computer can connect successfully by modem.
The computer cannot connect to any network resources.
Other computers can access network resources.
All cables are connected properly.
There is no link light on the NIC.
 Technician draws these conclusions:
Problem may be a bad cable, bad NIC, or a driver problem.
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Quick Solutions
Step 3: Try quick solutions first
 Technician tries these quick solutions:
Reboot
Install a known good network cable to this computer
Boot in safe mode using the F8 menu
Boot to last known good configuration using the F8 menu
Boot from startup disk
Ensure IP address information is correct for this computer
 Technician follows these best practices:
Documents results of each solution tried
Undo failed solutions before trying the next solution
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Gather Data from the Computer
Step 4: Gather data from the computer
 Technician gathers data:
Repeats some of the tests done by the level-one technician.
To look for OS problems, technician examines system files and
runs diagnostic software.
 Technician gets this information:
An automatic system update was performed recently.
 Conclusion:
The update may be causing the problem.
 Technician takes this action:
Ask customer to look for restore points at the time of the
update.
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Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
Step 5: Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
 Technician records these notes:
Computer worked on Tuesday, but not on Wednesday.
Automatic system update ran at midnight Tuesday.
Restore points were automatically created prior to the
installation of the update.
 Technician decides on a solution:
Restore the computer to the state it was in before the automatic
system update ran on the computer.
 Technician takes this action:
Ask customer to use the System Restore application.
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Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
Step 5: Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
 Customer takes this action:
Chooses “Restore my computer to an earlier time” option.
Chooses the restore point created before the update was installed.
Reboots computer.
 Results of the solution:
Computer operates normally.
 Likely cause of the problem:
A patch that was installed through an automatic update disabled
network connectivity.
 To prevent the problem from occurring again:
Set Automatic Updates to require permission of the network
administrator or the user.
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System Restore Point Screens
Step 5: Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
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Close with the Customer
Step 6: Close with the customer
 Technician discusses results with customer:
If possible, verbally verify the solution with the customer.
If possible, allow customer to demonstrate that the repair has
solved the problem.
If customer is not available, technician should inform the
customer of the work that was performed.
 If the solution is acceptable, the technician can finish
the documentation and close the work order.
 Documentation should include:
A restatement of the problem
Steps taken in the troubleshooting process, and the solution
Time needed to solve the problem
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Closed Work Order
Step 6: Close with the customer
 Make two copies of
the final work order
and documentation
One for the customer
One for the technician
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Common Problems and Solutions
Problem Symptom
Possible Solution
You have a dual-boot system, but you
are unable to access the second
operating system.
Make sure the boot.ini is not corrupt and
verify that it is correct.
A screen goes blank after you install an
updated graphics driver.
If the new driver is bad, boot to VGA mode
and use Roll Back Driver to restore the
previous driver.
A customer plans to install Windows XP
on 100 computers in a branch office over
a weekend, but is very concerned about
how much time it will take.
Advise the customer that the installation
CD will take too long. Consult with
customer about one of the automated
installation solutions.
The customer is receiving warnings
about the hard drive becoming too full.
Run the Disk Cleanup utility to delete
temporary files.
A customer receives error messages
that an application will not launch
because a required service is not
running.
Ask the customer for the name of the
service in the error message and restart
the service.
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Fix an Operating System Problem
 Now that you understand the troubleshooting process, it
is time to apply your listening and diagnostic skills.
 The first lab is designed to reinforce your skills with the
operating system. You will check restore points before
and after using Windows Update.
 The second lab is designed to reinforce your
communication and troubleshooting skills. This lab
includes the following steps:
Receive the work order
Research the problem
Take the customer through various steps to try and resolve the
problem
Document the problem and the resolution
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Chapter 12 Summary
 Ensuring that you understand the technology needs of
the customer
 Knowing the differences between common operating
systems
 Matching the customer needs to the proper technologies
 Knowing the different methods to install an operating
system
 Knowing how to upgrade different operating systems
 Understanding how preventive maintenance can avoid
problems
 Knowing which preventive maintenance procedures are
appropriate for the customer
 Knowing how to troubleshoot operating system problems
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Instructor
Training
Activities
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Activities for Instructor Training
1. Take the Quiz provided in Chapter 12 course content.
2. Complete the 2 activities, 1 worksheet and 6 labs
included in Chapter 12. While you are completing
these, make notes of potential issues and questions
that students may have.
3. Show examples of the AT command. The generic
form of the command may be difficult to understand.
4. Make the troubleshooting section into an interactive
problem-solving discussion with instructors, rather
than a one-way presentation.
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Instructor Training Discussion

ITE PC v4.0
Chapter 5
Share and discuss with the other instructors, your
list of any potential student issues and questions
regarding the activities and labs.
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Q and A
ITE PC v4.0
Chapter 5
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ITE PC v4.0
Chapter 5
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Before You Begin: Assign Information Classification