Alison Leonard, Doctoral Research Student,
Development Education Research Centre, Institute of Education, London
Focus from the South
Background
Research sub-questions
 Numerous pupils, teachers
1.
and others have participated
in school linking projects in
Northern and Southern
schools. My research seeks to
understand how the linking
process affects those at the
Southern end of these
relationships.
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
2.
3.
4.
5.
How do teachers use links in
teaching and learning?
How do partnerships explore
the United Nations'
Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs)?
How are knowledge and
understanding affected?
How are local Southern
communities affected by the
S/NELP?
To what extent is the S/NEL a
sustainable process?
Development Issues?
Over-simplification?
This presentation reports:
 As a geography classroom
 Analysis of my qualitative
teacher of the topic of
development (and observer
of others' teaching) I am very
conscious of the risk of oversimplification of complex
geographical concepts.
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
research in Ghanaian,
Ugandan and Tanzanian
schools.
 How this research could
promote critical thinking
about some of the complex
development issues which
can emerge from linking
relationships.
How do teachers use links in
teaching and learning?
 Addressing complexity, understanding interdependence
and learning to question and use different modes of
thinking may help learners see themselves as integral to
the picture they are trying to change (both as part of
the problem and the solution) and prevent the
reproduction of mechanisms that generate or maintain
the problems that are addressed.
http://www.osdemethodology.org.uk/developmented
ucation.html
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
How does the S/NELP explore the
United Nations' MDGs? Ghana
 So I would say that the empowering women, we’ve been
able, it’s boosted the capabilities. We are able to stand
out. And this linkage, with being here, I’ve come to
realise that even though there are a few boys here, the
girls are able to stand firm on their decisions… not
allowing the boys to pursue them downwards
(PFG 206-209)
 The UK secondary school has boys in its Sixth form.
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
How does the S/NELP explore the
United Nations' MDGs? Ghana
MDG3
Gender equality
 RM
Ghanaian culture
sidelines the girl child from
getting educated, from getting
full education. They prefer the
male child going to school. But
with this girl child education
advocates all over the place and
with this Tortibo project most
students, most girls, or most
parents now understand the
relevance of education. And its
helping to promote . . .
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
How does the S/NELP explore
MDG 3? Gender Equality
 …Gender equality and empowering women. . . .Yeah,
which eventually eradicates poverty and hunger.
Because if women are in good jobs they can work, they
can help support their families and the trend will
change.
(RM 189-198)
Image of grasscutter in a cage
removed for copyright reasons.
View the image here:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/busine
ss/4864714.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/
4864714.stm
http://www.agfax.net/radio/detail.ph
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GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
How does the S/NELP explore
MDG 3? Gender Equality
Visitor Exchanges
+ Female educational
aspirations
 I’m not too sure that any of the
 So they wouldn’t really want to
students from Krobo Girls would
want to end up in the streets or
selling something, when we see
the Weald students come: the
way they talk, the, the way they
present themselves generally, the
way they are able to express
themselves the students there are
in my school are also motivated
to do the same things.
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
drop out of school. Then when
they go home they tend to maybe
tell their friends, who are not
interested in schooling, they tend
to advise them to maybe worry
their parents to send them to
school. So I think this
partnership is also helping to get
more girls or more of us
interested in schooling.
(PFG, 246-256)
How do teachers use links in
teaching and learning? Uganda
 When the John Kyrle teachers come here they take
lessons and the teachers here attend those lessons. And,
there is that interaction, there is that learning from one
another, and also, some teachers have been trained.
 Actually, one of our teachers for the Special Needs
section, we have a Special Needs section, in our school
we have a few blind students and blind teachers, so one
of the blind teachers was sponsored for a six month’s
course in the UK and when he came back he was able to
work better in his department (DB, 42-47)
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
How should the North help the
South?
How do we
address
contrasting
values when
they conflict
with our sense
of social justice?
Complex geographical
concepts emerging in a
S/N Educational linking
relationship
HOW are resources
shared at a global
scale
Should the South aspire to
emulate the North?
How can the gap
between N and S be
closed?
How might the North aspire
to emulate the South?
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
How do teachers use links in
teaching and learning? Uganda
Development Gaps
Teachers’ misconceptions
 Should the South aspire to
 At times teachers may think




emulate the North?
How might the North aspire
to emulate the South?
How can the gap between N
and S be closed?
How should the North help
the South?
HOW are resources shared at
a global scale?
life in England is so good, is
so what? But when they go
out and they see some of the
difficulties they also face they
can come back and organise
the problems they have and
the challenges they meet. (P,
61-63)
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
How do teachers use links in
teaching and learning? Zanzibar
Raising aspirations
Comparison and aspiration
 A Head teacher’s interview
 So, instead of being disappointed,
they get the morality of what they
are to do and that is why even our
results are becoming better and
responses:
 100408_012.mp3
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
better. Because they compare
themselves, that: oh, this is not
enough, we have to be so and so and
so. So, before going to visit our
friends in England, our result to go
to Form V, that is Advanced Level,
was one student or two children in a
year, but now we are going to twenty
children and twenty five students.
(MK, 261-266)
Over-simplification of Development
Issues?
From the S/NELP
Critical thinking
 Closing the global N/S gap
 Why does this gap exist?
 The South can emulate the
 Is there one route to
North and attain MEDC
status
 Social justice issues have
simple solutions- for
example, girls’ rights to
equality is a universal
aspiration
 Global resource differences
can be addressed through Aid
‘Development’ or several
models?
 Social justice themes, such as
gender equality and attitudes
to sexual orientation need to
be explored in context
specific settings
 Some Aid can create new
inequalities in the South
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
Promoting critical thinking?
From the S/NELP
Teacher responses?
 Why do ‘gaps’ exist?
 Own knowledge developed
 Is there one route to
 Challenging accepted
‘Development’ or several
models?
 Social justice themes, such as
gender equality and attitudes
to sexual orientation need to
be explored in context
specific settings
 Some Aid can create new
inequalities in the South
orthodoxies: “Turn It Upside
Down?”
 Intercultural education and
critical discourse: sitting with
uncomfortable, unsettling,
confrontational discussions
and creating “Safe spaces”
 Attitudes to educational
improvement?
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
Tortibo Kindergarten
http://www.discoverghana.co.uk/index_files/Page413.html
The school link environment can be a major factor in influencing
attitudes either way. Teachers need to be aware of the messages they
are giving to children. Teaching about other cultures does not
necessarily address negative attitudes. (Wood, 2006)
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
How are local Southern communities
affected? Ghana
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
How do local Southern communities
benefit? Ghana
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
How are local Southern communities
affected? Zanzibar, Tanzania
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
How do local Southern communities
benefit? Zanzibar, Tanzania
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
To what extent is S/NEL a
sustainable process?
Issues
Challenges
 Time-scale
 How important is the link?
 Funding
 Grants vs fund-raising?
 Personnel
 Committee vs coordinator
 Commitment
 Competing educational
 Communication
agenda
 Uncomfortable realities?
 More uncomfortable
realities?
 Exit strategies
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
Any questions?
Your question +
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
How are knowledge and
understanding affected?
 Promoting critical
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
thinking … equality?
 Challenging stereotypes
in “Safe Spaces”
 Whose values:
Advancement and
progress?
 Slides 16 and 17:
http://www.osdemethodology.org.uk/
units/secondary/tribal.htm
How do teachers use links in
teaching and learning? Uganda
Visitor Exchanges
Reciprocity and equality?
 We expected Exchange Visits,
 We have just checked on our visas this
morning. Sorry to inform you that we
have not been granted visas. They recon
that we are not genuine as exchange
visitors and they believe that we would
not return to Uganda. They also claim
that we shall not be able to afford our
return flight and that our host will not
sustain us through the days stated for the
visit! Am indeed surprised given the
paperwork that we presented to them.
They even think we are not teachers even
after documentation from the schools
and pay slips.
between Nakigo and Lady
Hawkins. You know it is a onesided affair, because the students
and teachers in Nakigo may not
be able to afford an air-ticket to
go to Lady Hawkins, and so I
think that one has been lacking,
in that we have not been able to
get either the teachers or the
students visiting, to make a
return visit to UK.
 E-mail 06/11
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
 DB 84-87
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
Thanks to those at:
 Kisiki College, Namutumba, Uganda
 Krobo Girls Senior Secondary School, Odumase-
Krobo, Ghana
 Makunduchi Secondary School, Makunduchi,
Zanzibar, Tanzania
 Nakigo Senior Secondary School, Iganga, Uganda
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012
References:
GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference,
Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012: “The South-North Educational Linking Process (S/NELP): Comparing Southern perspectives”
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Ash, C and Severs, P. (2004), “Do you ask a hungry man if he wants food?”, School Science Review, 86,
pp43-47
Bourn, D. and Bain, M. (2011) Impact of School Linking on the Global South- Case Study of Uganda,
London, Link Community Development/Institute of Education
Edge, K., Frayman, K., and Lawrie, J. (2009) ‘The Influence of North-South School Partnerships:
Examining the evidence from schools in the UK, Africa and Asia’. London: Institute of Education.
GA (2007) Primary Geographer: Focus on School Partnerships and Global Dimension Geographical
Association.
Lambert, D and Morgan, J. (2011) Geography and Development: Development education in schools and
the part played by geography teachers, Development Education Research Centre Research Paper No.2,
London: DERC Institute of Education
Leonard, A (2008) ‘Global school relationships: school linking and modern challenges’ in Bourn, (ed.)
Development Education: Debates and dialogues. London: Institute of Education
Leonard, A. (2012) A Southern Perspective on The South/North Educational Linking process
(S/NELP). Early stage analysis from Zanzibar. Accessible via website Click after org in hyperlink to open.
Martin, F. (2007) ‘School Linking: A Controversial Issue’, in Claire, H. and Holden, C. (eds.) The
challenge of teaching controversial issues, Stoke-On-Trent: Trentham Books
Martin, F. (2009) Children's Voices and Global School Partnerships, GTE presentation,
http://www.geography.org.uk/gtip/gteconferences/gteconference09
Wood, S (2006) Learning from Linking’ in Tide~ Talk
http://www.tidec.org/Tide~talk/network%20arts/distant-places.html
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