Chronology from the Gilded Age to the
1920s
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Try to guess the answer
Remember, if it is italicized, know it well; if it is in bold,
know it really well
1877-1896
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Corruption during
Gilded Age—give
examples
BossTweed=Tammany;
Credit Mobilier;
Whiskey Ring; Sec.
War Belnap=bribes
1880s
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Name is “ism”: Chinese Exclusion Act (’82);
American Protective Assoc. (’87) vs.
Catholics/foreigners
Nativism
1881
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Helen Hunt Jackson writes about
mistreatment of Indians; starts reform
movement—name the book
A Century of Dishonor
1883
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Ends spoils system; begins civil service (what,
not who, you know to get a job)—name the
act
Pendleton Act
1886
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States can’t regulate railroads; leads to
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887—name the
Supreme Court case
Wabash v. Illinois (1886) Case
1887
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Civilize Indians; give
them 160 acres; end
reservation system;
reform plan fails -name the act
Dawes Severalty Act
1869 on
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Wyoming Terr. grants
women vote in ’69;
other West states follow;
SE U.S. lags
Answer: Women’s
Suffrage in West
1840s-1940s
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Plains Indian way of life destroyed; Buffalo
grass removed for crops makes land ripe for
“dust bowl” in times of drought; contaminated
H2O sources—what are we talking about
here
Environmental impacts of western settlement
1893
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“Significance of Frontier” =
the frontier promoted
certain personality traits—
practical, inventive, restless,
individualistic, all of which
helped to create the
American character. Name
the author of this thesis and
name the thesis.
Frederick Jackson Turner
and the Frontier Thesis
1880s on
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Companies join to
create monopolistic
combines to control
trade/commerce
Trusts
1873, 84, 93
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Business failures every decade;
unemployment; strikes; labor strife
Panics or recessions
1880s, 90s
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More crops=lower prices; farmers want
inflation and railroad regulation
Farmers’ problems
1890
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To prevent combinations in restraint of trade;
1st used against striking workers—name the
act
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890s, 1892
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“free silver”, initiative, referendum, direct elec.
of sen., rr ownership, income tax—name the
“ism”
Populism
1896
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Democrats ’96; Bryan,
Cross of Gold; inflation
to help farmers; lost this
one to Republicans—
name the issue
Free Silver
1896
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“Separate but equal” is
OK says USSC;
sanctions Jim Crow;
Brown(1954)
reverses—name the
Supreme Court case
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896
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McKinley for gold standard and high tariff
beats Bryan; farmers lose
Election of 1896
1850s on
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Process to make steel;
U.S. becomes industrial
giant; Masabi Iron Ore
range—name the
process
Bessemer process
1880s on
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Rockefeller buys out competition, controls oil
industry; robber baron; trust—name the
“integration”
Horizontal integration
1880s on
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Carnegie controls all phases of production,
from mine to finished steel—name the kind of
“integration”
Vertical Integration
1886 on
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Strong craft unions;
more conservative;
Samuel Gompers =
leader 1886-1924—
name the union
American Federation of
Labor
1869-1890s
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Early labor union; blamed for Haymarket Riot
of 1886—declines thereafter
Knights of Labor
1886
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Chicago; anarchist bomb; Knights of Labor
blamed; labor loses—name the riot
Haymarket Riot
1892
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Carnegie Steel Works; governor crushes
strike with many troops; labor loses-name the
strike
Homestead Strike
1894
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American Railway
Workers/Eugene V.
Debs; U.S. troops used;
labor loses—name the
strike
Pullman Strike
1830s on
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Name some
technological
improvements in
industry from the 1830s
on
sew mach, lights,
typewriter, telephone,
elevator, assembly line
= rise in business
1899
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Andrew Carnegie;
wealthy must share
money to help
society—name the idea
or philosophy
Gospel of Wealth
1900s
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Walter Rauschenbusch; Hell’s Kitchen (NY);
must help the poor; Sheldon=WWJD—name
the idea or philosophy
Social Gospel
1880s
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Survival of fittest
applied to society; poor
deserve it; savage
defense of wealth—
name the “ism”
Social Darwinism
1900s
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African Americans, unions, socialists,
Progressives, feminists, writers want
change—name them in general
Social critics and dissenters
1890-1920
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Jews, Italians, Croats,
Greeks, Poles, Slovaks;
cheap labor; nativist
reaction
Immigration largely
from Eastern and
Southeastern Europe
1890
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Jacob Riis; book on dirt,
disease, vice, and
misery of the ratinfested slums in
NYC—name the book
How the Other Half
Lives
Early 1900s
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Name some City problems
Slums; machine politics/corruption;
water/sewer problems; gangs/crime
1890s on
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Settlement house; kids
day care; English
classes; cultural
activities; reformist—
name the woman and
the name of the house
she founded
Hull House = Jane
Addams
1900 or so
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Culture and entertainment—name some isms
and forms of entertainment
Socialism, progressivism, pragmatism;
baseball, football, circus, vaudeville
1890-1914
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Fanatical patriotism;
big-navy advocates;
support Sp-Amer War
and expansion—name
the “ism”
Jingoism
1890s
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Yellow journalism=lurid
headlines/little regard
for truth/circulation
war/NYC—name the
two newspaper
publishers
Jos. Pulitzer/Will. Rand
Hearst
1890
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Capt. Alfred Thayer
Mahan’s book prompts
desire for big navy;
jingoism—name the
book
Influence of Sea Power
Upon History
1898
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Maine; Hearst/Pulitzer;
free Cuba; keep
Philippines, Guam,
Puerto Rico; empire—
name the war
Spanish-American War
1898-1902
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Filipino leader vs. U.S.
occupation; savage war
for few years; leader
captured—name the
leader
Aguinaldo
1898
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Formed to oppose
keeping Philippines; M.
Twain, Sam. Gompers,
And. Carnegie—name
the organization
Anti-Imperialist League
1899-1900
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Sect. of State John Hay:
nations in China to
respect Chinese terr.
integrity and allow fair
trade—name the policy
Open Door Policy
1904-1914
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TR takes strip from
Columbia and builds
canal to facilitate U.S.
ship movement—name
the canal
Panama Canal
1904-05
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TR brokers peace, wins Nobel Peace Prize—
name the war
Russo- Japanese War
1904-05
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TR will collect customs
in Carib; keep Brit/Ger
out; corollary to Monroe
Doctrine
Roosevelt Corollary
1909-13
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Pres. Taft promotes business investment in
Latin America/Asia in lieu of force—name this
kind of diplomacy
Dollar Diplomacy
1913-1921
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Pres. Wilson wants to promote human
rights/democracy; reflects his idealism—
name this kind of diplomacy
Moral diplomacy
1900-1920
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Urban middle-class for reforms: TR’s 3Cs;
clean govt; welfare; democratic reforms—
name the “ism”
Progressivism
1880s on
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Kids learn by doing; philosophy=truth of
idea=does it work in practice—name the
philosopher/educator and the “ism” attached
to his name
John Dewey Pragmatism
1880s on
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Locals get rid of corruption in cities and install
honest, capable officials—name the “League”
Good Government League
1900 on
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Progressives: ini=people pass law; ref=legis.
asks people; rec=get rid of officials—what are
the names of these three Progressive political
reforms
Initiative, Referendum, Recall
Early 1900s
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McClure’s:
Steffens/corruption in
cities;Tarbell/Standard
Oil;Sinclair/meatpacking—what do we
call these
journalists/writers
Muckrakers
1906
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Sinclair exposes Chicago meat-packing
industry; leads to reform (Meat Insp. Act)—
name the book
The Jungle
1904
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Steffens exposes
corruption in cities;
leads to “Good Govt.
Leagues” and reform—
name the book
The Shame of the
Cities
1904
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Tarbell exposes
Standard Oil abuses;
Taft files antitrust;
company broken
up(1911)—name
Tarbell’s book
History of Standard Oil
Co.
1906
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Prevent the
contamination and
mislabeling or
packaging of
foodstuffs—name the
act
Pure Food and Drug
Act
1906
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Inspect and condemn
bad meat; response to
Sinclair’s The Jungle—
name the act
Meat Inspection Act
1903
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Prohibits railroad rebates—name the act
Elkins Act
1906
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Free passes on railroads prohibited; ICC can
set rr rates on complaint of shipper—name
the act
Hepburn Act
1895
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Booker T. Washington
accommodationist
speech= blacks should
work with hands—
name the speech
Atlanta Compromise
Speech
1890-1920
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W.E.B. DuBois detests
Washington; demands
equality now; founds
N.A.A.C.P. –name the
movement
Niagara Movement
1909 on
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Fights Jim Crow through legal action; Brown
v. Board (1954) great victory—name the
organization
N.A.A.C.P.
1920s
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Black leader (NYC);
back-to-Africa;
economic selfsufficiency for African
Amer.—name the
leader
Marcus Garvey
1901-1909
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To help labor but
expands to 3Cs: control
corps, consumer prot,
conservation—what do
you call T.R.’s program
T.R.’s “Square Deal
1910-1912
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Growth of big business OK if checked by
growth of big regulatory power in Wash.—
what is the name of TR’s program here
T.R.’s New Nationalism
1910
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Taft fires TR’s friend Pinchot; angers TR;
splits TR from Taft; Reps lose in 1912—name
the controversy
Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy
1909
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Taft angers Dems and Prog Reps with this
41% tariff (helps split Republicans)—name
the tariff
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
1791-1913
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Name the chief source of revenue for the
federal government to 1913 (after which the
income tax takes over)
Customs duties (tariffs)
1912-1914
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1) Tariff (lower to 27%); 2) Federal Reserve
Act; 3) Clayton Act protects unions—what do
you call Wilson’s program here
Wilson’s New Freedom
1914
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This organization prohibits unfair trade
practices; consistent with New Freedom of
Wilson—name the organization
Federal Trade Commission
1913
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Creates 12 banks to issue paper money and
regulate economy via interest rates—name
the act
Federal Reserve Act
1913-1920
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Identify the Prog Era Const Amendments
16th=income tax; 17th=direct elec. senators;
18th=prohibition; 19th=women vote
1900-1920
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Identify Women’s roles in this period
In College; settlement houses; reform
movements; temperance/prohibition
1917
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What caused the U.S.
to get into World War I
Germans sank U.S.
ships; British trade
soars; German trade
drops; U.S. pro-Brit.
1914-1917
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Wilson urged this; impossible due to proBritish, anti-German attitudes and practices
Neutral in thought and action
1915
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Germans pledge to not attack passenger
ships without giving proper warning—name
the pledge
Arabic Pledge
1916
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Germans pledge to not attack passenger
ships without giving proper warning-again—
name the pledge
Sussex Pledge
1915
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D.W. Griffith glorifies
KKK in racist movie that
is popular—name the
movie
Birth of A Nation
1917-1918
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Name the federal agency charged with
organizing the economy for war; largely
voluntary efforts here (compare with more
coercive governmental intervention in WWII)
War Industries Board
1917-1918
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WWI on the Home Front—name some
domestic activities
Factories reorganized to make bombs; draft
started; women go to work; farm products
rise; victory gardens; blacks move to cities;
food and fuel administrations promote
conservation; war (savings) bonds raise
money for war effort; anti-German/antiSocialist sentiment prompts Espionage and
Sedition Acts
1-8-18
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Address to Congress: No secret alliances;
arms reduction; league of nations—provide
the name to this address
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
1918-1920
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Opposed League;
opposed Treaty; beat
Wilson badly (cf. with
U.N. after WWII)—
name the senator
Senator Henry Cabot
Lodge
1919
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What does League Article X provide
Article X says U.S. to defend member of
League if attacked; Lodge opposed
1919-1920
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A.G. Palmer leads raids; anti-communist
hysteria; many jailed or deported—what do
we call this
Red scare
1917 on
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Comment on African American Migration
during and after WWI
Blacks go to jobs in North and West, creating
their own communities in new areas
1921-1922
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Washington Conference—name some issues
Isolationist pacts; disarm navy; respect Open
Door; respect possessions in Asia
1921-1923
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Name Harding
scandals
Teapot Dome (oil
leases for bribes: Sect.
of Interior Albert Fall
leases oil lands to
Doheny and Sinclair);
Veterans Administration
head Forbes stole
millions from U.S.
1921-1929
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Pro-business; antitrust laws ignored; tax cuts
for wealthy; high tariffs—name the two
Republican presidents involved here
Harding and Coolidge
1920s
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Also known as the “Roaring ‘20s”: black
music migrates North; Louis Armstrong—
name the “age”
Jazz Age
1920s
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Langston Hughes; literary blossoming of
racial pride/culture in Harlem—what do we
call this phenomenon
Harlem Renaissance
1919-1933
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18th Amendment says no alcohol; crime
flourishes (Capone); 21st Amendment in ’33
repeals—what do we call it
Prohibition
1920s
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Conservatives/Fundam
entalists struggled with
these trends in 1920s—
name the “ism”
Modernism
1840s on
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1840s/50s=anti-Irish/Ger; 1880s Chinese;
1908, 1924=Japanese; 1924=Europeans—
name the “ism”
Nativism
1925
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Scopes Trial—give
some details
Dayton, Tennessee:
John Scopes convicted
of teaching evolution
but Fundamentalists
(Bryan) look bad
1920s
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Anti-Catholic, Anti-Jew,
Anti-foreign: for white
Protestants; many
members—name the
organization
KKK
1920s
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Comment on women in
the 20s
Flapper=independence;
vacuum cleaner,
refrig=liberation;
jobs=freedom
1920s
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Promotes birth control
as alternative to poverty
and crime; she was
persecuted—name her
Margaret Sanger
1920s
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Fitzgerald=This Side of
Paradise;
Hemingway=The Sun
Also Rises(booze and
sex)—what name do
we give to this
generation
“Lost Generation”
1920s-1940s
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Wash. Conf. ’21-’22; Kellogg-Briand Peace
Pact ’28; Nye Report; Neutrality laws
‘35,’36,’37—name the “ism”
Isolationism
1920s-1930s
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U.S. loan $ to Ger; Ger
pays Brit/Fr: Brit/Fr pay
loans to U.S.: mess—name
the problem and the 1924
plan to solve the problem
The problem involves WWI
reparations payments
The name of the 1924 plan
to solve the problem is the
Dawes Plan
1920s
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Farm problems in 1920s—name some
Overproduction=lower prices; Coolidge
vetoes farm price support laws (McNaryHaugen Farm Relief Act)
1920s
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Model T revolutionizes
travel; cheap; reliable;
freedom—name the
man and his company
Henry Ford and the
Ford Motor Co
1921, 1924
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Immigration Restriction—what is essential
about the 1924 act
1924 Immigration Act = 2% of 1890 #s in U.S.
from any nation; no Japanese
See next slide for map
1920s
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Buy refrigerators, cars, vacuum cleaners,
radios on credit; lower hours, higher pay—
name the “ism”
Consumerism
1928
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Nations renounce war as instrument of
foreign policy; hollow but nice—name the
pact/treaty
Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact
1920s
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For blacks and women,
name something that
characterizes a new
sense of freedom or
liberation for both
during the ’20s
Blacks=Harlem
Renaissance;
women=flapper
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Chronology from the Gilded Age to Present