Chapter 2 HOW DO YOU DEFINE CITIZENSHIP? 1. Define Iroquois Confederacy, Anishnabee and Clans Iroquois: a political alliance of five tribes (later six) that occupied what is now eastern Canada before contact with Europeans Anishnaabe: Ojibwe term meaning “the people of the land” Clans: a group connected by blood or kinship; a basic social and political organization used by some aboriginal societies. 2. What groups are included in the title “Aboriginal People”? Who are not included? The constitution act of 1982 defines the term “aboriginal peoples of Canada as including the First Nations, Inuit, and Metis. It does not include the Inuit of the North or the Metis who are of mixed European and First Nations origin 3 + 4.Why were aboriginals left out of the decision making process? They were not invited to confederation conferences. After 1867 they were moved onto reserves as European immigrants claimed western lands to farm. The federal government created a department of Indian affaires to “oversee” the aboriginal peoples. The Indian Act 1876 banned the ancient cultural practices such as the western potlatch In 1927 an amendment was made that stripped aboriginal peoples of the right to form political organizations. 5. Residential Schools and Assimilation RS: Schools run by the Canadian government in partnership with Christian churches, starting in the late 1800s, whose aim was to assimilate aboriginal students into mainstream Canadian society. 6. Life in a Residential School Harsh Cut of from families, culture, history, and identity. Couldn’t speak their own language. Students worked in kitchens, barns, or fields without pay. 7. 1968 White Paper Outlined plans to eliminate the special legal status of aboriginal peoples in Canada. 8.Assembly of First Nations and their top priority for Canada and the aboriginal peoples To give the aboriginal peoples a voice in Ottawa. To improve the state of first nations education. 9.Rights and Responsibilities of aboriginals in Canada and the world HDI-Human Development Index Measures economic status, literacy, education, life expectancy, and other indicators of human wellbeing yearly. Aboriginal people live shorter lives, receive less education, make less money, live inadequate housing, higher rate of imprisonment. 10. Two founding Nations French (1608) British (1750s) 11. Date of first French exploration? Who led them? Jacques Cartier 1534 12.Why do we have Quebec if, in 1759 the English defeated the French? To maintain the loyalty of the French the British wrote the Quebec Act in 1774 giving the French their language, legal and religious rights back. 13. When did Canada first recognize the French language? In 1867 with the BNA Act 14. Official Languages Act In 1969, Pierre Elliot Trudeau oversaw the passage of the Official Languages Act. This act proclaimed French and English as Canada’s two official languages. It also made the federal public service and judicial systems bilingual. 15. New Brunswick 16.Language Rights and the CCRF In 1982, the CCRF further guaranteed pre-exisisting language and education rights for official language minorities. Parents may have their children learn in their language if they are a minority. 17. Why in 1870, was Manitoba granted English and French Language Rights? 50 percent of its population was francophone. The Métis saw the Red River Settlement as their homeland and saw the Canadian government as a threat to their way of life. Louis Riel , led the Métis and demanded that their rights be recognized. Because of this Manitoba joined confederation with the guarantees in place for francophone's and for the Métis. 18. Why is Manitoba only 5% French today? Official bilingualism was abolished Catholics lost the right to run their own schools. In the 1990s the government would had back the management of francophone schools. 19.Bill 101 and Quebec Language Rights Made French the official language of Quebec. The use of any other language in the workplace was regulated. If one parent was educated in an English school then their child could be as well. The intention was to protect a minority language – french in an english dominated country. 20.First French PM Wilfred Laurier Louis St. Laurent Pierre Elliot Trudeau, Jean Chretien 21. United Empire Loyalists Were the first large scale wave of English speaking immigrants to arrive into Canada. They came to Nova Scotia and Upper Canada in 1775-1783. 22. Where did they come from and why did they settle? They came from the USA because they rejected the revolution and republicanism (government w/out a king or a queen). They believed in “peace, order, and good government.” 23. How did the arrival of the loyalists effect the cultural makeup of Canada? Canada became primarily and English country. 24. What “pushed” the Scots out of Scotland? Escape hardship Unemployment Land clearances (kicked off land to make room for sheep to graze) 25. How did the Scots come to settle in Manitoba? In 1812, Thomas Douglas brought some of the earliest Scottish settlers to Manitoba. Developed into Selkirk 26. The Irish Faced starvation Potato famine People came over on coffin ships many died on the way to Canada. 28 and 29.% of immigration and Canada’s Pop Over 50% of the population growth. 1 in 6 Canadians is a member of a visible minority 30. History of Immigration 20th cent many Ukrainians, Scandinavians, Americans, and eastern Europeans came to claim and work the lands of the prairies. Only white Europeans were recruited by the government and considered desirable. Non-whites were often turned away, unless cheap labour was needed. 1880s Chinese used to build the CPR. Japanese were only allowed in until 1920. 1885 Chinese faced a head tax went from 50 to 500 dollars African Americans came during the American Civil War (1860-1863). 31. Who developed the concept of citizenship? 1947, the prime minister William Lyon Mackenzie King. Until then people were described as British Subjects. 32. Point system and multiculturalism In 1976, Canada created different admissions categories and created a point system. People were awarded points for the following: Knowing English or French Education Job skills 33. Greatest % of Immigrants Asia 34. Greatest decrease Oceania and other countries 35. When did Canada officially adopt the multicultural policy? 1971 36.When was the UDHR adopted? Dec 10, 1948 37. Explain the meaning of National Aboriginal Day Celebrates cultures and contributions of first nations, Inuit, and Métis in Canada. First proclaimed in 1996. 38.Identify several black Canadian contributions to society Mary Ann Shadd- ant-Slavery Advocate and first female paper editor Ferguson Jenkins-only one in the baseball hall of fame. Donovan Bailey-world’s fastest man Michaelle Jean-became Canada’s 27 Governor General Jerome Iginla- Calgary Flames Captain 39. March 21, 1960 International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrmination 40.