Chapter 2
1. Define Iroquois Confederacy, Anishnabee and
 Iroquois: a political alliance of five tribes (later six)
that occupied what is now eastern Canada before
contact with Europeans
 Anishnaabe: Ojibwe term meaning “the people of the
 Clans: a group connected by blood or kinship; a basic
social and political organization used by some
aboriginal societies.
2. What groups are included in the title
“Aboriginal People”? Who are not included?
 The constitution act of 1982 defines the term
“aboriginal peoples of Canada as including the First
Nations, Inuit, and Metis.
 It does not include the Inuit of the North or the
Metis who are of mixed European and First Nations
3 + 4.Why were aboriginals left out of the
decision making process?
 They were not invited to confederation conferences.
 After 1867 they were moved onto reserves as
European immigrants claimed western lands to
 The federal government created a department of
Indian affaires to “oversee” the aboriginal peoples.
 The Indian Act 1876 banned the ancient cultural
practices such as the western potlatch
 In 1927 an amendment was made that stripped
aboriginal peoples of the right to form political
5. Residential Schools and Assimilation
 RS: Schools run by the Canadian government in
partnership with Christian churches, starting in the
late 1800s, whose aim was to assimilate aboriginal
students into mainstream Canadian society.
6. Life in a Residential School
 Harsh
 Cut of from families, culture, history, and identity.
 Couldn’t speak their own language.
 Students worked in kitchens, barns, or fields without
7. 1968 White Paper
 Outlined plans to eliminate the special legal status of
aboriginal peoples in Canada.
8.Assembly of First Nations and their top priority
for Canada and the aboriginal peoples
 To give the aboriginal peoples a voice in Ottawa.
 To improve the state of first nations education.
9.Rights and Responsibilities of aboriginals in
Canada and the world
 HDI-Human Development Index
 Measures economic status, literacy, education, life
expectancy, and other indicators of human wellbeing yearly.
 Aboriginal people live shorter lives, receive less
education, make less money, live inadequate
housing, higher rate of imprisonment.
10. Two founding Nations
 French (1608)
 British (1750s)
11. Date of first French exploration? Who led
 Jacques Cartier 1534
12.Why do we have Quebec if, in 1759 the English
defeated the French?
 To maintain the loyalty of the French the British
wrote the Quebec Act in 1774 giving the French their
language, legal and religious rights back.
13. When did Canada first recognize the French
 In 1867 with the BNA Act
14. Official Languages Act
 In 1969, Pierre Elliot Trudeau oversaw the passage of
the Official Languages Act.
 This act proclaimed French and English as Canada’s
two official languages.
 It also made the federal public service and judicial
systems bilingual.
 15. New Brunswick
16.Language Rights and the CCRF
 In 1982, the CCRF further guaranteed pre-exisisting
language and education rights for official language
 Parents may have their children learn in their
language if they are a minority.
17. Why in 1870, was Manitoba granted
English and French Language Rights?
 50 percent of its population was francophone.
 The Métis saw the Red River Settlement as their
homeland and saw the Canadian government as a
threat to their way of life.
 Louis Riel , led the Métis and demanded that their
rights be recognized. Because of this Manitoba
joined confederation with the guarantees in place for
francophone's and for the Métis.
18. Why is Manitoba only 5% French today?
 Official bilingualism was abolished
 Catholics lost the right to run their own schools.
 In the 1990s the government would had back the
management of francophone schools.
19.Bill 101 and Quebec Language Rights
 Made French the official language of Quebec.
 The use of any other language in the workplace was
 If one parent was educated in an English school then
their child could be as well.
 The intention was to protect a minority language –
french in an english dominated country.
20.First French PM
 Wilfred Laurier
 Louis St. Laurent
 Pierre Elliot Trudeau, Jean Chretien
21. United Empire Loyalists
 Were the first large scale wave of English speaking
immigrants to arrive into Canada.
 They came to Nova Scotia and Upper Canada in
22. Where did they come from and why did they
 They came from the USA because they rejected the
revolution and republicanism (government w/out a
king or a queen).
 They believed in “peace, order, and good
23. How did the arrival of the loyalists effect the
cultural makeup of Canada?
 Canada became primarily and English country.
24. What “pushed” the Scots out of Scotland?
 Escape hardship
 Unemployment
 Land clearances (kicked off land to make room for
sheep to graze)
25. How did the Scots come to settle in
 In 1812, Thomas Douglas brought some of the
earliest Scottish settlers to Manitoba.
 Developed into Selkirk
26. The Irish
 Faced starvation
 Potato famine
 People came over on coffin ships many died on the
way to Canada.
28 and 29.% of immigration and Canada’s Pop
 Over 50% of the population growth.
 1 in 6 Canadians is a member of a visible minority
30. History of Immigration
 20th cent many Ukrainians, Scandinavians, Americans,
and eastern Europeans came to claim and work the lands
of the prairies.
Only white Europeans were recruited by the government
and considered desirable.
Non-whites were often turned away, unless cheap labour
was needed.
1880s Chinese used to build the CPR.
Japanese were only allowed in until 1920.
1885 Chinese faced a head tax went from 50 to 500
African Americans came during the American Civil War
31. Who developed the concept of citizenship?
 1947, the prime minister William Lyon Mackenzie
 Until then people were described as British Subjects.
32. Point system and multiculturalism
 In 1976, Canada created different admissions
categories and created a point system.
People were awarded points for the following:
Knowing English or French
Job skills
33. Greatest % of Immigrants
 Asia
34. Greatest decrease
 Oceania and other countries
35. When did Canada officially adopt the
multicultural policy?
 1971
36.When was the UDHR adopted?
 Dec 10, 1948
37. Explain the meaning of National Aboriginal
 Celebrates cultures and contributions of first
nations, Inuit, and Métis in Canada.
 First proclaimed in 1996.
38.Identify several black Canadian contributions
to society
 Mary Ann Shadd- ant-Slavery Advocate and first
female paper editor
Ferguson Jenkins-only one in the baseball hall of
Donovan Bailey-world’s fastest man
Michaelle Jean-became Canada’s 27 Governor
Jerome Iginla- Calgary Flames Captain
39. March 21, 1960
 International Day for the Elimination of Racial

Chapter 2