CHAPTER 6
THE DUEL FOR NORTH AMERICA
France Finds a Foothold in Canada
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France came late to
American colonization
Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV: 1643-1715
Samuel de Champlain
Father of New France
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Iroquois hate them
France ruled New France
autocratically
p106
French holdings: 1700
New France Fans Out
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Population grows slowly
Huguenots kept out
New France contained one
valuable resource - beaver.
French Catholic missionaries,
notably the Jesuits, labored with
much enthusiasm to convert the
Indians to Christianity.
Fur-Trading Posts
The Clash of Empires
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Antoine Cadillac founded Detroit
Robert de La Salle: interior basin
“Louisiana”
Early 1700s French establish a number
of posts on the Mississippi river.
New Orleans founded in 1718.
 Significance of New Orleans?
Illinois became France’s garden
empire of North America because
much grain was produced there.
The Clash of Empires –War One
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The earliest battles
among European powers
for control of North
America, known to
British colonists as King
William’s War (16891697)
p110
The Clash of Empires War Two
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Queen Anne’s War
(1702-1713).
Second of the four North
American wars
St Augustine Burning
Deerfield Mass Massacre
Quebec holds
Treaty of Utrecht 1714
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England gets :
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Map
Nova Scotia
Newfoundland
Hudson Bay area
limited trading
rights in Spanish
America
6.3: British Territory After Two
Wars, 1713
Number Three - Jenkins Ear
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The War of Jenkins’s Ear started in
1739 between the British and
Spaniards. This small battle became
a war and became known as King
Georges’s War in America.
Oglethorpe invades Florida
St Simons Island – Bloody Marsh
It ended in 1748 with a treaty that
handed Louisbourg back to France,
enraging the victorious New
Englanders.
Oglethorpe's Highlanders Open
Fire at Battle of Bloody Marsh,
July 7, 1742
Scenes of the French Wars
North America
Before 1754
George Washington Starts the Fighting
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p112
In 1754 Ohio River Valley
became contested
territory between France
and Britain.
British colonial
speculators claimed legal
rights to 500,000 acres
French built chain of forts
to thwart British
expansion
GW sent to secure the
Virginians’ claims.
The Ohio
Country,
1753–1754
Global War and Colonial Disunity
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The French and Indian War (Seven Years’ War)
started in 1754. It was fought in America, Europe,
the West Indies, the Philippines, Africa, and on
the ocean.
In Europe, the principal adversaries were Britain
and Prussia on one side and France, Spain,
Austria, and Russia on the other.
The Albany Congress met in 1754. Only 7 of 13
colony delegates showed up. It attempted to
unite all of the colonies but the plan was hated by
individual colonists and the London regime.
George Washington Inaugurates War with France
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In 1754, George Washington was sent to
Ohio Country to secure the land of the
Virginians who had secured legal rights
to 500,000 acres.
His 150 Virginia militia killed the
French leader, causing French
reinforcements to come. The Virginians
were forced to surrender on July 4,
1754.
In 1755, the British uprooted the French
Acadians fearing a stab in the back, and
scattered them as far as Louisiana..
Deportation of Acadians order, read by Winslow in Grand-Pré church
War Begins Badly for Britain
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1755 – British force
routed at Fort Duquesne
near present-day
Pittsburgh.
1756 – full-scale invasion
of Canada goes poorly.
Braddock’s Defeat
General Braddock set out in 1755
with 2,000 men to capture Fort
Duquesne. His force was
slaughtered by the much smaller
French and Indian army. Due to
this loss of troops, the whole frontier
from Pennsylvania to North
Carolina was left open to
attack. George Washington, with
only 300 men, tried to defend the
area.
 In 1756, the British launched a fullscale invasion of Canada.
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Pitt’s Palms of Victory
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In 1757, William Pitt became the foremost
leader in the London government. He
was known as the “Great commoner” He
attacked and captured Louisbourg in
1758.
To lead the attack in the Battle of Quebec
in 1759, Pitt chose James Wolfe. The two
opposing armies faced each other on the
Plains of Abraham, the British under
Wolfe and the French under Marquis de
Montcalm.
p115
Treaty of Paris
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Montreal fell in 1760. The
Treaty of Paris (1763) ended
the war and threw the French
power off the continent of
North America.
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Treaty of Paris 1763:
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Canada seceded to Brit.
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French forced to give
Louisiana to Spain.
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Spanish give Florida to the
Brits.
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France completely out of
N.A.
Pontiac’s rebellion
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p117
The war is named after the Ottawa leader
Pontiac
The war began in May 1763 when Native
Americans, alarmed by policies imposed
by British General Jeffrey Amherst,
attacked a number of British forts and
settlements.
Eight forts were destroyed, and hundreds
of colonists were killed or captured, with
many more fleeing the region. Hostilities
came to an end after British Army
expeditions in 1764
Pontiac’s rebellion
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p117
The Natives were unable to drive away
the British, but the uprising prompted
the British government to modify the
policies that had provoked the conflict.
Warfare on the North American frontier
was brutal, and the killing of prisoners,
the targeting of civilians, and other
atrocities were widespread.
The British government sought to
prevent further racial violence by issuing
the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which
created a boundary between colonists
and Natives
Proclamation of 1763
London government issued the
Proclamation of 1763. It
prohibited settlement in the
area beyond the Appalachians.
 Outlawed private purchase of
lands from the Indians.
 Colonial officials could not
grant land
 Temporary – Crown could buy
 Creates resentment
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p117
Affects of War
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20,000 Americans fight in the war.
Colonies emerge with renewed
confidence in their military abilities.
Myth of invincible Brit. troops
shattered.
Brits have contempt for colonial
militias.
Some colonists had not supported the
war.
Impact of War on Colonists
New sense of Freedom-French Gone
 Feel less dependent on Brits
 Want to spread into Ohio Valley
 Indian threat reduced
 Pontiac’s Rebellion
 Significance?
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In a famous council on April 27,
1763, Pontiac urged listeners to
rise up against the British
1598
Edict of Nantes
1608
Champlain colonizes Quebec for France
1643
Louis XIV becomes king of France
1682
La Salle explores Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico
1689-1697
King William’s War (War of the League of Augsburg)
1702-1713
Queen Anne’s War (War of Spanish Succession)
1718
French found New Orleans
1739
War of Jenkin’s Ear
1744-1748
King George’s War (War of Austrian Succession)
1754
Washington battles French on frontier
Albany Congress
1754-1763
French and Indian War (Seven Year’ War)
1755
Braddock’s defeat
1757
Pitt emerges as leader of British government
1759
Battle of Quebec
1763
Peace of Paris, Pontiac’s uprising, Proclamation of 1763
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CHAPTER 6