France Finds a Foothold in Canada
France came late to
American colonization
Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV: 1643-1715
Samuel de Champlain
Father of New France
Iroquois hate them
France ruled New France
French holdings: 1700
New France Fans Out
Population grows slowly
Huguenots kept out
New France contained one
valuable resource - beaver.
French Catholic missionaries,
notably the Jesuits, labored with
much enthusiasm to convert the
Indians to Christianity.
Fur-Trading Posts
The Clash of Empires
Antoine Cadillac founded Detroit
Robert de La Salle: interior basin
Early 1700s French establish a number
of posts on the Mississippi river.
New Orleans founded in 1718.
 Significance of New Orleans?
Illinois became France’s garden
empire of North America because
much grain was produced there.
The Clash of Empires –War One
The earliest battles
among European powers
for control of North
America, known to
British colonists as King
William’s War (16891697)
The Clash of Empires War Two
Queen Anne’s War
Second of the four North
American wars
St Augustine Burning
Deerfield Mass Massacre
Quebec holds
Treaty of Utrecht 1714
England gets :
Nova Scotia
Hudson Bay area
limited trading
rights in Spanish
6.3: British Territory After Two
Wars, 1713
Number Three - Jenkins Ear
The War of Jenkins’s Ear started in
1739 between the British and
Spaniards. This small battle became
a war and became known as King
Georges’s War in America.
Oglethorpe invades Florida
St Simons Island – Bloody Marsh
It ended in 1748 with a treaty that
handed Louisbourg back to France,
enraging the victorious New
Oglethorpe's Highlanders Open
Fire at Battle of Bloody Marsh,
July 7, 1742
Scenes of the French Wars
North America
Before 1754
George Washington Starts the Fighting
In 1754 Ohio River Valley
became contested
territory between France
and Britain.
British colonial
speculators claimed legal
rights to 500,000 acres
French built chain of forts
to thwart British
GW sent to secure the
Virginians’ claims.
The Ohio
Global War and Colonial Disunity
The French and Indian War (Seven Years’ War)
started in 1754. It was fought in America, Europe,
the West Indies, the Philippines, Africa, and on
the ocean.
In Europe, the principal adversaries were Britain
and Prussia on one side and France, Spain,
Austria, and Russia on the other.
The Albany Congress met in 1754. Only 7 of 13
colony delegates showed up. It attempted to
unite all of the colonies but the plan was hated by
individual colonists and the London regime.
George Washington Inaugurates War with France
In 1754, George Washington was sent to
Ohio Country to secure the land of the
Virginians who had secured legal rights
to 500,000 acres.
His 150 Virginia militia killed the
French leader, causing French
reinforcements to come. The Virginians
were forced to surrender on July 4,
In 1755, the British uprooted the French
Acadians fearing a stab in the back, and
scattered them as far as Louisiana..
Deportation of Acadians order, read by Winslow in Grand-Pré church
War Begins Badly for Britain
1755 – British force
routed at Fort Duquesne
near present-day
1756 – full-scale invasion
of Canada goes poorly.
Braddock’s Defeat
General Braddock set out in 1755
with 2,000 men to capture Fort
Duquesne. His force was
slaughtered by the much smaller
French and Indian army. Due to
this loss of troops, the whole frontier
from Pennsylvania to North
Carolina was left open to
attack. George Washington, with
only 300 men, tried to defend the
 In 1756, the British launched a fullscale invasion of Canada.
Pitt’s Palms of Victory
In 1757, William Pitt became the foremost
leader in the London government. He
was known as the “Great commoner” He
attacked and captured Louisbourg in
To lead the attack in the Battle of Quebec
in 1759, Pitt chose James Wolfe. The two
opposing armies faced each other on the
Plains of Abraham, the British under
Wolfe and the French under Marquis de
Treaty of Paris
Montreal fell in 1760. The
Treaty of Paris (1763) ended
the war and threw the French
power off the continent of
North America.
Treaty of Paris 1763:
Canada seceded to Brit.
French forced to give
Louisiana to Spain.
Spanish give Florida to the
France completely out of
Pontiac’s rebellion
The war is named after the Ottawa leader
The war began in May 1763 when Native
Americans, alarmed by policies imposed
by British General Jeffrey Amherst,
attacked a number of British forts and
Eight forts were destroyed, and hundreds
of colonists were killed or captured, with
many more fleeing the region. Hostilities
came to an end after British Army
expeditions in 1764
Pontiac’s rebellion
The Natives were unable to drive away
the British, but the uprising prompted
the British government to modify the
policies that had provoked the conflict.
Warfare on the North American frontier
was brutal, and the killing of prisoners,
the targeting of civilians, and other
atrocities were widespread.
The British government sought to
prevent further racial violence by issuing
the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which
created a boundary between colonists
and Natives
Proclamation of 1763
London government issued the
Proclamation of 1763. It
prohibited settlement in the
area beyond the Appalachians.
 Outlawed private purchase of
lands from the Indians.
 Colonial officials could not
grant land
 Temporary – Crown could buy
 Creates resentment
Affects of War
20,000 Americans fight in the war.
Colonies emerge with renewed
confidence in their military abilities.
Myth of invincible Brit. troops
Brits have contempt for colonial
Some colonists had not supported the
Impact of War on Colonists
New sense of Freedom-French Gone
 Feel less dependent on Brits
 Want to spread into Ohio Valley
 Indian threat reduced
 Pontiac’s Rebellion
 Significance?
In a famous council on April 27,
1763, Pontiac urged listeners to
rise up against the British
Edict of Nantes
Champlain colonizes Quebec for France
Louis XIV becomes king of France
La Salle explores Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico
King William’s War (War of the League of Augsburg)
Queen Anne’s War (War of Spanish Succession)
French found New Orleans
War of Jenkin’s Ear
King George’s War (War of Austrian Succession)
Washington battles French on frontier
Albany Congress
French and Indian War (Seven Year’ War)
Braddock’s defeat
Pitt emerges as leader of British government
Battle of Quebec
Peace of Paris, Pontiac’s uprising, Proclamation of 1763