China Reunified
Preview of Events
The Sui Dynasty and
The Tang Dynasty
• China fell into chaos after the Han dynasty
ended in 220. 
• In 581, the Sui dynasty was set up. 
• It was short-lived, but the Sui dynasty did
unify China under the emperor’s
authority.
(pages 247–249)
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The Sui Dynasty and
The Tang Dynasty (cont.)
• Emperor Sui Yangdi built the Grand
Canal that linked the Huang He (Yellow
River) and the Chang Jiang (Yangtze
River), making it easier to ship rice from
the south to the north. 
• He used forced labor to build the canal. 
• This practice, extravagant living, high
taxes, and military failures caused a
rebellion and the dynasty ended.
(pages 247–249)
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The Sui Dynasty and
The Tang Dynasty (cont.)
• The Tang dynasty lasted from 618 to 907. 
• Tang rulers began by instituting reforms,
restoring the civil service examination for
recruiting civilian bureaucrats, and trying
to stabilize the economy by giving land to
peasants and breaking up the power of
large landowners.
(pages 247–249)
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The Sui Dynasty and
The Tang Dynasty (cont.)
• They extended their control to the borders
of Tibet, an area north of the Himalaya. 
• Neighboring states like Korea offered
tribute to powerful China, and China’s
court had diplomatic relations with the
states of Southeast Asia.
(pages 247–249)
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The Sui Dynasty and
The Tang Dynasty (cont.)
• Like the Han, the Tang dynasty brought
about its own destruction. 
• Tang rulers were not able to prevent
plotting and government corruption. 
• Tang Xuanzang was a particularly
unfortunate emperor. 
• He was in love with a commoner’s
daughter.
(pages 247–249)
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The Sui Dynasty and
The Tang Dynasty (cont.)
• When a general rebelled and demanded
someone pay for the war and strife in his
country, the emperor invited his beloved to
hang herself, which she did. 
• It is said that for the rest of his life, the
emperor “washed his face every day with
a fountain of tears.”
(pages 247–249)
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The Sui Dynasty and
The Tang Dynasty (cont.)
• During the eighth century, the Tang
dynasty weakened. 
• Tang rulers hired Uighurs, a northern
tribal group of Turkic-speaking people, to
fight for the dynasty. 
• Continued unrest led to the collapse of
Tang rule in 907.
(pages 247–249)
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The Song Dynasty
• The Song ruled from 960 to 1279, during
a period of economic and cultural
achievement. 
• China’s northern neighbors were a
problem, however. Their threat caused
Song rulers to move the imperial court to
Hangzhou.
(pages 249–250)
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The Song Dynasty (cont.)
• During the 1200s, the Mongols– a
nomadic people from the Gobi–built a vast
empire. 
• Within 70 years, the Mongols overthrew
the Song dynasty and created a Mongol
dynasty in China.
(pages 249–250)
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The Song Dynasty (cont.)
• Using the civil service exam to pick civil
servants by merit undermined the power
of the aristocrats and created a new class
of scholar-gentry. 
• Passing the exam was crucial for a
government career. 
• Preparation for it began at a young age. 
• For years, students memorized many
Confucian classics. 
• A text’s meaning was explained only after
it was completely memorized.
(pages 249–250)
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The Song Dynasty (cont.)
• Manual labor was forbidden to these
students. 
• The Song introduced the practice of
“name covering.” 
• Test graders did not know the name of the
students whose exams they were grading.
(pages 249–250)
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Government and the Economy
• It was seven hundred years from the
beginning of the Sui to the end of the
Song dynasties. 
• China was a monarchy that had a large
bureaucracy. 
• Outside the capital, government had a
structure of provinces, districts, and
villages. 
• Agriculture, manufacturing, and trade
grew dramatically during these seven
hundred years.
(pages 250–251)
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Government and the Economy (cont.)
• China was still primarily a farming society. 
• The majority of the peasants had become
serfs or slaves for wealthy, large
landowners. 
• The Song tried to weaken their power
and help the poor peasants get their own
land. 
• These reform efforts and advances in
farming techniques created an
abundance of food.
(pages 250–251)
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Government and the Economy (cont.)
• Technological advances added products
and stimulated trade. 
• The Chinese began to make steel, which
was used to make swords and sickles. 
• The introduction of cotton made new
kinds of clothes. 
• Gunpowder was invented during the Tang
dynasty. 
• It was used to make explosives and a
weapon called a fire-lance, which shot out
flame and projectiles up to 40 yards.
(pages 250–251)
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Government and the Economy (cont.)
• Woodblock printing was developed during
the Tang dynasty. 
• Books could be mass produced. 
• The first complete book to be printed was
a Buddhist work, printed in 868. 
• In the eleventh century, the Chinese
invented movable type.
(pages 250–251)
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Government and the Economy (cont.)
• Long-distance trade revived with the Tang
dynasty and unification of much of
Southwest Asia. 
• The Silk Road was renewed and thrived,
and caravans carried goods back and
forth from China to the countries of South
Asia and Southwest Asia. 
• This and domestic trade made Changan,
estimated population of two million, the
richest city in the world during the Tang
period.
(pages 250–251)
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Chinese Society
• In the thirteenth century, Marco Polo
described the Song capital of Hangzhou,
saying that “So many pleasures may be
found that one fancies himself to be in
Paradise.” 
• Life was good in these cities for the
wealthy.
(page 252)
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Chinese Society (cont.)
• People found new ways to communicate
with the invention of block printing in the
eighth century. 
• The vast majority of Chinese lived off the
land in villages. 
• Most hardly left their villages during their
lifetimes. 
• The gulf between rich and poor was
reduced a bit, however, and a more
complex mixture of landowners, free
peasants, sharecroppers, and landless
laborers emerged.
(page 252)
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Chinese Society (cont.)
• The most significant change was the rise
of the landed gentry. 
• They controlled much of the land and
produced most of the civil service
candidates. 
• These scholar-gentry replaced the
landed aristocracy as the political and
economic elite of Chinese society.
(page 252)
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Chinese Society (cont.)
• The status of women in Chinese society
was low. 
• As elsewhere in the world, female children
were considered less desirable than male
children. 
• Female infants might even be killed if
there was not enough food for all. 
• Wives became part of their husbands’
families. 
• When a woman married, her parents
provided a dowry (money or goods) to
her husband.
(page 252)
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Chinese Society (cont.)
• Poor families often sold their daughters to
wealthy villagers.
(page 252)
The Mongols and China
Preview of Events
The Mongol Empire
• The Mongols came from present-day
Mongolia. 
• They were organized loosely into clans. 
• Temujin gradually unified the Mongols.

• In 1206 he was elected Genghis Khan
(“strong ruler”) at a massive meeting in
the Gobi. 
• He devoted himself to conquest.
(pages 253–254)
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The Mongol Empire (cont.)
• The Mongols created the largest land
empire in history, comprising much of
the Eurasian landmass. 
• Its capital was at Karakorum. 
• Genghis Khan died in 1227. 
• Following Mongol custom, the empire
was divided among his sons into several
khanates. 
• Mongol forces soon attacked the
Persians, Abbasids, and the Song.
(pages 253–254)
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The Mongol Empire (cont.)
• In attacking the Song, the Mongols first
experienced gunpowder and the firelance. 
• The latter evolved into more effective
handguns and cannons. 
• By the early fourteenth century foreigners
in the employ of Mongol rulers brought
gunpowder and firearms to Europe.
(pages 253–254)
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The Mongol Dynasty in China
• In 1279 Kublai Khan completed
conquering the Song. 
• He established the Yuan dynasty in
China. 
• He established the capital at Khanbaliq
(“the city of the Khan”), now known as
Beijing.
(pages 254–255)
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The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.)
• Under Kublai Khan, Mongol forces
advanced against Vietnam, Java,
Sumatra, and Japan. 
• Mongol military tactics, such as cavalry
charges and siege warfare, were not
effective in these largely tropical, hilly
regions. 
• These Mongol campaigns failed.
(pages 254–255)
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The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.)
• The Mongols were successful at ruling
China. 
• They adapted to the Chinese political
system and used Chinese bureaucrats. 
• The Mongols formed their own class,
however, staffing the highest positions
in the bureaucracy.
(pages 254–255)
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The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.)
• Over time, the Mongol dynasty won the
support of the Chinese people, in part due
to the economic prosperity and social
stability the Mongols brought. 
• Marco Polo wrote glowingly of
Khanbaliq. 
• His stories of the glories of China
seemed unbelievable to Europeans.
(pages 254–255)
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The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.)
• The Mongol dynasty finally fell apart due
to problems that affected the other
dynasties: too much spending on foreign
conquests, corruption at court, and
growing internal instability. 
• In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang, the son of a
peasant, formed an army, ended the
Mongol dynasty, and established the
Ming dynasty.
(pages 254–255)
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Religion and Government
• By the time of the Sui and Tang dynasties,
Buddhism and Daoism had emerged to
rival Confucianism. 
• Confucianism reemerged during the Song
dynasty and held its dominance until the
early twentieth century.
(pages 255–256)
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Religion and Government (cont.)
• Buddhism came to China in the first
century A.D. 
• Indian merchants and missionaries
brought it. 
• Because of the instability after the
collapse of the Han dynasty, both
Buddhism and Daoism attracted many
people, especially the ruling classes,
intellectuals, and the wealthy.
(pages 255–256)
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Religion and Government (cont.)
• Early Tang rulers supported monasteries,
and Buddhists became advisers at the
imperial court. 
• Ultimately, however, Buddhism was
criticized and attacked. 
• Buddhism was attacked for being a
foreign religion. 
• Also, the Buddhist monasteries held lands
and serfs, and with these holdings came
corruption.
(pages 255–256)
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Religion and Government (cont.)
• During the late Tang period, the
government destroyed many Buddhist
temples and forced more than 260,000
monks and nuns to return to secular life. 
• Buddhism and Daoism no longer enjoyed
state support.
(pages 255–256)
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Religion and Government (cont.)
• Official support went to a revived
Confucianism, Neo-Confucianism.

• It differs from the original Confucianism.

• It teaches that the world is real, not
illusory, and that fulfillment comes from
participation in the world.
(pages 255–256)
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Religion and Government (cont.)
• Neo-Confucianists divide the world into
material and spiritual worlds. Humans link
the two. 
• We live in the material world but are
linked with the Supreme Ultimate. 
• The goal of humans is to unify with the
Supreme Ultimate, through a careful
examination of the moral principles that
rule the universe.
(pages 255–256)
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A Golden Age in Literature and Art
• The invention of printing during the Tang
dynasty helped make literature available
and popular. 
• The period between the Tang and Ming
dynasties was a great age of Chinese
literature. 
• Art also flourished.
(pages 256–257)
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A Golden Age in Literature and Art
• Poetry was the highest literary art of
the time. 
(cont.)
• Some 2,200 authors wrote at least
48,000 poems. 
• They celebrated the beauty of nature,
the changes of seasons, and the joys
of friendship. 
• The expressed the sadness of parting
and life’s brevity.
(pages 256–257)
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A Golden Age in Literature and Art
(cont.)
• Li Bo and Duo Fu were two of the
most popular poets. 
• One of Li Bo’s poems has been
memorized by Chinese schoolchildren
for centuries. 
• He was a free spirit known for his nature
poetry. 
• Duo Fu was a serious Confucian
concerned with social justice and the
plight of the poor.
(pages 256–257)
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A Golden Age in Literature and Art
• Landscape painting reached its
height during the Song and Mongol
dynasties. 
(cont.)
• Painters went into the mountains to paint
and find the Dao, or Way, in nature. 
• The word for landscape in Chinese
means “mountain-water” and reflects the
Daoist search for balance between Earth
and water.
(pages 256–257)
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A Golden Age in Literature and Art
• Chinese artists tried to depict the
idea of the landscape, not how it
appeared realistically. 
(cont.)
• Empty spaces were left in the paintings
because Daoists believe one cannot know
the whole truth. 
• Daoist influence also caused the people
to be quite small in these landscapes, not
dominating but living within nature.
(pages 256–257)
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A Golden Age in Literature and Art
• Ceramics, and especially Tangperiod porcelain, a ceramic made of
fine clay baked at very high
temperatures, flourished. 
(cont.)
• The technique for making porcelain did
not reach Europe until the eighteenth
century.
(pages 256–257)
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The Geography of Japan
• Chinese and Japanese societies have
always been very different. 
• One reason is the differing geographies. 
• Japan is a chain of many islands. 
• The population is concentrated on
Hokkaido, the main island of Honshu,
Kyushu, and Shikoku. 
• Japan’s total land size is about equal to
the state of Montana.
(pages 263–264)
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The Geography of Japan (cont.)
• Much of Japan is mountainous. 
• About 11 percent of the land can be
farmed. 
• Japan is prone to earthquakes. 
• An earthquake almost destroyed Tokyo
in 1923. 
• Because of being geographically
isolated, the Japanese developed a
number of unique qualities, which
contributed to the Japanese belief that
they had a destiny separate from other
peoples.
(pages 263–264)
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The Rise of the Japanese State
• Japanese first settled in the Yamato plain
near present-day Osaka and Kyoto. 
• Society was comprised of clans, and
the people were divided into a small
aristocratic class and a large group of
farmers, artisans, and servants. 
• Local rulers protected the population
in return for a share of the harvest. 
• One Yamato clan gained supremacy
and, in effect, ruled Japan. 
• Other families continued to compete for
power, however.
(pages 264–265)
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The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.)
• Shotoku Taishi (early seventh century)
tried to unify the clans to resist Chinese
invasion. 
• To do this, he imitated to a degree the
Chinese structure of government. 
• He wanted a supreme ruler over a
centralized government to limit the
aristocrats’ power and enhance his own.

• The ruler was portrayed as a divine figure
and the symbol of Japan.
(pages 264–265)
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The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.)
• His successors continued to emulate the
Chinese model. 
• They formed administrative districts. 
• The rural village was the basic
governmental unit. 
• A new tax system was set up so taxes
went directly to the government, not local
aristocrats, and all farmland technically
belonged to the state.
(pages 264–265)
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The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.)
• After Shotoku Taishi’s death in 622, the
Fujiwara clan gained power. 
• In 710, the ruler moved the capital to Nara
and began to use the title “son of
Heaven.” 
• The central government declined because
the noble families were able to keep taxes
from the lands for themselves.
(pages 264–265)
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The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.)
• In 794, the emperor moved the capital to
nearby Heian, present-day Kyoto. 
• The government was returning to the
decentralized system that existed before
Shotoku Taishi. 
• More and more peasants gave their lands
to the aristocrats to avoid paying high
taxes to them, becoming tenant farmers.
(pages 264–265)
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The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.)
• Landed aristocrats increasingly turned to
military power to pursue their interests. 
• This led to the creation of the samurai
(“those who serve”) class. 
• They were like knights and had their own
code, called Bushido (“the way of the
warrior”). 
• Above all, the samurai were loyal to their
lord and employer.
(pages 264–265)
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The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.)
• By the late twelfth century, Japanese
wealthy families were embroiled in almost
constant civil war. 
• Finally, the nobleman Minamoto
Yoritomo defeated several rivals and
set up his power near modern Tokyo. 
• He created a more centralized
government, called the shogunate,
under a military ruler, or shogun. 
• He, not the emperor, had the real power.
(pages 264–265)
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The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.)
• Yoritomo’s Kamakura shogunate lasted
from 1192 to 1333. 
• This system came just in time. 
• In 1281, Kublai Khan invaded Japan
with vastly superior forces. 
• A typhoon, however, destroyed almost
the entire Mongol fleet. 
• Japan would not have foreign invaders
again until 1945.
(pages 264–265)
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The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.)
• The power of local aristocrats grew during
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 
• Heads of noble families, called daimyo
(“great names”), controlled vast landed
estates that were tax exempt. 
• The daimyo relied on the samurai, and a
loose coalition of noble families came into
power.
(pages 264–265)
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The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.)
• By 1500 central power had disappeared.

• The disastrous Onin War, a civil war,
almost destroyed Kyoto. 
• The rivalries of powerful lords plunged
Japan into virtual chaos.
(pages 264–265)
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Life in Early Japan
• Early Japan was largely a farming
society. 
• Due to abundant rainfall, many farmers
grew wet rice, or rice grown in flooded
fields. 
• Trade and manufacturing began to
develop during the Kamakura period. 
• Industries such as paper, iron casting,
and porcelain emerged. 
• Foreign trade with Korea and China
emerged in the eleventh century.
(page 266)
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Life in Early Japan (cont.)
• Women may have had a certain level of
equality with men in early Japan. 
• An eighth-century law guaranteed
inheritance rights for women. 
• Abandoned wives could divorce and
remarry. 
• Even so, women were considered
subordinate to men. 
• A husband could divorce on the grounds
of the wife talking too much, having a
serious illness, or being unable to
produce a male child.
(page 266)
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Life in Early Japan (cont.)
• Women played an active role in various
levels of society. 
• Some were prominent at court, and
some were known for artistic and literary
talents. 
• Women often appear in the paintings of
the time as farm workers, salespersons,
and entertainers.
(page 266)
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Life in Early Japan (cont.)
• Early Japanese worshipped spirits called
kami they believed resided in nature. 
• They also believed their own ancestors
were in the air around them. 
• These beliefs evolved into a kind of state
religion called Shinto (“the Sacred Way”
or “the Way of the Gods”), still practiced
today.
(page 266)
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Life in Early Japan (cont.)
• Shinto evolved into a state doctrine
connected to a belief in the divinity of
the emperor and the sacredness of the
Japanese nation. 
• According to legend, the first emperor
was descended from the sun goddess,
Amaterasu.
(page 266)
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Life in Early Japan (cont.)
• Some Japanese turned to Buddhism,
brought from China during the sixth
century. 
• The sect called Zen became the most
popular. 
• Zen beliefs became part of the samurai
warrior’s code. 
• According to Zen, there are different ways
to achieve enlightenment, a state of pure
being. 
• Some say it can come suddenly, others
that it can be achieved only through strong
self-discipline, especially meditation. (page 266)
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Life in Early Japan (cont.)
• From the ninth to the twelfth centuries,
women were the most productive writers
of prose in Japan. 
• Men in early Japan believed prose fiction
was merely “vulgar gossip.” 
• Women wrote diaries, stories, and novels
to pass the time.
(page 266)
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Life in Early Japan (cont.)
• This tradition produced one of the world’s
great novels, The Tale of Genji, written by
Murasaki Shikibu around the year 1000. 
• The novel traces the life of the noble Genji
as he moves from youthful adventure to a
life of sadness and compassion in his
later years. 
• Throughout, he tries to remain in favor
with the powerful in Japan.
(page 266)
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Life in Early Japan (cont.)
• Landscape served as the means of
expression in Japanese art and
architecture. 
• The landscape around the fourteenthcentury Golden Pavilion in Kyoto shows
a harmony of garden, water, and
architecture. 
• It is one of the world’s treasures.
(page 266)
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The Emergence of Korea
• The Korean Peninsula is only slightly
larger than Minnesota. 
• It is mountainous. 
• No society in East Asia was more
influenced by the Chinese model than
Korea.
(page 267)
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The Emergence of Korea (cont.)
• In 109 B.C., the northern part of the
peninsula came under Chinese control. 
• The Koreans drove them out in the third
century A.D. 
• Three kingdoms emerged: Koguryo in the
north, Paekche in the southwest, and Silla
in the southeast. 
• They were bitter rivals from the fourth to
the seventh centuries.
(page 267)
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The Emergence of Korea (cont.)
• Silla gained control. Korea sank into civil
war after the king of Silla was
assassinated. 
• In the tenth century, the Koryo (root of the
word Korea) dynasty arose in the north. 
• To unify the country, it adopted Chinese
political institutions and stayed in power
for four hundred years.
(page 267)
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The Emergence of Korea (cont.)
• Mongols seized the northern part of Korea
in the thirteenth century. 
• The Koryo dynasty stayed in power. 
• Mongol rule was harsh, however,
especially for the thousands of people
forced to make ships for Kublai Khan’s
invasion of Japan. 
• In 1392, Yi Song-gye seized power and
founded the Yi dynasty in Korea.
(page 267)
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India after the Guptas
Preview of Events
The Decline of Buddhism
• Buddhism was popular among the Indian
people for hundreds of years. 
• A split developed in the followers of
Buddhism in India. 
• One group believed it was following the
original teaching of the Buddha. 
• Its members called themselves the school
of Theravada (“the teachings of the
elders”). 
• They saw Buddhism as a way of life, not
a religion centered on individual salvation.
(pages 268–269)
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The Decline of Buddhism (cont.)
• They claimed that understanding one’s
self is the chief way to gain nirvana, or
release from the “wheel of life.” 
• Another view of Buddhism stressed that
nirvana was achieved through devotion
to the Buddha. 
• This school is known as Mahayana
Buddhism. 
• Its members claimed that Theravada
teachings were too strict for ordinary
people.
(pages 268–269)
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The Decline of Buddhism (cont.)
• To Mahayana, Buddhism is a religion, not
a philosophy. 
• The Buddha was not just a wise man but
also a divine figure. 
• Nirvana is a true heaven. 
• Through devotion to the Buddha people
can achieve salvation in this heaven after
death.
(pages 268–269)
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The Decline of Buddhism (cont.)
• Ultimately, neither sect remained popular
in India. 
• Hinduism and Islam became more
accepted. 
• Both schools of Buddhism were
successful abroad, however, with monks
carrying them to China, Korea, Japan,
and Southeast Asia, where people still
practice Buddhism extensively.
(pages 268–269)
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The Eastward Expansion
of Islam
• In the early eighth century Islam became
popular in the northern Indian
subcontinent. 
• It had a major impact on Indian
civilization. 
• One reason for this success is that it
arrived at a time of political disunity. 
• The Gupta Empire had collapsed, and
India’s almost 70 states warred with
each other.
(page 269)
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The Eastward Expansion
of Islam (cont.)
• At the end of the tenth century, Islam
expanded as rebellious Turkish slaves
founded an Islamic state known as
Ghazni, in present-day Afghanistan. 
• The founder’s son, Mahmud of Ghazni,
took power in 997. 
• He attacked neighboring Hindu kingdoms
and greatly expanded his state.
(page 269)
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The Eastward Expansion
of Islam (cont.)
• Hindu warriors called Rajputs fought
Mahmud in the north. 
• Mahmud’s cavalry outfought their slower
infantry and elephants, however. 
• By 1200, Muslim power was spread over
north India, creating a new Muslim state
known as the Sultanate of Delhi. 
• In the next century, this state extended its
power into the Deccan Plateau.
(page 269)
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The Impact of Timur Lenk
• The Sultanate of Delhi declined by the
end of the fourteenth century. 
• A new military force raided Delhi and then
retreated, but not before massacring
100,000 Hindu prisoners. 
• The commander was Timur Lenk
(Tamerlane).
(pages 269–270)
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The Impact of Timur Lenk (cont.)
• Timur Lenk ruled a Mongol state based
in Samarkand. 
• He seized power in 1369 and began
conquering. 
• He placed Mesopotamia and the region
east of the Caspian Sea under his
control. 
• He died in 1405.
(pages 269–270)
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The Impact of Timur Lenk (cont.)
• His death removed a major threat from the
various states of the Indian subcontinent. 
• By the early sixteenth century, two new
challenges appeared: the Moguls, a
newly emerging nomadic power from the
north, and the Portuguese traders arriving
by sea searching for gold and spices.
(pages 269–270)
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Islam and Indian Society
• Since the Indian Muslim rulers saw
themselves as foreign conquerors, they
tried to maintain a strict separation
between the Muslim ruling class and the
mass of the Hindu population. 
• Muslim rulers tended to be intolerant of
other faiths. 
• They generally used peaceful means to
encourage people to convert to Islam,
however. 
• The sheer number of Hindus convinced
some Muslim rulers that the population
could not be converted to Islam.
(page 270)
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Islam and Indian Society (cont.)
• Muslim rulers did impose Muslim customs
on the Hindus. 
• In general, the relationship between
Muslim and Hindu was that of conqueror
and conquered, and so marked by
suspicion and dislike rather than
friendship and understanding. 
• Hatred and violence between Hindus and
Muslims have plagued Indian history. 
• For example, in 1992 a mob of Hindu
militants sacked a Muslim mosque in
northern India.
(page 270)
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Islam and Indian Society (cont.)
• The mosque was built centuries ago on
a Hindu sacred site.
(page 270)
Economy and Daily Life
• Between 500 and 1500, most Indians
farmed their own small plots. 
• They paid a share of their harvest to a
landlord, basically a tax collector for the
local lord. 
• Many people, such as landed elites and
rich merchants, during this period lived
in cities, however.
(pages 270–271)
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Economy and Daily Life (cont.)
• Many rulers were fabulously wealthy. 
• One maharaja (great king) had more than
a hundred thousand soldiers in his pay,
nine hundred elephants, and twenty
thousand horses. 
• Another kept a thousand women to sweep
his palace. 
• They went before him as he walked.
(pages 270–271)
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Economy and Daily Life (cont.)
• India’s chief source of wealth was
agriculture, but it also was a trade center
between Southwest and East Asia. 
• Internal trade declined during periods of
internal strife. 
• Foreign trade remained high, especially
in the south and along the northwestern
coast. 
• Both areas were on the traditional trade
routes to Southwest Asia and the
Mediterranean Sea.
(pages 270–271)
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The Wonder of Indian Culture
• Indian arts flourished between 500 and
1500. 
• Two of the most important were
architecture and prose literature. 
• Indian architects built magnificent Hindu
temples. 
• Each had a central shrine surrounded
by a tower, a hall for worshippers, an
entryway, and a porch, all set in a
courtyard. 
• The temples and tower were complex
and ornate.
(pages 271–272)
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The Wonder of Indian Culture (cont.)
• The greatest temples probably are at
Khajuraho. 
• Of the 80 built there, 20 are still
standing. 
• They all are buttressed (supported by
stone walls) at various levels on the
sides. 
• This gives a sense of upward movement
similar to the sacred Mount Kailasa in
the Himalaya.
(pages 271–272)
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The Wonder of Indian Culture (cont.)
• Prose was established in India by the sixth
and seventh centuries. 
• By contrast, the novel did not appear in
Japan until the tenth century and Europe
until the seventeenth. 
• One of the greatest masters of Sanskrit
prose was Dandin, who wrote The Ten
Princes in the seventh century. 
• The book fuses history and fiction. 
• Dandin’s powers of observation and
humor give his writing vitality.
(pages 271–272)
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The Land and People
of Southeast Asia
• Southeast Asia lies between China and
India. 
• It has two major parts: a mainland region
extending southward from China to the tip
of the Malay Peninsula, and an extensive
archipelago (chain of islands) that makes
up modern Indonesia and the Philippines. 
• Ancient mariners called the area the
“golden region” or “golden islands.” 
• It contains a vast mixture of races,
cultures, and religions.
(pages 273–274)
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The Land and People
of Southeast Asia (cont.)
• The mainland has many mountain ranges,
between which are fertile valleys. 
• The densely forested mountains often
contain malaria-carrying mosquitoes. 
• Therefore, the people in the valleys were
often cut off from one another.
(pages 273–274)
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The Land and People
of Southeast Asia (cont.)
• Southeast Asia is one of the few parts of
Asia that never unified under a single
government. 
• Rather, separate and distinctive cultures
developed, with different languages,
religions, and other cultural practices.
(pages 273–274)
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The Formation of States
• Between 500 and 1500, states that
adapted Chinese and Indian models to
their own needs developed throughout
Southeast Asia. 
• The Vietnamese were one of the first
people in Southeast Asia to develop their
own culture and state. 
• China conquered Vietnam in 111 B.C. 
• They failed for centuries to make Vietnam
part of China, however.
(pages 274–276)
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The Formation of States (cont.)
• Vietnamese rulers adapted the Chinese
model of governing after overthrowing the
Chinese in the tenth century. 
• The new Vietnamese state–Dai Viet
(Great Viet)– adopted Confucianism,
Chinese court rituals, and the civil service
examination. 
• The state was a dynamic force that
expanded southward to the Gulf of
Thailand by 1600.
(pages 274–276)
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The Formation of States (cont.)
• The kingdom of Angkor arose in the ninth
century in present-day Cambodia, after
the powerful leader Jayavarman united
the Khmer people. 
• He was crowned god-king in 802. 
• Angkor (Khmer Empire) was the most
powerful mainland state in Southeast
Asia. 
• Angkor faced enemies on all sides.
(pages 274–276)
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The Formation of States (cont.)
• Angkor declined with the arrival of the
Thai people in the fourteenth century. 
• Earlier in the eleventh or twelfth centuries,
the Thai began moving southward,
encouraged by the Mongol invasion
of China. 
• The migrating Thai destroyed the Angkor
capital in 1432. 
• The Thai converted to Buddhism and
borrowed Indian political practices, but
evolved their own distinct blend that
became the culture of present-day
Thailand.
(pages 274–276)
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The Formation of States (cont.)
• The Burmans migrated from Tibet
beginning in the seventh century A.D.,
probably to escape advancing Chinese
armies. 
• They were pastoral, but they took up
farming after their arrival in Southeast
Asia. 
• They converted to Buddhism and
established the kingdom of Pagan, which
was active in the sea trade throughout the
region. 
• Pagan declined in the late thirteenth
century due to attacks from the Mongols.
(pages 274–276)
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The Formation of States (cont.)
• The Malay Peninsula and Indonesian
Archipelago were tied to the trade that
passed from East Asia through the Indian
Ocean. 
• The area did not unite under a single
ruler, and peoples lived in several different
communities. 
• Two states did finally emerge. 
• Srivijaya dominated the trade through the
Strait of Malacca beginning in the eighth
century. 
• Sailendra emerged in eastern Java.(pages 274–276)
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The Formation of States (cont.)
• Later the kingdom of Majapahit became
the region’s greatest empire. 
• Then around 1400, the Islamic state of
Melaka began to form. 
• The small town of Melaka on the western
coast of the Malay Peninsula soon
became the area’s major trading post. 
• Eventually almost the entire population
of the region was converted to Islam and
was part of the Sultanate of Melaka.
(pages 274–276)
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Economic Forces and Social
Structures
• Southeast Asian states can be divided
into two groups–agricultural societies
and trading societies–depending on the
basis of their economies. 
• Agricultural societies did some trading,
of course.
(page 277)
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Economic Forces and Social
Structures (cont.)
• Trade reached its height after the Muslim
conquest of northern India. 
• Demand for spices rose and added to the
growing amount of trade, as European
and Southeast Asian wealth grew around
the same time. 
• Merchants from India and the Arabian
Peninsula sailed to the Indonesian islands
to bring back cloves, pepper, nutmeg,
cinnamon, and precious woods like teak
and sandalwood that the wealthy in China
and Europe wanted.
(page 277)
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Economic Forces and Social
Structures (cont.)
• Hereditary aristocrats topped the social
ladder in most Southeast Asian societies,
holding political and economic power. 
• They lived in the cities. 
• Angkor Thom was one, with royal palaces
and parks, a large parade ground,
reservoirs, and temples.
(page 277)
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Economic Forces and Social
Structures (cont.)
• Farmers, fishers, artisans, and merchants
made up the rest of the population. 
• Most people were rice farmers who lived
at a subsistence level and paid heavy rent
or taxes to local landlords or rulers.
(page 277)
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Economic Forces and Social
Structures (cont.)
• Women in most Southeast Asian societies
had more rights than they did in China or
India. 
• Women worked side by side with men in
the fields and often participated in trade.
(page 277)
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Culture and Religion
• Chinese culture affected Vietnam. 
• Indian influence prevailed in most of the
rest of Southeast Asia. 
• Architecture is the best example of the
latter influence, for example the temple of
Angkor Wat in present-day Cambodia. 
• It rises like a 200-foot mountain in a series
of three terraces, and huge walls
surround it. 
• Constructing it took forty years and as
much stone as Egypt’s Great Pyramid.
(pages 277–278)
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Culture and Religion (cont.)
• Hinduism and Buddhism moved into
Southeast Asia beginning in the first
millennium A.D. 
• However, old faiths blended with the
new. 
• The king played an important role in
this process. 
• The ruler was seen as a living link
between the people and the gods.
(pages 277–278)
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Culture and Religion (cont.)
• Buddhism began to have a real impact
with the introduction of Theravada in the
eleventh century, initially in Burma. 
• Eventually, Buddhism became the religion
of the masses of people in Southeast
Asia. 
• Part of the reason is that it teaches that
people can seek nirvana through their
own efforts, they do not need priests or
rulers. 
• In addition, it tolerated local gods, and so
it did not threaten established faiths.
(pages 277–278)
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The Mongols and China
Preview Questions
• What were the major achievements of the
Mongol dynasty? 
• What changes resulted from the Mongol
invasions?
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The Mongol Empire
• The Mongols came from present-day
Mongolia. 
• They were organized loosely into clans. 
• Temujin gradually unified the Mongols.

• In 1206 he was elected Genghis Khan
(“strong ruler”) at a massive meeting in
the Gobi. 
• He devoted himself to conquest.
(pages 253–254)
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The Mongol Empire (cont.)
• The Mongols created the largest land
empire in history, comprising much of
the Eurasian landmass. 
• Its capital was at Karakorum. 
• Genghis Khan died in 1227. 
• Following Mongol custom, the empire
was divided among his sons into several
khanates. 
• Mongol forces soon attacked the
Persians, Abbasids, and the Song.
(pages 253–254)
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Presentation Plus! - Valhalla High School