Ch. 14
Formation of
Western Europe
in the Late Middle Ages
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
Section 1:
The Age of Faith
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe the spiritual revival and the Church reforms that began in the 1000s.
• Summarize the causes and outcomes of the Crusades.
AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !
• WARM-UP – Read “Would You Join a Crusade?” Textbook p. 340
• INTRODUCTION to new Unit
• DISCUSSION of Section 1, Text p. 341 - 346 / packet p. A - B
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 14, Sec. 1 while completing p. 1 and 3 - 4 in packet.
• Study for Quiz
CH 13 Test Make-Ups
Please open your new
from Friday must be
Chapter 14 packet
done by Wed. a.m.
and turn to Page A.
in Tutorials
THE AGE OF FAITH
in the 1000s
Chapter 14, Section 1
Power Point Presentation designed by
T. W. Loessin; Akins H. S.; Austin, TX
“Problems in the Church” – Textbook p. 341; Packet p. A
Problems Facing the Medieval Church
• Lay Investiture
• Simony (a position in the church being
sold by a bishop to the highest
contributor)
• Greedy clergy / obsession with wealth;
corrupt & pampered bishops; even a
few Popes with questionable morals
• Illiterate, uneducated priests
contributed to conflicting beliefs
• Immoral (non-celibate) priests /
illegitimate children
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“Reform and Church Organization” – Textbook p. 341; Packet p. A
CHURCH MAKES EFFORTS TO REFORM
• Pope Leo IX & Gregory VII lead the effort to reform
• Reorganize the structure of the Church hierarchy
• Created the Curia (council of Pope’s advisors)
• Extends the power Popes have over clergy
• Create the Inquisition (Church court)
• Curia clarifies Canon Law
• Enforce laws
POPE
The Curia (Cardinals)
Bishops Bishops Bishops
Priests Priests Priests Priests
T h e
LAY
P e o p l e
Acted as the Church’s
Judicial Branch – served as
a Court & to “police” the
clergy: traveled through
Europe dealing with “bad”
bishops and priests.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CHURCH ATTEMPTS TO MAKE REFORMS – Textbook p. 342; Packet p. A
• Pope Leo IX & Gregory VII lead the effort to reform
• Reorganizes the structure of the Church hierarchy
• Created the Curia (council of Pope’s advisors)
•Extend the power Popes have over clergy
•Creates Inquisition (Church court)
• Curia clarifies Canon Law
• Enforce laws
• Cathedral construction
Notre Dame (Our Lady) Cathedral,
Paris, France
Duomo Cathedral’s
“Flying Buttresses”;
Milano, Italy
CHURCH ATTEMPTS TO MAKE REFORMS – Textbook p. 342; Packet p. A
• Pope Leo IX & Gregory VII lead the effort to reform
• Reorganizes the structure of the Church hierarchy
• Create the Curia (council of Pope’s advisors)
•Extend the power Popes have over clergy
•Creates Inquisition (Church court)
• Curia clarifies Canon Law
• Enforce laws
• Cathedral construction
• Convents for women
• Preaching Friars
• Dominicans and Franciscans
•St. Francis of Assisi
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CHURCH ATTEMPTS TO MAKE REFORMS – Textbook p. 341-342; Packet p. A
• Pope Leo IX & Gregory VII lead the effort to reform
• Reorganizes the structure of the Church hierarchy
• Created the Curia (council of Pope’s advisors)
•Extend the power Popes have over clergy
•Creates Inquisition (Church court)
• Curia clarifies Canon Law
• Enforce laws
• Cathedral construction
• Convents for women
• Preaching Friars (monks)
• The Dominicans founded by a Spaniard, Dominic
• The Franciscans founded by St. Francis of Assissi
• The Cistercians practiced an ascetic life (life of hardship)
• Benedictine Monastery at Cluny (reform movement began here)
• Tithe (church tax) – used to provide social services to people
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Age of Faith also inspired wars of conquest.” – Textbook p. 343; Packet p. A
THE CRUSADES
A 200 year period of 9 separate
military expeditions in which the Western European Christians
attempted to retake the “Holy Land” (Jerusalem)
from the Muslim Empire.
1093 – Byzantine emperor Alexius
sends a request for help
to the West.
H.R.E.
Byzantine.
1071 – Byzantines are defeated at
Battle of Manzikert by the
Seljuk Turks.
Seljuk Turks
Muslim Empire
1095 – Pope Urban II calls for
the First Crusade in a
speech given at
Clermont, France.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 343; Packet p. A
H.R.E.
FRANCE
Clermont
THE FIRST CRUSADE:
Byzantine
Turks
Palestine
Christian forces from western Europe
converged on Constantinople, where
they united with Byzantine forces to
attack Turk armies in Anatolia and
Muslim armies in Syria and Palestine
(the Holy Land).
By 1099 the Crusaders had achieved
their Goal: the capture of the city of
Jerusalem.
Pope Urban II delivers his speech to the Franks and others
at Clermont, France calling for a “Crusade” – a military
campaign to save the Holy Land from the Muslims in 1095.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
The First Crusade
“The taking of Antioch is a story of siege, starvation,
visions, faith and horrible bloodshed.
Marcus Bohemond of Italy had set up the siege of
Antioch. The city spread across rough territory, was
fortified by four hundred towers and sprawled over
twenty-five miles.
Bohemond realized that tactically it was impossible to
take the city by force. The key would be inside help.
The siege had begun in October 1097. Winter had
passed leaving the Crusaders cold, wet, hungry and
discouraged. But Bohemond's spies had found a
weakness in the defenses. He devised a plan, using an
inside traitor who agreed to open a window in a tower
for his men to get in.
The Capture of Antioch
(French - Bibloteque National Du
Paris)
By the end of the evening of July 3, 1098, blood
soaked the city streets. Every Turk was killed. In their
crazed hunger and zeal, many eastern Christians were
slain also by the invading westerners…”
http://www.medievalcrusades.com/antioch.htm
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
The First Crusade:
Europeans took control
of Jerusalem
in July 1099.
Having captured the holy city
for Christianity,
the European Crusaders
established Jerusalem as the
center of their new
“Latin Kingdom.”
This illustration depicts the
subsequent sack of the city, during
which Crusaders massacred its
Egyptian defenders as well as
Muslim and Jewish inhabitants.
Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
The western European Christian
armies of the First Crusade
surrounded the city of Jerusalem in
June 1099.
In mid-July, after a long siege, the
Crusaders stormed into the city and
massacred many of Jerusalem’s
inhabitants.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 345; Packet p. A
In the aftermath of the First Crusade (1096-1099), Europeans carved out four states
in Palestine, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
Many castles and fortresses were built to protect the states from Muslim forces.
The Latin Kingdom, was centered around Jerusalem,
The three other
Crusader states
founded were:
the County of
Tripoli, in modern
Lebanon;
the Principality of
Antioch, in modern
Syria;
and the County of
Edessa, in modern
northern Syria and
southern Turkey.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 345; Packet p. A
In the aftermath of the First Crusade (1096-1099), Europeans carved out four states
in Palestine, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
Many castles and fortresses were built to protect the states from Muslim forces.
The First Crusade was the only successful crusade for the European Christians.
The Muslims gradually recaptured the territory.
Christian
territories
acquired during
the First Crusade
were gradually
lost over the next
100 years.
Jerusalem was
recaptured by
Muslim forces in
1187.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344 - 345; Packet p. A
WHY DID ATTEMPTS TO KEEP the Holy Land FAIL?
Tensions and problems plagued this historic enterprise.
“Worldly” Europeans (cultured and well-educated; not-so-fanatically-religious as the
Crusaders) began to transplant themselves and live in the Holy Land – becoming
involved in the lucrative trade industry. The familiar story of “once you get to know the
enemy – you find they are not so different from you” became the tolerant view of many.
They could not live in constant warfare and so a compromise with the resident Muslims and
Jews seemed best for all involved.
Yet, these European transplants living in the Holy Land depended on soldiers and resources
from the West, which were usually only forthcoming to them if they promised to keep the
lands securely in western Christian hands and not make concessions to the “infidels.” Torn
between trying to live and make a living among neighbors who were the “enemy”
and told to exterminate them at the same time created a perpetual endless struggle.
Rivalries at home in Europe led to factional quarrels that limited any common policy among
the states that had been carved out in the Holy Land by the European powers. Nor was the
situation helped by the arrival of European princes and their followers, as happened when the
Second and Third Crusades came East. During both of these Crusades, European
tensions and jealousies proved just as divisive in the East as they had been at home,
causing them both to fail.
The raucous behavior of the Western Christians, especially in the Fourth Crusade did little
to win the affection of their Eastern Christian“brethren.” Eastern Christians lost interest
in assisting the Western motives after that point.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 345; Packet p. A
Saladin was a Muslim ruler
in the 1100s / (12th c.), during the
time European rulers led Christian
knights and religious fanatics
to the Middle East
in the Crusades.
Saladin fought the Crusaders
several times, and recaptured
Jerusalem for Muslims in 1187
prompting the Second and Third
Crusades.
.
This portrait of Saladin
is in the Uffizi Gallery
Florence, Italy
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
When in 1187 Saladin inflicted a major defeat on a
combined army at Hattin and subsequently took
Jerusalem. The situation had become serious…
leading to
the THIRD CRUSADE.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
When in 1187 Saladin inflicted a major defeat on a
combined army at Hattin and subsequently took
Jerusalem. The situation had become serious…
leading to
the THIRD CRUSADE.
In response to the Pope’s call for this new Crusade,
three Western rulers chose to lead their forces in
person.
These were Richard I, the Lion-Hearted of England,
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
When in 1187 Saladin inflicted a major defeat on a
combined army at Hattin and subsequently took
Jerusalem. The situation had become serious…
leading to
the THIRD CRUSADE.
In response to the Pope’s call for this new Crusade,
three Western rulers chose to lead their forces in
person.
These were Richard I, the Lion-Hearted of England,
Philip II of France,
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
When in 1187 Saladin inflicted a major defeat on a
combined army at Hattin and subsequently took
Jerusalem. The situation had become serious…
leading to
the THIRD CRUSADE.
In response to the Pope’s call for this new Crusade,
three Western rulers chose to lead their forces in
person.
These were Richard I, the Lion-Hearted of England,
Philip II of France,
and Frederick I, known as
Frederick Barbarossa,
the Holy Roman Emperor.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
When in 1187 Saladin inflicted a major defeat on a
combined army at Hattin and subsequently took
Jerusalem. The situation had become serious…
leading to
the THIRD CRUSADE.
In response to the Pope’s call for a new, major
Crusade, three Western rulers undertook to lead
their forces in person. These were Richard I, the
Lion-Hearted of England, Phillip II of France, and
Frederick I, called Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy
Roman Emperor.
Known as the Third Crusade, it has become
perhaps the most famous of all Crusades other
than the First Crusade, though its role in legend
and literature greatly outweighs its success or value.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
THIRD CRUSADE
Frederick Barbarossa was the Holy
Roman emperor and king of Germany.
He wished to restore the glory of the
Roman Empire, but his differences
with the popes of Rome and his
meddling in Italian politics led to
Italian allegiances against him – like
the famous Battle of Legnano, thus
thwarting his ambitions.
Frederick drowned at Cilicia en route
to join the Third Crusade,
and most of his armies returned
to Germany following his death.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
THIRD CRUSADE
Philip II of France had been pushed
into going on the Crusade by a need to
prove he was as tough as his European
rivals – Richard and Frederick.
With little concern for Eastern glories
and missing the comforts of court life
back in Paris he fled the Holy Land in
1191 soon after witnessing Richard’s
bloody Massacre at Acre.
It was clear his boyhood friend and
half-brother Richard was no longer
interested in him … nor his sister,
whose hand he had offered to Richard.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
THIRD CRUSADE
But Richard the Lion-hearted of England,
a great soldier,
was very much in his element.
He saw an opportunity to shine on the
battlefield, to establish links with the local
nobility, and to speak as the voice of all the
Crusader states once Frederick and Philip
were no longer around.
Though he gained much glory, his crusader Armies failed to defeat the
Muslims.
Richard’s frustrations can clearly be seen in what has become known
as his Massacre at Acre. (see reading in packet)
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
THIRD CRUSADE
In the end, on Sept. 2, 1192
Richard negotiated a treaty
with the Muslim leader Saladin
THE TREATY:
• The Muslims will retain
control of Jerusalem.
• Christian pilgrims from the
West and East would be
granted free access to
Jerusalem.
This compromise did not meet with approval
back home in western Europe …
particularly with the Pope.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
In 1204 Pope Innocent III called for the Fourth Crusade.
He got little support from the European monarchs.
However, he rallied a large mass of fervently religious
pilgrims at a tournament in France and…..
off they went again…
bearing crosses and swords.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
In 1204 the Fourth Crusade.
Unfortunately they never made it
to the Holy Land. Instead, they
sacked and looted Constantinople.
Great treasures from the
eastern Orthodox churches
were taken back to the West –
quite a few can still be viewed today
in the
Church of St. Mark’s in Venice, Italy.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
4 May, 2001, Pope's olive branch
to the Orthodox
Greek Orthodox hardliners oppose the
papal visit
Pope John Paul II has asked for
forgiveness for Roman Catholic sins
against the Orthodox faith during
his controversial visit to Greece.
He asked God to pardon sins
committed during the last 1,000
years since the two churches split,
in particular the sacking of
Constantinople by Catholic
Crusaders in 1204.
“For the occasions past and present... may the Lord grant
us the forgiveness we beg of him.”
The Pope's trip had been preceded by demonstrations by Greek
Orthodox hardliners who refer to the pontiff as "the grotesque, twohorned monster of Rome".
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
THE CHILDREN’S CRUSADE
http://www.historyhouse.com/in_history/childrens_crusade/
http://www.straightdope.com/columns/040409.html
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
Other Crusades:
There were several other
western European Christian
kings who conducted
Crusades.
This page of an
illuminated manuscript
(decorated book)
depicts the conquest of
Damietta, Egypt, in 1249
by King Louis IX of France
and his army.
CORBIS-BETTMANN/S. A. Archivo Iconografico
Despite further attempts,
The Europeans would not regain the Holy Land.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Crusades – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
The last Christian stonghold in the Holy Land finally fell in 1291.
European presence in Palestine ends with the fall of the city of Acre in 1291.
As for that Holy City of Jerusalem…
It would be almost 675 years before a
European Army from the “Christian” West
would enter the city again,
under British General Sir Edmund Allenby,
in 1917 (WWI).
Present-day Acre is an important example of an Ottoman walled town, with typical urban components such as the
citadel, mosques, khans, and baths well preserved, partly built on top of the underlying Crusader structures.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
REASONS for Going on the
“Religious Pep Rally”
•
•
•
•
•
Adventure in a foreign, exotic land
Pope assured you a place in heaven
Criminals / debtors would be forgiven
Merchants profited
Kings / Church saw an opportunity to
get rid of troublesome bully knights
• Younger sons not in line to inherit
father’s property, sought lands and
positions of their own.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES
Repeated failures led to the reduced power of Popes
Byzantine Empire is weakened; Turks will now move in
 Religious intolerance grows – against Jews (anti-Semitism);
and against Muslims; contributes to increasing distrust
Muslims have of western Christians
While lords/knights absent; in Europe Kings secure their lands
Trade grows again between West and East –
 improves the Western European’s diet
Creates a money economy in Europe again;
undermining the old Manor system
Europeans become curious about world (further exploration)
discover knowledge and technology of Arabs
Arabic numerals (better than Roman / and a Zero too!!!)
Algebra
Preserved writings of Greeks (Aristotle!) & Romans
Astrolabe
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“CRUSADES” – Review Time
LATIN KINGDOMS
Ch. 14
Formation of
Western Europe
in the Late Middle Ages
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
Section 1:
The Age of Faith
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe the spiritual revival and the Church reforms that began in the 1000s.
• Summarize the causes and outcomes of the Crusades.
AGENDA:
• WARM-UP – Read “Would You Join a Crusade?” Textbook p. 340
• INTRODUCTION to new Unit
• DISCUSSION of Section 1, Text p. 341 - 346 / packet p. A - B
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 14, Sec. 1 while completing p. 1 and 3 - 4 in packet.
• Study for Section 1 Quiz
Ch. 14
Formation of
Western Europe
in the Late Middle Ages
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
Section 1:
The Age of Faith
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe the spiritual revival and the Church reforms that began in the 1000s.
• Summarize the causes and outcomes of the Crusades.
AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !
• WARM-UP – Read History Makers; textbook p. 345
“Saladin” / “Richard the Lion-Hearted”
• DISCUSSION of Section 1, Text p. 341 - 346 / packet p. 1
• DAILY QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read “Gothic Architecture” packet p. 6a;
“Church Architecture” textbook p. 343
Problems Facing the Medieval Church
• Lay Investiture
• Simony (a position in the church being
sold by a bishop to the highest
contributor)
• Greedy clergy / obsession with wealth;
corrupt & pampered bishops; even a
few Popes with questionable morals
• Illiterate, uneducated priests
contributed to conflicting beliefs
• Immoral (non-celibate) priests /
illegitimate children
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Efforts to Reform the Church – Textbook p. 341 - 342; Guided Reading Packet p. 1
1. The Benedictine monastery was founded
at Cluny.
It was all part of the reform movement
(changes) the Church undertook to
clean up the corruption and problems
within itself and return to the basic
principles of Christianity.
The Benedictine abbey in Cluny, France.
During the Middle Ages it excelled in its scholarly academic
work and the dedication it gave to the reform movement in the
Church – correcting the problems that plagued the Church.
Cluny was the leading force in redirecting a European
Christian Church that had somehow got off track
in the Late Middle Ages.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Efforts to Reform the Church – Textbook p. 341 - 342; Guided Reading Packet p. 1
1. The Benedictine monastery was founded
at Cluny.
It was all part of the reform movement
(changes) brought about to return the
Church – including its own corrupt
leadership - to the basic principles of
Christianity.
“Lord, make me an instrument
of your Peace;
where there is hatred,
let me sow love;
where there is injury, pardon;
where there is doubt, faith…
For it is in giving that we receive;
It is in forgiving,
that we are forgiven…”
~ Peace Prayer of St. Francis
Other Monastics – Preaching Friars
Textbook, p. 342
Wandering friars traveled place to place preaching and
spreading the Church’s ideas. St. Francis of Assisi was a
preaching friar who founded of the Franciscan order of
monks.
He placed less emphasis on scholarship and academics,
and more emphasis on charitable works and the importance
of caring for the natural world.
St. Francis of Assisi, for his love
of nature, was named the Patron
Saint of Ecology in 1979 by Pope
John Paul II.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Efforts to Reform the Church – Textbook p. 341 - 342; Guided Reading Packet p. 1
1. The Benedictine monastery was founded
at Cluny.
It was all part of the reform movement
(changes) brought about to return the
Church – including its own corrupt
leadership - to the basic principles of
Christianity.
2. The power of the pope was extended.
In an attempt to reorganize the Church,
the Curia was created, diplomats for the
Pope traveled through Europe, dealing
with bishops and kings.
Acted as the Church’s
Judicial Branch – served as
a Court & to “police” the
clergy: traveled through
Europe dealing with “bad”
bishops and priests.
POPE
The Curia (Cardinals)
Bishops Bishops Bishops
Priests Priests Priests Priests
T h e
LAY
P e o p l e
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Efforts to Reform the Church – Textbook p. 341 - 342; Guided Reading Packet p. 1
1. The Benedictine monastery was founded
at Cluny.
It was all part of the reform movement
(changes) brought about to return the
Church – including its own corrupt
leadership - to the basic principles of
Christianity.
2. The power of the pope was extended.
In an attempt to reorganize the Church,
the Curia was created, diplomats for the Pope
traveled through Europe,
dealing with bishops and kings.
3. Nearly 500 Gothic cathedrals were built and
decorated between 1170 and 1270.
The Church was very wealthy;
cathedrals were meant to represent the
City of God on earth and so were richly
decorated.
Their construction was also a way to foster unity in the
local communities, encourage pride among citizens,
and focus people’s attention to “heavenly” matters.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Crusades also help foster the Age of Faith” – Textbook p. 343; Packet p. 1
THE CRUSADES
A 200 year period of 9 separate
military expeditions in which the Western European Christians
attempted to retake the “Holy Land” (Jerusalem)
from the Muslim Empire.
1093 – Byzantine emperor Alexius
sends a request for help
to the West.
H.R.E.
Byzantine
1071 – Byzantines are defeated at
Battle of Manzikert by the
Seljuk Turks.
Seljuk Turks
Muslim Empire
1095 – Pope Urban II calls for
the First Crusade in a
speech given at
Clermont, France.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Crusades also help foster the Age of Faith” – Textbook p. 343; Packet p. 1
THE CRUSADES - military
expeditions (“holy wars”) in
which the Western European
Christians attempted to retake
Jerusalem (in the “Holy Land”)
from the Muslim Empire.
4. The Byzantine emperor appealed to the
Count of Flanders for help.
The Muslims (Seljuk Turks) were
threatening to conquer his Byzantine
capital of Constantinople.
1093 – Byzantine emperor Alexius
sends a request for help
to the West.
H.R.E.
Byzantine
1071 – Byzantines are defeated at
Battle of Manzikert by the
Seljuk Turks.
Seljuk Turks
Muslim Empire
1095 – Pope Urban II calls for
the First Crusade in a
speech given at
Clermont, France.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Crusades also help foster the Age of Faith” – Textbook p. 343; Packet p. 1
5. Pope Urban II issued a call for a Crusade.
His goal was to recapture Jerusalem and the
Holy Land from the Muslim Turks. There
were economic reasons as well and also his
hope to re-unite the West & East Christians.
4. The Byzantine emperor appealed to the
Count of Flanders for help.
The Muslims (Seljuk Turks) were
threatening to conquer his capital of
Constantinople.
1093 – Byzantine emperor Alexius
sends a request for help
to the West.
H.R.E.
Byzantine
1071 – Byzantines are defeated at
Battle of Manzikert by the
Seljuk Turks.
Seljuk Turks
Muslim Empire
1095 – Pope Urban II calls for
the First Crusade in a
speech given at
Clermont, France.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
THE CRUSADES - military
expeditions (“holy wars”) in
which the Western European
Christians attempted to retake
Jerusalem (in the “Holy Land”)
from the Muslim Empire.
“The Crusades also help foster the Age of Faith” – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. 1
4. The Byzantine emperor appealed to the
Count of Flanders for help.
The Muslims (Seljuk Turks) were
threatening to conquer his capital of
Constantinople.
5. Pope Urban II issued a call for a Crusade.
His goal was to recapture Jerusalem and the
Holy Land from the Muslim Turks. There
were economic reasons as well and also his
hope to re-unite the West & East Christians.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
6. There was an outpouring of support for
the First Crusade.
Knights were fired up to fight by religious
zeal. Others hoped to gain land of their
own, riches, and adventures. Kings saw it
as an opportunity to get rid of
troublesome knights and lords.
“The Crusades also help foster the Age of Faith” – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. 1
REASONS for Going on the
“Religious Pep Rally”
Packet p. B
•
•
•
•
•
Adventure in a foreign, exotic land
Pope assured you a place in heaven
Criminals / debtors would be forgiven
Merchants profited
Kings / Church saw an opportunity to
get rid of troublesome bully knights
• Younger sons not in line to inherit
father’s property, sought lands and
positions of their own.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Crusades also help foster the Age of Faith” – Textbook p. 345; Packet p. 1
“The Crusades also help foster the Age of Faith” – Textbook p. 345; Packet p. 1
4. The Byzantine emperor appealed to the
Count of Flanders for help.
The Muslims (Seljuk Turks) were threatening
to conquer his capital of Constantinople.
5. Pope Urban II issued a call for a Crusade.
His goal was to recapture Jerusalem and the
Holy Land from the Muslim Turks. There
were economic reasons as well and also his
hope to re-unite the West & East Christians.
6. There was an outpouring of support for the
First Crusade.
Knights were fired up to fight by religious
zeal. Others hoped to gain land of their
own, riches, and adventures. Kings saw it
as an opportunity to get rid of troublesome
knights and lords.
7. Four feudal Crusader states were formed,
each ruled by a European noble.
Four states were carved out of the region
known as the “Holy Land” by the European
Christians who won in the First Crusade.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The“The
Crusades
Crusades
– Textbook
also help
p. 344;
foster
Packet
the Age
p. Aof Faith” – Textbook p. 345; Packet p. 1
In the aftermath of the First Crusade (1096-1099), Europeans carved out four states
in Palestine, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
Many castles and fortresses were built to protect the states from Muslim forces.
The Muslims gradually recaptured the territory.
Christian
territories
acquired during
the First Crusade
were gradually
lost over the next
100 years.
Jerusalem was
recaptured by
Muslim forces in
1187.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Crusades also help foster the Age of Faith” – Textbook p. 345; Packet p. 1
Saladin was a Muslim ruler
in the 1100s / (12th c.), during the
time European rulers led Christian
knights and religious fanatics
to the Middle East
in the Crusades.
Saladin fought the Crusaders
several times, and recaptured
Jerusalem for Muslims in 1187
prompting the Second and Third
Crusades.
.
This portrait of Saladin
is in the Uffizi Gallery
Florence, Italy
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Crusades also help foster the Age of Faith” – Textbook p. 345; Packet p. 1
Richard the Lion-hearted King of England who
gained fame for
his role in the
Third Crusade.
“The Crusades also help foster the Age of Faith” – Textbook p. 345; Packet p. 1
THIRD CRUSADE
In the end, on Sept. 2, 1192
Richard negotiated a treaty
with the Muslim leader Saladin.
THE TREATY:
• The Muslims will retain
control of Jerusalem.
• Christian pilgrims from the
West and East would be
granted free access to
Jerusalem.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Crusades also help foster the Age of Faith” – Textbook p. 345; Packet p. 1
4. The Byzantine emperor appealed to the
Count of Flanders for help.
The Muslims (Seljuk Turks) were threatening
to conquer his capital of Constantinople.
5. Pope Urban II issued a call for a Crusade.
His goal was to recapture Jerusalem and the
Holy Land from the Muslim Turks. There
were economic reasons as well and also his
hope to re-unite the West & East Christians.
7. Four feudal Crusader states were formed,
each ruled by a European noble.
Four states were carved out of the region
known as the “Holy Land” by the European
Christians who won in the First Crusade.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
6. There was an outpouring of support for the
First Crusade.
Knights were fired up to fight by religious
zeal. Others hoped to gain land of their
own, riches, and adventures. Kings saw it
as an opportunity to get rid of troublesome
knights and lords.
8. Jerusalem remained under Muslim
control, though unarmed Christian
pilgrims could visit the city’s
holy places.
Richard the Lion-hearted and
Saladin agreed to a truce in 1192.
“A Spanish Crusade” – Textbook p. 346; Packet p. 1
“The Reconquista”
See packet reading,
p. 3 - 4
Reconquista – the
long-term effort
(crusade) to drive the
Muslims out of Spain.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“A Spanish Crusade” – Textbook p. 346; Packet p. 1
9. In Spain, Isabella and Ferdinand used the Inquisition
to suppress heretics.
After years of Muslim occupation; these joint rulers
sought to unify Spain under Christianity and to
consolidate their power over the entire Iberian peninsula.
The political marriage
of Ferdinand of Aragon
and his cousin,
Isabella of Castile in
1469 – uniting their
two kingdoms –
began the process of
creating a unified
Spain first ruled by
Christian monarchs.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“A Spanish Crusade” – Textbook p. 346; Packet p. 1
9. In Spain, Isabella and Ferdinand used the Inquisition
to suppress heretics.
After years of Muslim occupation; these joint rulers
sought to unify Spain under Christianity and to
consolidate their power over the entire Iberian peninsula.
The Spanish Inquisition – the
Church’s trials held to try to
suppress heresy (false teachings).
was also used by the Catholic
monarchs Ferdinand & Isabella as
a means of intimidation and threat
against “infidels” – those who
refused to convert to Christianity,
such as Muslims and Jews.
There is a tragic irony in Ferdinand and Isabella’s
expulsion
of the Muslims and Jews
who refused to convert to Christianity in the 1400s.
In doing so,
they expelled Spain’s brightest
and wealthiest citizens.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Effects of the Crusades” – Textbook p. 346; Packet p. 1
The Crusades 1092 – 1212
10. European kings strengthened their
own power as a result of the Crusades.
The Crusades weakened the power of old
feudal lords in Europe as thousands of
knights died and lords lost their fortunes.
While they were away or being killed in
the Holy Land, kings took over their
lands back home in Europe.
• Jerusalem
EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES
Repeated failures leads to the reduced power of Popes
Byzantine Empire is weakened; Turks will now move in
 Religious intolerance grows – against Jews (anti-Semitism);
and against Muslims; contributes to increasing distrust
Muslims have of western Christians
While lords/knights absent; in Europe Kings secure their lands
Trade grows again between West and East –
 improves the Western European’s diet
Creates a money economy in Europe again;
undermining the old Manor system
Europeans become curious about world (further exploration)
discover knowledge and technology of Arabs
Arabic numerals (better than Roman / and a Zero too!!!)
Algebra
Preserved writings of Greeks (Aristotle!) & Romans
Astrolabe
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Ch. 14
Formation of
Western Europe
in the Late Middle Ages
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
Section 1:
The Age of Faith
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe the spiritual revival and the Church reforms that began in the 1000s.
• Summarize the causes and outcomes of the Crusades.
AGENDA:
• WARM-UP – Read History Makers; textbook p. 345
• DISCUSSION of Section 1, Text p. 341 - 346 / packet p. 1
• DAILY QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read “Gothic Architecture” packet p. 6a;
“Church Architecture” textbook p. 343
Ch. 14
Formation of
Western Europe
in the Late Middle Ages
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
Section 1:
The new Gothic Architecture
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe the spiritual revival and the Church reforms that began in the 1000s.
• Describe the Gothic cathedrals of the 1100s.
AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !
• WARM-UP – Read “History Through Art” Textbook p. 343
• Packet p. 6a – Recognizing Features of the Gothic style
• VIDEO PRESENTATION, David Macauley’s “Cathedral”
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 14, Sec. 2 while completing p. 5 in packet.
• Study for Quiz
Gothic Architecture – Textbook p. 342-343; Packet p. 6a
Notre Dame Cathedral,
Paris, France
Vaulted Ceilings
Many Stained-glass windows
fill church with natural light
Pointed arches,
Steeples and / or spires
Tall walls supported by
“flying buttresses”
“Flying
Buttresses”
“The master builders in France, where the Gothic
style originated, developed certain techniques of
structural engineering….” (Textbook, p. 343)
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Architecture – Textbook p. 344; Packet p. A
GOTHIC Style
• Pointed arches, steeples, spires,
• Tall walls supported by “flying buttresses”
• Vaulted ceilings
• Many windows
creating
• Interiors flooded with natural light
• Late Medieval period
ROMANESQUE Style
• Rounded arches, dome
• Short, thick walls
• Few windows,
creating
• Dark interiors
• Typical style of
Roman / Byzantine period
Comparing
these two
Architectural
Styles
will be on
Test!
Duomo Cathedral; Milano, Italy
construction 1386-1577, west front 1616-1813
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Cathedral of Laon; France, about 1160-1235
Cathedral Notre-Dame; Reims, France
1211 - end of 13th c.
Detail of the buttresses.
Notre Dame Cathedral,
Paris, France
(construction 1163 – 1250)
Detail of the buttresses.
Basilica Saint-Denis; France (1136?- 44)
Basilica Saint-Denis; France (1136?- 44)
Cathedrale Saint-Etienne de Bourges; France
construction 1195-1255
Cathedrale Saint-Etienne de Bourges; France
construction 1195-1255
Cathedral Amiens; France
construction about 1220-1410
Cathedral Amiens; France, about 1220-1410
Cathedral Amiens; France, about 1220-1410
Cathedrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais; France
construction 1247-72
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Wells Cathedral in Somerset England became Britain's first all-pointed and
all-Gothic cathedral when it was rebuilt in 1175. It is considered one of the
most beautiful of Britain's cathedrals, and one of the most influential as
well. Its style became the template of the new trend in British cathedrals
and was to be copied many times.
Below is a detail from the exterior of the cathedral.
Cathedral
Salisbury England,
construction 1220-1258
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The fund-raising social events, the hard work and effort,
the dedication that all went into the construction
of Cathedrals so magnificent in size
brought unity and pride to a local community.
Not to mention, their construction during
Medieval times, served the Church’s purpose
of focusing the people’s attention on God
rather than their harsh and difficult lives.
The physical construction of the Gothic style,
the steeples, spires, pointed arches, and high
vaulted ceilings were all intentionally meant to
direct the person’s attention upward toward
heaven. In this sense, both literally and
symbolically, the Cathedrals serve this purpose
in Medieval Europe.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Gothic Architecture – Textbook p. 342-343; Packet p. 6a
Notre Dame Cathedral,
Paris, France
Vaulted Ceilings
Many Stained-glass windows
fill church with natural light
Pointed arches,
Steeples and / or spires
Tall walls supported by
“flying buttresses”
“Flying
Buttresses”
“The master builders in France, where the Gothic
style originated, developed certain techniques of
structural engineering….” (Textbook, p. 343)
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Church Architecture – Textbook p. 343; Packet p. 6a
GOTHIC Style
• Pointed arches, steeples, spires,
• Tall walls supported by “flying buttresses”
• Vaulted ceilings
• Many windows
creating
• Interiors flooded with natural light
• Late Medieval period
ROMANESQUE Style
• Rounded arches, dome
• Short, thick walls
• Few windows,
creating
• Dark interiors
• Typical style of
Roman / Byzantine period
Comparing
these two
Architectural
Styles
will be on
Test!
Ch. 14
Formation of
Western Europe
in the Late Middle Ages
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
Section 1:
The new Gothic Architecture
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe the spiritual revival and the Church reforms that began in the 1000s.
• Describe the Gothic cathedrals of the 1100s.
AGENDA:
• WARM-UP – Read “History Through Art” Textbook p. 343
• Packet p. 6a – Recognizing Features of the Gothic style
• VIDEO PRESENTATION, David Macauley’s “Cathedral”
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 14, Sec. 2 while completing p. 5 in packet.
• Study for Quiz
Ch. 14 Formation of Western Europe
Section 2:
The Growth of Towns,
Trade and
a Financial Boom
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe medieval advances in agriculture.
• Identify reasons for the expansion of trade and finance in the Middle Ages.
• Describe how the growth of trade encouraged the growth of medieval towns.
• Explain the new interest in learning in the Middle Ages.
AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !
• WARM-UP – Read Daily Life - “Surnames,” Textbook p. 349
• DISCUSSING Homework, CH 14, Sec. 2; Packet p. 5
• DAILY QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 14, Sec. 3 while completing p. 9 in packet.
• Read “William the Conqueror” – packet p. 10
“A Growing Food Supply Means Population Boom” Textbook p. 348, Packet p. 5
1. A warmer climate in Europe
lasted from about 800 to 1200.
Farmers could cultivate lands in regions
that had once been too cold to farm.
2. Farmers began using a new
type of harness that fitted
across a horse’s chest.
Horses gradually replaced oxen for
plowing and pulling wagons.
3. Using the three-field system,
farmers began to grow crops
on two-thirds of their land
each year, rather than half.
Food production, including sources of
vegetable protein, increased –
resulting in longer life-spans and an
increase in population growth.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Guilds” Textbook p. 349; Packet p. 5
Guilds
As more and more people became craftsmen, people of the same craft united together
in order to protect their professional and personal interests. They found that together they
could do more than any one of them alone could do, so they banded together and began an
organization called a guild. Each line of business had its own guild, butchers, bakers, dyers,
shoemakers, masons, tanners, and many others. The purpose of the guild was to make sure
its members produced high quality goods and were treated fairly.
These guilds became very powerful in towns toward the end of the Middle Ages. They
passed laws that controlled competition among merchants, fixed prices and wages, and
limited the hours during which merchandise could be sold. If a stranger came into a town,
he could not sell his goods unless he paid a toll and obeyed the guilds rules. The guild also
took care of the widow and children of a merchant who died and punished members who
used false weights or poor materials.
Learning a Craft
Guilds also ensured that new crafters were properly trained. A boy began his career as an
apprentice. His parents sent him to a master in the craft he was to learn. For a period that
varied from three to eleven years, the boy lived as a part of his master’s household, doing
menial chores and learning his trade. After a boy served his apprenticeship, he became a
journeyman or day worker for his master. In order to become a master himself and join a
guild, he had to demonstrate his skill in his craft by creating a “masterpiece” that was
approved of by the guild.
“A Financial Revolution,” Textbook p. 349; Packet p. 5
4. The Church forbade Christians
from
lending money at interest.
Usury – lending money and
charging interest.
Jews, who were not allowed to make a
living in many occupations, became
moneylenders since their own religion
did not forbid it and it was a way for
them to make income.
Because the Jews became the
wealthy financiers / bankers in
Europe, they were often resented
by the poorer Christian population.
This matter contributed to rising
Anti-Semitism (persecutions of Jews)
in Europe.
Anti-Semitism – prejudice and /
or hatred toward people who are
Jewish.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“Urban Splendor Reborn,” Textbook p. 349; Packet p. 5
5. As trade blossomed and farming
methods improved, the population
of western Europe rose from about
30 million to about 42 million
between 1000 and 1150.
Towns revived and grew again.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“Trade and Town Grow Together,” Textbook p. 350; Packet p. 5
5. As trade blossomed and farming
methods improved, the population
of western Europe rose from about
30 million to about 42 million
between 1000 and 1150.
Towns revived and grew again.
6. As people left life on the manor for
life in towns, they challenged the
traditional ways of feudal society
in which everyone had a place.
(Rule: 1 year + 1 day)
People moved to towns to pursue the
economic and social opportunities
they offered.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“Towns and the Social Order,” Textbook p. 350; Packet p. 5
Growth of the Middle Class
England – Burgesses
France - Bourgeoisie
H.R.E. (Germany) - Burghers
Aristocracy / Nobility –
have their Lands. Up to
now – since Greece and
the Roman Senate - that
has been the requirement
for serving in government
/ political office.
Landowning nobles have
held all political power.
The new Middle Class (merchants) now have
Money!…something the
Aristocracy doesn’t have
unless they sell their lands.
This new middle class
wants Political strength
that will match their
economic strength.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“Trade and Town Grow Together,” Textbook p. 350; Packet p. 5
6. As people left life on the manor for
life in towns, they challenged the
traditional ways of feudal society
in which everyone had a place.
(Rule: 1 year + 1 day)
People moved to towns to pursue the
economic and social opportunities
they offered.
“The Revival of Learning,” Textbook p. 350; Packet p. 5
7. Authors began writing
in the vernacular.
Vernacular – the common
people’s local language.
These writers brought literature to
many people, since most could not
read or understand Latin anymore.
Dante Alighieri – wrote “The Divine Comedy” in the Italian vernacular.
Geoffrey Chaucer – wrote “Canterbury Tales” in the English vernacular.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Dante Alighieri – wrote “The Divine Comedy” in the Italian vernacular.
"The hottest places in hell
are reserved for those who,
in time of great moral crisis,
maintain their neutrality."
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Geoffrey Chaucer – wrote “Canterbury Tales” in the English vernacular.
“Truth is the highest thing that man may keep.”
Canterbury Tales. The Frankeleines Tale. Line 11789.
“Full wise is he that can himselven knowe.”
Canterbury Tales. The Monks Tale. Line 1449.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Revival of Learning,” Textbook p. 350; Packet p. 5
7. Authors began writing
in the vernacular.
Vernacular – the common
people’s local language.
These writers brought literature to
many people, since most could not
read or understand Latin anymore.
Dante Alighieri – wrote “The Divine Comedy” in the Italian vernacular.
Geoffrey Chaucer – wrote “Canterbury Tales” in the English vernacular.
8. Growing trade and growing cities
brought a new interest in learning.
Universities (communities of scholars
and students) arose in Europe.
The First Universities in Europe
• First were in Italy: Bologna and Salerno
• First were devoted to Law and Medicine
• University of Paris in 1200. Students studied law, philosophy, and theology
• Students came mostly from the Middle Classes or Poor. The usual time for a
bachelor’s degree was five years. Examinations were oral and given when the
student thought he was prepared for them.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Muslim Connection,” Textbook p. 351; Packet p. 5
Medieval People Begin to Learn Again
• Contact with Muslims in the Crusades and Muslim universities in Spain
where ancient Greek knowledge had been preserved.
•The beginnings of Chemistry with alchemical interests.
• Geography made great leaps of progress because of commercial interests in
finding a route to Asia by sea and the contribution of Muslim maps.
• The introduction of Arabic Numbers and Algebra.
• Medicine did not advance beyond the Muslims and the Greeks.
At the first medical school, Salerno, the first teachers all came
from Muslim countries.
• The academic emphasis was on the Arts and Humanities not the Sciences.
All the great teachers of Middle Ages were professors of Theology.
e.g. Abelard, Magnus, and Thomas Aquinas.
Thomas Aquinas – wrote “Summa Theologica”
it was a philosophical work on Christian theology.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“Aquinas and Medieval Philosophy,” Textbook p. 351; Packet p. 5
Thomas Aquinas – wrote “Summa Theologica”
he “summed up” the beliefs of Christian theology
in a philosophical way.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Muslim Connection,” Textbook p. 351; Packet p. 5
9. Christian scholars from Europe
visited Muslim libraries in Spain,
and Jewish scholars translated
Arabic copies of Greek writings
into Latin.
Europeans acquired a huge new body
of knowledge.
Spotlight on….
Ibn Rushd, or Averroes lived in
Cordoba Spain and wrote detailed
commentaries on the Greek
philosopher Aristotle’s work. His
explanations of Aristotle in Arabic
were translated into Latin and used
throughout Christian Europe’s
universities in the late Middle Ages –
greatly influencing Western thinking.
Textbook, p. 351
Ch. 14 Formation of Western Europe
Section 2:
The Growth of Towns,
Trade and
a Financial Boom
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe medieval advances in agriculture.
• Identify reasons for the expansion of trade and finance in the Middle Ages.
• Describe how the growth of trade encouraged the growth of medieval towns.
• Explain the new interest in learning in the Middle Ages.
AGENDA:
• WARM-UP – Read Daily Life - “Surnames,” Textbook p. 349
• DISCUSSING Homework, CH 14, Sec. 2; Packet p. 5
• DAILY QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 14, Sec. 3 while completing p. 9 in packet.
• Read “William the Conqueror” – packet p. 10
Ch. 14
Formation of Western Europe
Section 3:
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
England and France Develop
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe the various invaders who contributed to English culture.
• Explain how England’s government took the first steps toward democracy.
• Describe the contributions of France’s Capetian rulers.
AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !
• WARM-UP – Read Connect to Today:“Robin Hood & the Movies,”
Textbook p. 353
• DISCUSSING Homework, CH 14, Sec. 3; Packet p. 8-9
• DAILY QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 14, Sec. 4 while completing p. 13 in packet.
• Read “Joan of Arc” and “Plague” – packet p. 14-15
The Bayeux Tapestry…. Early Propaganda?
The Bayeux Tapestry was made after the Battle of Hastings and Williams’
conquest of England.
Because many of the important facts asserted in the beginning of the
Tapestry are not substantiated by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, nor was any
mention made of them in the official Norman documents preceding the
Conquest, it is a surety that the Tapestry was made to justify William's rather
shaky claim to the English crown. It was William's half-brother, Odo, Bishop
of Bayeux, who commissioned the Tapestry to be made, and it was a stroke
of genius. After it was completed, Bishop Odo had it publicly displayed in his
church in the city of Bayeux (in Normandy), with the obvious intent of
convincing the local population that the invasion had been justified.
Clearly, this was literally the first time in history that facts had been
“embroidered.”
CH. 14
Section 4:
A Century of Turmoil
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Identify the problems that faced the church during the 1300’s and early 1400’s.
• Describe the Hundred Years’ War, it’s cause, and impact it had on Europe.
• Identify the origin of the bubonic plague (Black Death), its symptoms, and
the effects it had on Europe.
AGENDA: Begin your Warm-Up Immediately
• WARM-UP – Skim over “The Bubonic Plague,” Textbook p. 358
• DISCUSSING Homework, CH 14, Sec. 4; Packet p. 13
• REVIEW FOR CH 14 TEST
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• TEST Tomorrow! Tutorials begin at 8:20! Study tonight
CH. 14 in Textbook, your notes, and your Section Quizzes!
What led to the weakening of the Church’s power over people
in the Middle Ages?
• The repeated failures of the Crusades [1092-1291]
• its corrupt clergy and greed – insistent demands for tithes from the poor
while the church’s upper clergy appeared to be living pampered lives.
• an embarrassing Scandal known as the Great Schism [1305-1378]
• its refusal to condemn the barbarism on both sides in the Hundred Years’ War
• its inability to address the needs of the people during the Bubonic plague
• the first appearance of outspoken, critical priests within the Church who
began to question the Pope himself
• Scholars / writers use common people’s vernacular language
brought criticisms of Church to the ear of the common man
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Two
Scholar-Priests
Criticize their
Church
Text, p. 357
These two priests
planted the seeds
for the “Protest”
and call for
“Reform”
in the Church…
John Wycliff
1320 – 1384
Bay of
Biscay
John Hus
1369 – 1415
that 100 years later
would erupt as the
official
“Protestant
Reformation”
led by priest
Martin Luther…
All three would be
excommunicated for
their blunt attacks
on the Church.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“Early Reformist Priests in the Church” Textbook p. 357; Packet p. 13
John Wycliff - English priest and professor at Oxford…
• preached that Jesus, not the Pope, was the true head of Church
• criticized the shameful luxury in which the Pope & priests lived
• tried translating the Bible into vernacular English
• charged with heresy, was excommunicated
John Wycliff
1320 – 1384
John Hus – priest from Bohemia and professor at Prague…
• preached that the Bible, not the Pope, was the authority
• criticized the shameful luxury in which the Pope & priests lived
• began performing the Mass in the people’s vernacular language
• charged with heresy, was excommunicated.
John Hus
1369 – 1415
“Love the Truth. Let others have their Truth.
And the Truth will prevail.”
-John Hus of Bohemia,
-inscribed on his statue today in Old Town Square,
Prague, Czech Republic.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Great Schism [1378 – 1417]”
Textbook p. 356; Packet p. 13
1. When and how did the Great Schism
begin?
The King of France, Philip IV – after
a disagreement with
Pope Boniface VIII –
pressured Church Cardinals to select
a French Archbishop as the new Pope.
The new Pope decides to move out of
Rome to Avignon, France.
• Avignon
The Palace of the Popes; Avignon France.
“The
holy
church
our
Lordrioted
Jesus
When this
French
Popeof
died,
Italians
and Christ,
demanded their own
replacement
in Rome.
the new
Urban –
VI, began to behave
fully perfect
andBut
divine,
isPope,
inerrant
like a tyrant and the Cardinals declared his election void. The new
(incapable
choice,
Clementof
VIIerror),
could not convince Urban VI to step down, so
the same
is“Roman”
true of court
the apostolic
see
Clement
and his
retreated to Avignon.
For the next
39and
yearsthe
there
were two
popes
ruling in Rome
Avignon – each
pontiff
who
assumes
that and
throne.”
refusing to step down. All attempts to fix this “Great Schism” in the
– Pope Innocent III.
Western Church met with failure, until…
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Great Schism [1378 – 1417]”
1. When and how did the Great Schism
begin?
The King of France, Philip IV – after a
disagreement with
Pope Boniface VIII – pressured Church
Cardinals to select a French Archbishop
as the new Pope.
The new Pope decides to move out of
Rome to Avignon, France.
Textbook p. 356; Packet p. 13
2. When and how was the Great
Schism resolved?
In 1417, the Council of Constance
forced 3 Popes all to resign and
replaced them with one new Pope.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Great Schism [1378 – 1417]”
Textbook p. 356; Packet p. 13
In addition to resolving the Great
Schism issue, the Council of Constance
also addressed other issues. As for
priests who dared provide God’s word
in the people’s languages – Hus and
Wycliff were put on trial.
Though Wycliff had already been dead
44 years, the new Pope ordered his
bones be dug up, crushed, and thrown
into the river. The Bohemian priest
John (Jan) Hus endured a humiliating
trial, horrific imprisonment, before
being burned at the stake, July 6, 1415.
• Constance
HOLY
ROMAN
EMPIRE
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Great Schism [1378 – 1417]”
1. When and how did the Great Schism
begin?
The King of France, Philip IV – after a
disagreement with
Pope Boniface VIII – pressured Church
Cardinals to select a French Archbishop
as the new Pope.
The new Pope decides to move out of
Rome to Avignon, France.
Textbook p. 356-357; Packet p. 13
2. When and how was the Great
Schism resolved?
In 1417, the Council of Constance
forced 3 Popes all to resign and
replaced them with one new Pope.
3. How did the Great Schism affect
medieval life?
It weakened the power the Church
once had over people’s lives. The
scandal was an embarrassment and
showed the church was imperfect –
people began to Question.
The Papacy
Vatican coat of arms
Vatican City, Rome Italy
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Black Death [1347 - 1352]”
Textbook p. 357; Packet p. 13
The Black Death
The Bubonic Plague - Pandemic of the 14th c.
Origin – Asia (region of Gobi desert north of China.)
- Mongol unification of Asia created circumstances making it’s spread possible.
- First reports of illness in China in 1333 A.D.
- First reports of illness in Middle East in 1346 A.D.
- Reports of in eastern Europe (Crimea region) 1346 A.D. - story of bodies being
catapulted over walls of Caffa during Muslim siege of city.
- Spread: as a result of Trade.
- Carrier: the Black Rat.
- Transmitter: the flea!
4. Where did the plague begin and
how did it spread?
Began in Asia – spread to Europe
through trade.
Arriving in port cities on rat-infested
trade ships.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Like other rats,
it carries a number of diseases,
including bubonic plague, which is
transmitted by its fleas.
Black Rat (Rattus rattus)
“The Black Death [1347 - 1352]”
Textbook p. 357; Packet p. 13
SYMPTOMS
I. High Fever
II. Bubous sores
(got it’s name “Bubonic”!)
III. Black Lesions / dead skin
(got its name “Black Death”!)
IV. Death came in a matter of weeks
PRESUMED CAUSES Back Then…..
A. The water? Stop bathing!
B. Cats? Poor London’s mistake….
C. Sin! God’s punishment!
D. The Jews become scapegoat
The doctor's protective robe.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Ironically?… in the century
following a century that
Christian Europe had begun
aggressively persecuting and
expelling the children of Israel
– the Jews – a deadly plague
befell the European continent
that would kill nearly a half of
its population. The plague
would only contribute to the
rising Anti-Semitism already
prevalent in Europe.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Belief: The
plague is God’s
punishment for
man’s sin.
By punishing
ourselves we
can ward off
God’s
punishment.
THE CULT of
The FLAGELLANTS
“Procession of Flagellants on Good Friday”
painted by Francisco Goya.
Belief: The
unclean
in the was still active and spreading from town to town, men in
“While
the plague
towns and
Germany,
Flanders, Hainault and Lorraine uprose and began a new sect on their
communities
ownmust
authority.
Stripped to Large
the waist,
they gathered in large groups and bands and
be brought
numbers
marchedout
inand
procession throught
of Jews
thewere
crossroads and squares of cities and good
rounded
upupon
and their backs with weighted scourges,
towns.punished.
They formed circles
and beat
The Pope
burned alive in
rejoicing as they did so in loud
voices and singing
hymns
suitable to their rite and
finally
condemns
several cities.
thethrough
sect
newly composed for it. Thus, for 33 days they marched
many towns
orders people. They
doing penance and affording a great spectacle to theand
wondering
the madness
flogged their own shoulders and arms, scourged withtoiron
points so zealously as
STOP!
to draw blood." ~ Jean de Venette
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Black Death [1347 - 1352]”
Textbook p. 358; Packet p. 13
The Black Death
1347: Messina, Sicily [Black Rat arrives in port]
1348: Marseilles, France
1348-9: England, Spain
1349: Eastern Europe, Iceland,
1350: Wipes out Greenland
1352: Begins to show signs of ending
-Repetitions up until 1720s
Total Dead?
1/3 to perhaps 1/2
of Europe’s entire population
40 – 50 million people
in the course of 5 years!
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
QUARANTINED!
“The Black Death [1347 - 1352]”
Textbook p. 359; Packet p. 13
Effects of the Plague
I. Economic Effects – “Golden Age of the Laborer”
Labor Shortage!
- short Supply of workers; workers Demand more pay!
Inflation!
- to pay workers more, producers must raise price of goods.
Collapse of Manor system and “serfdom”
- peasants move in to take available jobs in towns
especially in England and France.
Peasant’s Revolts become frequent
- when officials attempt to set wages
4. Where did the plague begin
and how did it spread?
Began in Asia – spread to Europe
through trade.
Arriving in port cities on
rat-infested trade ships.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
5. What were some economic effects of
the plague?
Decline in population meant short supply
of workers demanding more pay and fewer
people buying goods all led to inflation of
prices. Peasant’s revolts and their move to
towns led to collapse of Manor system.
“The Black Death [1347 - 1352]”
Textbook p. 359; Packet p. 13
Effects of the Plague
II. Cultural / Social Effects
A. Art reflects Society: Images of Death, Realism
B. Examples of Religious Fanaticism:
Flagellants, Anti-Semitism
C. Lack of restraint / Hedonism
“…for tomorrow you die!”
D. Psychological effects
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Black Death [1347 - 1352]”
Textbook p. 359; Packet p. 13
Effects of the Plague
III. On the Church
A. The Church couldn’t save.
People lose faith in the institution; not God.
B. Connection to upcoming Protestant Reformation:
Who would help a plague victim?
A good, self-less priest?
So then, which priests all died?
The good priests?!
Leaving now the more
self-centered priests?
A church filled with such
self-seeking priests would be
in need of Reformation.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Black Death [1347 - 1352]”
Textbook p. 357 – 359; Packet p. 13
4. Where did the plague begin
and how did it spread?
Began in Asia – spread to Europe
through trade.
Arriving in port cities on
rat-infested trade ships.
Effects of the Plague
5. What were some economic effects of
the plague?
Decline in population meant
short supply of workers demanding
more pay and fewer people buying
goods all led to inflation of prices.
Peasant’s revolts and their moves
to towns led to the collapse of the
Manor system.
6. How did the plague affect
the Church?
The Church was helpless to stop it.
People questioned it’s power and so
the Church lost the prestige it once
had.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Hundred Years’ War [1337 - 1453]”
Textbook p. 359; Packet p. 13
7. What was the primary reason for the
Hundred Years’ War between England
and France?
King Edward III of England claimed the
French throne to be his when the last Capetian
king of France died leaving no heir.
Conflicts between England and France lasted
from
1337 to 1453, with intermittent truces.
Hostilities
began when King Edward III of England (shown
in
painting at right) declared he had a legitimate
claim
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Hundred Years’ War [1337 - 1453]”
Textbook p. 360 – 361; Packet p. 13
• As a young girl, claimed she had visions
telling her to drive the English invaders
out of France and that the throne
belonged to the young dauphin, Charles.
• She rallied the spirits of her beaten French
countrymen and led them to victory at
Orleans, France. This victory helped
Charles VII to become king of France.
• Was captured by the English, put on trial for
witchcraft / heresy, and burned at the stake.
• Is today considered a Saint in the Roman
Catholic Church.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
“The Hundred Years’ War [1337 - 1453]”
Textbook p. 361; Packet p. 13
8. What was the outcome of the war?
The French eventually won and the English
left France, except for the port city of Calais.
Final English victory –
Battle of Agincourt, Oct. 25, 1415
• Calais
By 1360, Edward III abandoned his claim to the
French throne in exchange for control of
southwest France. With the introduction of a
property tax and a head tax in 1439, France
was able to increase the strength of its
military. The French invaded Normandy and
defeated the English, who retained only the
city of Calais on the European mainland.
One of the most memorable moments in the battle at
Agincourt was before it even started. The English King
Henry V gave a speech that rallied his men to fight.
This speech was adapted into Shakespeare's Henry V. *
The English army prevailed against heavily armored
knights of the French cavalry which floundered in the
mud and was wiped out by a hail of English longbow
arrows that rained down on them.
“The Hundred Years’ War [1337 - 1453]”
Textbook p. 361; Packet p. 13
9. How did the war affect medieval society?
Terrible costs in lives lost, money & property damage
for both France and England;
Gave rise to the first real feelings of “Nationalism”
(patriotism) which replaced old feudal loyalties;
Ended the Age of Chivalry [armored knight warfare]
signified by the success of a trained army’s longbows.
Not only did the Age of Chivalry end after the Hundred Years’ War…
but so did the Age of Faith…
many Europeans – English, French, and others –
came to later resent the Church’s appalling silence and helplessness
during this century of carnage and death.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
What led to the weakening of the Church’s powerful hold over people
in the Middle Ages?
• The repeated failures of the Crusades [1092-1291]
• its corrupt clergy and greed – insistent demands for tithes from the poor
while the church’s upper clergy appeared to be living pampered lives.
• an embarrassing Scandal known as the Great Schism [1305-1378]
• its refusal to condemn the barbarism on both sides in the Hundred Years’ War
• its inability to address the needs of the people during the Bubonic plague
• the first appearance of outspoken, critical priests within the Church who
began to question the Pope himself
• Scholars / writers use common people’s vernacular language
brought criticisms of Church to the ear of the common man
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Pre-A.P.
SHORT
ESSAY
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH. 14
Section 4:
A Century of Turmoil
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Identify the problems that faced the church during the 1300’s and early 1400’s.
• Describe the Hundred Years’ War, it’s cause, and impact it had on Europe.
• Identify the origin of the bubonic plague (Black Death), its symptoms, and
the effects it had on Europe.
AGENDA:
• WARM-UP – Skim over “The Black Death,” Textbook p.
• DISCUSSING Homework, CH 14, Sec. 4; Packet p. 13
• REVIEW FOR CH 14 TEST
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• TEST Tomorrow! Tutorials begin at 8:20! Study tonight
CH. 14 in Textbook, your notes, and your Section Quizzes!
This series of conflicts between England and France
lasted from 1337 to 1453, with intermittent truces. The
hostilities began when King Edward III of England
declared he had a legitimate claim to the French
throne. Early battles ended in English victories
primarily due to better organization and strong
nationalism. In 1348, however, the Black Death
(plague) slowed all fighting for a time.
By 1360 with the Peace of Brétigny, Edward III
abandoned his claim to the French throne in
exchange for control of southwest France. With the
introduction of a property tax and a head tax in
1439,France was able to increase the strength of its
military. The French invaded Normandy and
surrounding areas, and defeated the English, who
retained only the city of Calais on the European
mainland.
• In England, the burghers (middle class tradesmen)
• Formed guilds (unions of same professionals). Guilds gave workers collective strength.
• This middle class grew wealthy from trade and business
• Middle class were heavily taxed for their income but had no say in the matter
• They desired political power that equaled their economic power.
• With the nobility and the burghers angry at King John, he is forced to sign Magna Carta.
It provides for “no taxation without representation.”
• This act necessitates the creation of the House of Commons in the English Parliament
since the king can’t raise taxes now without all citizen’s consent. These moves brought
about democratic rights for citizens in England.
• In France, the bourgeoisie (middle class) also had no voice in government in the beginning
• They too had economic wealth, were being heavily taxed and desired a voice in the matter.
• Philip IV creates the 3rd Estate (a representative house within France’s Estates-General)
that would include representatives of the commmoners and middle class.
• In Hundred Years’ War, old feudal lord and knights lost power as the longbows of
trained national armies fared better against the old armored knights.
• Needing money to fight the battles in this War, the kings turned to their wealthy middle
class for money and goods. This made the kings realize the “power of the purse” the
middle class had and they began to rely more heavily on them rather than old feudal
nobility.
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Problems Facing the Church - Austin Independent School