Learning Support in Academic
Writing for
Final Year Project (FYP) Students
Íde O’Sullivan and
Lawrence Cleary
Plan of Seminars
Seminars:



Tuesdays, 17:00-19:00
Weeks 3, 4, and 5
C1060
Drop-in/One-to-One Sessions:
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01/03/06
Tuesdays 17:00-19:00
Weeks 6, 7, and 8
A1050
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
2
Plan of Seminars
Seminar 1(week 3):
Layout/presentation/structure
Academic writing style
Referencing
Seminar 2 (week 4):
Writing an effective abstract,
introduction and conclusion
Developing and sustaining an argument
Seminar 3 (week 5):
editing and proof reading
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
3
Seminar 1
FYP Presentation and Layout
Structure of FYP
Overall structure
Paragraph structure
Sentence structure
Academic Writing Style
Referencing
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
4
Presentation of the Project
The College of Humanities Booklet for the
Class of 2008, Section 3 and the Project
Information Booklet for BA Applied
Langauges, Class of 2008, Section 4 lists
some specifications for the Presentation of
FYPs.
These specifications instruct that…
the project will be typed on one side only
on A4 paper,
Continued…
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Presentation of the Project
The left and bottom margins will be 3.5cm
wide; the remaining margins will be 1.5cm
wide.
1.5 or double-spacing will be used, except
when blocking quotes and annotations,
which are indented and single-spaced.
This is the extent of the formatting
requirements given in the handbook.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
6
Presentation of the Project
The following are suggested specifications for
other formatting issues:
Font:
A 12 font is recommended in the main
text. Blocked quotes usually contain
reduced fonts. This depends on the
documentation style used
Do not use a font smaller than 10.
Though chapter headings may be slightly
larger, it is unnecessary to use larger
fonts on section headings.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
7
Presentation of the Project
Font (cont.)
Do not use Sans Serif fonts.
Use Serif fonts like Times New
Roman and Georgia.
Stay away from fancy or comical
fonts (try to emulate professional,
academic texts).
Do not mix fonts. Continued…
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
8
Presentation of the Project
Pagination:
Pagination requirements can vary, so
check with your FYP supervisor.
Most typically, only the Main Content
pages, beginning with the first page of
the Introduction and ending with the last
page of the Conclusion are numbered.
However, it is not unusual to see page
numbering extending to all parts of the
report.
Continued…
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
9
Presentation of the Project
Pagination (cont.)
Page numbers in the Main Text are
numbered 1., 2., 3., etc., and begin on the
first page of the Introduction.
The first page number is centered at the
bottom of the page. Subsequent page
numbers are placed in the upper right
hand corner of the page.
Some templates for pagination require
that page numbers extend to the last
page of the end matter (Appendices or
Glossory.
Continued…
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
10
Presentation of the Project
Pagination (cont.)
If page numbers extend into the
preliminary material, the title page is
page one, but is not numbered.
Preliminary pages are numbered with
small Roman numerals: ii, iii, iv, v, etc.
These numbers are centered at the
bottom of the page.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Presentation of the Project
Headings
Headings, like titles, should inform
the reader about the textual
organization of ideas.
Numbering Systems
Headings are typically numbered
as follows:
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
12
Presentation of the Project
Headings
First Level,
Chapters
Arabic
Numerals
1., 2., 3., etc.
Second Level
Decimal subdivision of
First Level
1.1, 1.2, 1.3,
etc.
Third Level
Further Subdivision
1.1.1, 1.1.2,
1.1.3, etc.
Further Subdivision
1.1.1.1,
1.1.1.2,
1.1.1.3, etc.
Fourth Level
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Presentation of the Project
Numbering Systems (cont.)
Level One headings such as chapter
headings begin a new page. They are in
bold font, centered and in UPPERCASE.
The text follows two to four lines below
the heading.
Level Two is in bold font, centered and in
Title Case. The text follows two spaces
below the heading.
Level Three is left aligned, in bold, and in
Title Case. Two spaces separate the text
from the heading above.
Continued…
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
14
Presentation of the Project
Level Four is in bold font, left aligned,
indented, and ends with a full-stop. Level
four headings are on the same line with
the text.
Level Five is rarely used, but is akin to
Level Three in appearance, except that it
constitutes the initial words in the
sentence that begins the paragraph it
begins and, like Level Four, is on the
same line as the text of the paragraph.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Presentation of the Project
Numbering System for Tables
and Figures:
Figures:
All illustrations, drawings, maps, and
charts are considered to be Figures.
A number designation and title is
placed below the Figure.
Tables
Number designations and titles are
placed above the Table.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
16
Presentation of the Project
Numbering System for Tables and
Figures:
Some Figures and Tables such as those
presenting raw data are best suited for
placement in the Appendices. When
referring to these Figures and Tables in
your text, refer to the Appendix,
numerical designation and title, the table
or figure’s numerical designation and title
and the page number, if available.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
17
Presentation of the Project
Numbering System for Tables and
Figures:
Graphics that are appropriate for
inclusion in your text should be referred
to textually before inclusion.
The reference should be to the Numerical
Designation and Title.
If the graphic is often referred to in your
text, the the placement of the graphic
should follow the first textual reference.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
18
FYP Presentation and Layout
A major report
or thesis is
generally
divided into
three parts.
01/03/06
Preliminaries
Main Text
End Matter
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Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
19
The Preliminaries
The following might be included
in the preliminary section:
Cover, or Cover Page
Title and Subtitle
Correction Sheet
Abstract (on separate page)
List of Contents
Continued…
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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The Preliminaries
List of tables, illustrations, etc.
List of Accompanying Material
Preface
Acknowledgements
Author’s Declaration
Definitions; List of Abbreviations
The inclusion of all of the material listed
may not be required. Check with your
FYP supervisor.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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A List of Abbreviations
AD
a.m.
after the birth of
christ
before noon
Mon.
Monday
op.
os
PS
01/03/06
opus
old series; original
series
post
script
FYP Seminar University
Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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The Cover
The Final Year Project’s cover
should present the following
information:
Undergraduate’s Name
Title of the Project
Degree Title
Option Title
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Title Page
The title page should include the
following:
Undergraduate’s Name
Undergraduate’s ID
Number
Title of the Project
Continued…
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Title Page
Internal Supervisor’s Name
External Examiner’s Name
Degree Title
Option Title
Date
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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The Main Text
The Main Text is divided into chapters.
 Introduction
 Chapters and Sections that inform the
reader of the context for the arguments
posed, explain the methods of inquiry and
the procedure used to gather data or
evidence, present the findings, discuss the
findings, draw conclusions from the
findings, and develop the argument.
 Conclusions and Recommendations
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Overall Structure of FYP
All research is conducted for the
purpose of answering a question,
validating a hypothesis or proving
a claim. The structure of the FYP is
based on a logical development of
those ideas that work together to
answer that question or to prove the
validity and reliability of a hypothesis
or a claim.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Overall Structure of FYP
It is for this reason that, after the
question, hypothesis, or claim is
presented in the introductory
chapter, a subsequent chapter might
introduce the context of the
conversation and the scope of the
investigation by giving incite into the
research that you consulted in your
effort to answer your question,…
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Overall Structure of FYP
…the methods used to gather evidence
and to analyse that evidence might be
stated in the same or a third chapter.
A fourth chapter might present
the evidence found and the analysis, or
else the execution of each task, the
presentation and the analysis, might
each comprise their own chapters.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Overall Structure of FYP
Finally, a chapter that draws
conclusions from that analysis of
the evidence and comments on the
validity and reliability, or the
significance of, those conclusions
usually closes the Main Section. Here,
also, recommendations for future
research might be made.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Structuring the Main Text
Typically, then, an FYP is organized
around a problem and a hypothesis,
or a claim and a reason. A possible
structure for FYP organization follows:
Chapter 1- Introduction (in detail
in Seminar 2)
Introduction to area to be
researched (context)
Research question/s (objectives)
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
continued…
31
Structuring the Main Text
Hypothesis/es
Methodology (including
statement on ethics)
Assumptions
Delimitations
Definition of terms
Chapter outline (plan)
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Structuring the Main Text
Chapter 2 - Background and
Literature Review
Introducing the Chapter: What
does Chapter 2 consist of? What
is its unifying point of order?
Sections on each of the main
areas of literature you reviewed
Conclusion/s based on Chapter 2
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Structuring the Main Text
Make sure…


that the literature reviewed is
relevant (do not “write down all
you know about…”) and
that the discussion of the
literature is not too long - there
must be a balance between this
section and the remaining
sections.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Structuring the Main Text
Chapter 3 - Data Collection
and Analysis
Introduction: What does Chapter
3 consist of?
Data collection (Steps you took,
methodology)
Data analysis
Conclusions based on Chapter 3
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Structuring the Main Text
Make Sure…



01/03/06
that you section the analysis so that the
argument unfolds in a clearly stated,
detailed, logical progression of ideas.
that you view the data objectively. Don’t
ignore data that disproves the hypothesis
or claim. This data speaks to the degree
to which the conclusions can be
considered reliable.
that the methodology addresses both the
procedure for the collection of your data
and the one for your analysis.
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
36
Structuring the Main Text
Chapter 4 – Conclusion (in detail in
Seminar 2)
How has your primary and secondary
research (Chapters 2 and 3) helped
answer the research questions you had
in Chapter 1?
Have your hypotheses been
proved/disproved/partially proved?
continued…
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Structuring the Main Text
Continued…
 Use conclusions from Chapter 2 and
Chapter 3 to form overall
conclusions.
 Discuss the implications.
 Did the study raise any further
questions?
 Any recommendations for future
research?
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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End Matter
The End Matter generally consists of:
a References page and/or a
Bibliography,
Appendices, and
in some technical reports, a glossary
might be found at the end of this
section.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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REVIEW
The Final Year Project is not a
Magical Mystery Tour!
The FYP has a clear structure.
From beginning to end, the point of order
is the initial question, claim or
hypothesis.
Chapter and section headings announce
the organization with a logical, linear,
progressive arrangement of ideas.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Overall Structure of FYP
At its simplest, the structure…
…contains an Introductory chapter
…provides context (relevant
theoretical, historical background)
…includes a study / analysis of its
subject data (1 or 2 chapters)
…comes to a Conclusion and,
perhaps, recommends future
research.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
41
Paragraph Structure
Chapters or sections are divided
into paragraphs in a meaningful
way,
and like chapter and section
headings, paragraphs also signal
the logically organized
progression of ideas.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
42
Paragraph Structure
Every sentence in a paragraph
develops one topic or idea, and each
paragraph in an argumentative essay,
likewise, develops the line of
argument that supports the thesis
statement.
The topic of one paragraph should
follow logically from the topic of the
last paragraph and should lead on to
the topic of the next paragraph.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
43
Paragraph Structure
Just as an essay is guided by a thesis
statement, a paragraph is organized
around its topic sentence.
A topic sentence informs the reader
of the topic to be discussed.
A topic sentence contains controlling
ideas which limit the scope of the
discussion to ideas that are
manageable in a paragraph.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
44
Topic Sentence: Example
The Arabic origin of many English
words is not always obvious.
The topic is ‘the Arabic origin of many
English words’.
The paragraph is limited to a
discussion of how that ‘Arabic origin’
is not always easy to detect.
The paragraph may be organized
around some examples of English
words for which the Arab origins are
not so obvious (Oshima and Hogue, 1999: 20).
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
45
Paragraph Structure:
Supporting Sentences
The sentences that follow expand upon the
topic, using controlling ideas to limit the
discussion.
The main idea is supported by
Evidence in the form of facts, statistics,
theoretical probabilities, reputable, educated
opinions,
Illustrations in the form of examples and
extended examples, and
Argumentation based on the evidence presented.
Qualifying statements indicate the limitations of
the support or argument.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
46
Paragraph Structure:
Concluding Sentences
Not every paragraph needs a
concluding sentence.
Concluding sentences can either
comment on the information in the
paragraph, or
They can paraphrase the topic
sentence, or
They can transition into the topic or
aspect of the topic to be discussed in
the paragraph that follows.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Paragraph Structure: Unity
Paragraphs should be unified.
‘Unity means that only one main
idea is discussed in a paragraph.
The main idea is stated in the
topic sentence, and then each
and every supporting sentence
develops that idea’ (Oshima and
Hogue, 1999: 18).
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
48
Paragraph Structure: Coherence
Coherence means that your
paragraph is easy to read and
understand because
your supporting sentences are in some
kind of logical order and
your ideas are connected by the use of
appropriate transition signals ’ (Oshima
and Hogue, 1999: 18).
your pronoun references clearly point to
the intended antecedent.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
49
Paragraph Structure:
Transition Signals
Transition signals do exactly what it
says on the tin: they ‘signal’. They
can signal relationships between
sentences, just as they can signal
relationships between paragraphs.
Example: ‘Finally, there have been numerous
women altogether outside the profession who were
reformers dedicated to creating alternatives’
(Gillet, 2005: Online).
The signal indicates the final point in
a series of points.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
50
Paragraph Structure
Dos and Don’ts
Do not use pronouns to refer to an
antecedent in the previous paragraph.
Lengthy paragraphs indicate a lack of
structure.
Short paragraphs indicate a lack of detail
or evidence to support the argument.
Do not end a paragraph with a quotation.
Use a variety of sentence patterns and
lengths to give your paragraph a lively
rhythm.
Signpost your paragraph organization.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
51
Sentence Structure
Vary your rhythm by using a
variety of sentence types and
patterns. Use a combination of
Simple sentences
Compound sentences
Complex sentences
Compound-Complex sentences
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
52
Sentence Structure
Simple sentences are single
independent clauses. They have a
subject, a verb, and express a
complete thought:
Jesus wept.
My aunt set her alarm and went to
bed.
Trevor and Mairead are too young to
be out this late.
I’m leaving at six and coming back at
ten.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
53
Sentence Structure
Compound sentences consist of
two independent clauses.
I told him not to buy that car, but
he just couldn’t resist.
I told him not to buy that car; he
bought it nonetheless.
I told him not to buy that car;
however, he was unable to resist.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
54
Sentence Structure
Complex sentences combine an
independent clause with one or more
dependent (subordinate) clauses.
Subordinate clauses contain a
subject, a verb, but do not express a
complete thought.
The relationship between the
subordinate clause and the
independent clause is expressed by a
subordinating conjunction.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
55
Sentence Structure
There are three types of subordinate
clauses:
Noun clauses: That I had stayed up all
night working on it didn’t seem to be
important.
Adjective clauses: The woman who is
waving is my mother.
Adverb clauses: After adding up all the
sales, Mary discovered that the lemonade
stand was 32 cents short.
Mary discovered that the lemonade stand
was 32 cents short after adding up all of
the sales. FYP Seminar University Limerick
01/03/06
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
56
Sentence Structure
Compound-Complex Clauses
consist of two independent
clauses combined with one or
more subordinating clause.
While driving to the shop, I was
thinking that we should reconsider
our decision, and I told myself that
I would talk to you about it when I
got home.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
57
Academic Writing Style
Clarity of expression
‘Clear writing is direct, orderly, and
precise’ (Ebest et al. 97).
Voice:
Replace personal references, e.g. "I aim
to" with passives, e.g "the aim of the
project is". Use language that
emphasizes the subject, rather than the
writer.
Formality/register
Avoid informal language especially
colloquial expressions and slang.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
58
Academic Writing Style
Appropriate language
Use bias-free language.
Avoid language that privileges one race,
color, creed, gender, persuasion, or
religion over another.
Vocabulary
Academic writing conventionally uses
more a lexically dense, varied vocabulary.
It uses more noun-based phrases than
verb-based phrases.
It uses more subordination and passives
than other genres.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
59
Academic Writing Style
Tense
Do not mix verb tenses in compound
predicates.
Check for subject verb agreement.
Use verbs to emphasize the subject, not
the writer.
Avoid
Repetition
Unfinished ideas
Be sure that sentences express a
complete idea.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
60
Academic Writing Style
Arrange ideas logically in
paragraphs, logically dividing your
ideas and presenting them linearly.
Grammar, spelling, capitalization and
punctuation should be according to
conventions.
Do not use contractions.
Be explicit; use signals.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
61
Academic Writing Style
Hedge. Distinguish between
absolutes and probabilities.
Absolutes are 100% certain.
Probabilities are less than 100%
certain.
Be responsible. Provide traceable
evidence and justifications for any
claims you make or any opinions you
have formed as a result of your
research.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
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Referencing
Use the referencing system in your
FYP booklet.
Copyright violations
Plagiarism
Conventions for citing references
Quotations in text
Block quotations
Using the abbreviation et al.
Conventions for reference lists
Internet reference
citation
FYP Seminar University Limerick
01/03/06
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
63
Referencing
Plagiarism is taking another
person's words or ideas and using
them as if they were your own. It
can be either deliberate or accidental.
Most authorities do not distinguish
between the two—the penalty is the
same. Plagiarism is taken very
seriously in higher education
institutions throughout the world.
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
64
Referencing
If even a small section of your work is
found to have been plagiarized, it is
likely that you will be assigned a mark
of '0' for that assignment. In more
serious cases, it may be necessary for
you to repeat the course completely. In
some cases, plagiarism may even lead
to your being expelled from the
university (Gillet, 2004: Online).
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
65
Referencing
Why do we document sources
accurately?
Doing so allows readers to find materials
that you’ve used.
Doing so enhances your credibility as a
writer.
Doing so protects you against charges of
plagiarism.
[From the Department of English, Illinois State
University, ‘Course Guide for English 101:
Language & Composition 1’, (1997: 109)]
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
66
Referencing: Citing a Reference
in the Body of the Text
‘If you read a relevant point in a
book and want to use it in your
essay, you must reference it (say
where it came from)’ (LSU at MIC,
2004: Internet).
This is true whether you quote a
source, paraphrase it, or summarize
it. If you use another’s words, ideas,
or method of organization, you must
credit that author by citing your
source in the text of your writing.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
67
Referencing: Citing a Reference
in the Body of the Text
Resources:
The College of Humanities Booklet, Class
of 2005
Cite It Right:
http://www.ul.ie/~library/referencing/C
ite_it_Right_Nov_2005.pdf
http://www.mic.ul.ie/lsu/
(Gillet, 2005: Online):
http://www.uefap.co.uk (for language
used to introduce your own, or other's,
ideas / to signal that you are drawing a
conclusion from the evidence)
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
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Referencing: Citing a Reference
in the Body of the Text
Go to http://www.uefap.co.uk/
Click on ‘Writing’
Click on ‘Citation’
Click on ‘Exercises’
Click on ‘Exercise 4’
Insert the quote into the text
with documentation information.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
69
Referencing: Citing a Reference
in the Body of the Text
As Robert Dentan explains, to express gratitude for the
portion received indicates that you are the kind of
person who calculates how much you are giving and
taking. In this context saying thank you is very rude,
for it suggests first that one has calculated the amount
of a gift and second, that one did not expect the donor
to be so generous. (Dentan, 1968: 49)  (This would be
a Harvard Style citation format).Thus to call attention to
one’s generosity is to indicate that others are in debt
to you and that you expect them to repay you. It is
repugnant to egalitarian peoples even to suggest that
they have been treated generously.
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FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
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70
Referencing: Citing a Reference
in the Body of the Text
Sometimes the author you are quoting from
will quote another author to support his or
her argument, much in the same way that
you do when writing assignments.
Sometimes you want to use the same quote
that the author of the source has
used. When you do this, use the format
below.
Eisenberg and Smith (in Bolton, 1986: 85)
agree that ‘it is hard to assign general
meaning to any isolated nonverbal sign’
(Geraghty, 2005: Online).
01/03/06
FYP Seminar University Limerick
Department of Language and
Cultural Studies
71
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