The Bible: Who Wrote ? Copyright by Norman L. Geisler 2013 Can We Trust the Bible? The Bible: Who Wrote it? Has It Been Copied Accurately? Which Books Belong in It? Does the Bible Have any Errors? What about the Alleged Errors? From God to Us: The Three Links 1. Inspiration—From the mouth of God. 2. Canonization—Collected by the people of God. 3. Transmission—Copied by scribes of God. The Bible: Who Wrote It? I. The Source---God II. The Means—Prophets of God III. The Result---Word of God I. The Source---God A. Source of the Old Testament 1. Claim in the OT 2. Claim for the OT 1. Claim in the OT for Inspiration A. Claim in the Law Exod. 20:1.--“God spoke all these words.” Exod. 35:1.--Moses said “These are the things that the Lord has commanded you to do.” Lev. 1:1.--“The Lord called to Moses and spoke to him from the tent of meeting, saying . . .” (1:1). “The Lord said to Moses” is found repeatedly (4:1; 5:14; 6:1, 8). Num. 36:13.--“The Lord spoke to Moses” is found over and over (see 1:1; 2:1; 4:1; 5:1; 6:1; 8:1). Num. 36:13.--“These are the commandments and the ordinances which the Lord commanded to the sons of Israel.” Deut. 4:2.--“You shall not add to the word which I am commanding you, nor take away from it.” Deut. 18:22.--“When a prophet speaks in the name of the Lord, if the thing does not come about or come true, that is the thing which the Lord has not spoken.” 1. Claim in the OT for Inspiration A. Claim in the Law B. Claim in the Prophets Josh. 1:1.--“After the death of Moses...the Lord spoke to Joshua….” Josh. 24:26.--“And Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of God.” Jud. 1:2.--“The Lord said.” Jud. 6:25.--“God spoke to Gideon” (Jud. 2, 5, 6,13) 1 Sam. 3:11--“And the Lord said to Samuel.” 1 Sam. 4:1.—“Thus the word of Samuel came to all Israel.” 1 Chron.29:29.--“The acts of King David, from first to last, are written in the chronicles of Samuel the seer, in…Nathan the prophet, and in the chronicles of Gad the seer.” Job 38:1,--“Then the Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind and said….” Prov. 1:1.--“The proverbs of Solomon” (1:1) to whom God spoke directly (1 Kings 9:2). Prov. 22:20-21.--“Have not I written to you excellent things of counsels and knowledge, to make you know the certainty of the words of truth, that you may correctly answer to him who sent you?” Proverbs 30:1(and 31:1).—Each is called an “oracle” or “utterance” from the Lord (2 Chron. 9:29). Eccles. 12:13.—“Fear God and keep His commandments because this applies to every person.” Isa. 1:1-2.--“The vision of Isaiah . . . for the Lord speaks.” Jer. 1:1–2.--“The words of Jeremiah . . . to whom the word of the Lord came.” Eze.1:3.--“The word of the Lord came expressly to Ezekiel.” Daniel received visions and dreams (Dan. 2, 7). Hos.1:1; Joel 1:1; Amos 1:1, Obad. 1:1; Jonah 1:1; Mic. 1:1; Nah. 1:1; Hab. 1:1; Zeph. 1:1; Hag. 1:1; Zech. 1:1; Mal. 1:1. Why God’s Name is not in Esther Response: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Providence of God is there (4:14) Prayer to God is there (4:16). People of God are there (8:8,11). Purim feast of God is there (9:29-32). Personal Name (YHWH) of God is there in (in acrostic form four times at crucial places in the story, twice forward and twice backward--1:20; 5:4; 5:18; 7:7). For example, “You have worked hard.” 6. Pagan distortion was not possible by replacing God’s name with their god’s name. 1. Claim in the OT 2. Claim for the OT A. Claim for the Whole OT 1. Inspired Writing 2 Tim. 3:15-16.—“From childhood you have known the Holy Scriptures…. All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness….” 2. Prophetic Writing 2 Peter 1:20-21.—“For prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.” Law and Prophets Law and Prophets always means the whole OT Zech. 7:12.– “They made their hearts like flint, refusing to hear the law and the words which the Lord of hosts had sent by His Spirit through the former prophets.” Dan. 9:6, 13.—“As it is written in the Law of Moses, all this disaster has come upon us…. Neither have we heeded Your servants the prophets….” Luke 24:27.—“Beginning at Moses [the Law] and all the prophets, He expounded to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself.” Mat. 5:17-18.—“Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets…. For assuredly, I say to you till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled.” Luke 16:16.—“For the law and the prophets were until John” Luke 16:31.—“If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they believe though one rise from the dead.” 1. Claim in the OT 2. Claim for OT (in the NT) a. Claim for the Whole OT 1. Inspired Writing 2. Prophetic Writing 3. Law and Prophets 4. The Law (Torah) Mat. 5:17-18.—“Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets…. For assuredly, I say to you till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or tittle will by no means pass from the Law (Torah) till all is fulfilled.” John 10:34-35.—“Is it not written in your Law… and the Scripture cannot be broken.” 1. Claim in the OT 2. Claim for the OT a. Claim for the Whole OT 1. Inspired Writing 2. Prophetic Writing 3. Law and Prophets 4. The Law (Torah) 5. The Word of God John 10:35.—“If He called them gods, to whom the word of God came (and the Scripture cannot be broken)” (cf. Heb.4:12; Rev. 1:2). Mk. 7:10-13—“And Moses said, ‘Honor your father and your mother…. And you no longer let him do anything for his father or his mother, making the word of God of no effect through your traditions….” 1. Claim in the OT 2. Claim for the NT a. Claim for the Whole OT 1. Inspired Writing 2. Prophetic Writing 3. Law and Prophets 4. The Law (Torah) 5. The Word of God 6. The Oracles of God Rom. 3:1-2.—“What advantage then has the Jew?... Chiefly because to them were committed the oracles of God.” Heb. 5:12.—“For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you again the first principles of the oracles of God.” 1. Claim in the OT 2. Claim for the OT a. Claim for the Whole OT 1. Inspired Writing 2. Prophetic Writing 3. Law and Prophets 4. The Law (Torah) 5. The Word of God 6. The Oracles of God 7. (Holy) Scripture(s) Jn. 10:35.—“The Scripture cannot be broken.” Lk. 24:27.—“He expounded to them in all of the Scriptures….” 2 Tim. 3:15.—“You have known the holy Scriptures...” 2 Tim. 3:16.—“All Scripture is inspired of God….” 1. Claim in the OT 2. Claim for the OT a. Claim for the Whole OT b. Claim for Specific Books in the OT 1. NT cites OT near 600 times 2. NT cites almost every OT book a. Omission does not mean rejection. b. There was no occasion to cite some. c. All books were accepted by Judaism. d. All books were accepted by Christianity I. The Source---God A. Source of the OT B. Source of the NT 1. Claim in the NT A. The Promise of Jesus to Guide Their Teaching. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8. “Do not become anxious about how or what you will speak; for it shall be given you in that hour what you are to speak. For it is not you who speak, but it is the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you” (Mt. 10:19-20). Jesus said: “The one who listens to you listens to Me, and the one who rejects you rejects Me” (Luke 10:16). “Do not be anxious beforehand about what you are to say, but say whatever is given you in that hour; for it is not you who speak, but it is the Holy Spirit” (Mk 13:11). “But…the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, He will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all that I said to you” (John 14:26). Jesus said the “Holy Spirit…will guide you into all truth” (Jn 16:13). Jesus commanded them to “make disciples” and be “teaching,” saying, “I am with you always, even to the end of the age” (Matt. 28:20). Luke (1:1) records what Christ “began to do and teach” and what He continued to do and to teach through the apostles (Acts 1:1-2). 1. Claims for the NT in General a. The Promise of Jesus b. The Foundation of the Church 1. Apostles were the foundation of the church. The church was “built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets…” (Eph. 2:20). 2. The first church continued in “the apostles’ teaching” (Acts 2:42). 3. The only authentic record of apostolic preaching (Acts 2, 4, 10) and teaching (2:42; 6:4) is found in the NT. 4. Hence, the NT is the foundational teaching of the church. (1) What the apostles taught was Spirit-directed. (2) The NT is what the apostles taught. (3) Hence, the NT is Spirit-directed teaching. 1. Claims for the NT in General a. The Promise of Jesus b. The Foundation of the Church c. The Claim to be Scripture 1. The Gospels are “Scripture” “The scripture says, “…the laborer is worthy of his wages” (1 Tim. 5:18; cf. Mt. 10:10). 2. The Epistles are “Scripture” “Paul…in all his epistles [is twisted by some] …as they do the rest of Scripture” (2 Peter 3:15-16). (1) All Scripture is inspired of God (2 Tim. 3:16). (2) The NT is Scripture (along with the OT). (3) Hence, the NT is inspired of God. 1. Claims for the NT in General 2. Claims of Specific Books in the NT Matthew begins, “The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David,” linking it with the inspired OT, as does the repeated assertion that Christ is the fulfillment of OT prophecy (cf. 5:17–18, 21). It ends with Christ’s command to teach the truth of Christ (28:8–20) which is what the book of Matthew does (cf. 10:7). Mark is titled “The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. As it is written in Isaiah the prophet. . . .” Authority is assumed throughout (cf. 13:11). As an associate of Peter (1 Pet. 5:13), Mark taught under apostolic authority. Luke claims that it is an authentic “account of the things accomplished [by God through Christ]” that Theophilus “might know the exact truth about the things you have been taught” (1:1, 4). As an associate of Paul, it has an apostolic connection as well. John was an apostle and eye-witness who wrote “that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name” (20:3). He further adds, “This is the disciple who bears witness of these things, and wrote these things; and we know that his witness is true” (2:24; cf. 14:26, 16:13). Acts is a continuation of Luke and of what Jesus “began to do and teach” (1:1). Acts is an authentic record of the teaching (and working) of Christ through the apostles. Romans is by an apostle of Jesus Christ (1:1). Paul declares In 9:1 that “I am telling the truth in Christ, I am not lying, my conscience bearing me witness in the Holy Spirit.” The final appeal of the epistle is to reject any other doctrine (16:17). 1 Corinthians contains what “God revealed . . . through the Spirit” (2:10; cf. also 7:40). It makes authoritative pronouncements on morals (5:1–3) and doctrine (15:15). Paul asserts, “The things which I write to you are the Lord’s commandment” (14:37). 2 Corinthians is introduced by an apostle of God (1:1), who strongly defends his own authority (10:8; 2:2) and declares lofty revelations from God (12:1–4) and he has miraculous gifts as an apostle (12:12). Galatians is by “Paul, an apostle (not sent from men, nor through the agency of man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father)” (1:1). “For I neither received it from man, nor was I taught it, but I received it through a revelation of Jesus Christ” (1:2). “Even though we, or an angel from heaven, should preach to you a gospel contrary to that which we have preached to you, let him be accursed” (1:8). Ephesians is written by an apostle (1:1) who declares a revelation of the mystery of God, showing “that by revelation there was made known to me [Paul] the mystery” (3:3). Philippians comes as from an apostle “from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ” (1:2). It exhorts: “Brethren, join in following my example” (3:7). It command the readers to “practice these things” learned from Paul (4:9). Colossians comes from “an apostle of Jesus Christ” (1:1) as an authoritative refutation of heresy (2:4, 8), with a command to be circulated and read in the churches (4:16). 1 Thessalonians charges the church “to have this letter read to all the brethren” (4:16) and claims, “For we say to you by the word of the Lord” (4:15). 2 Thessalonians warning about a false letter “as if from” Paul (2:2). It closes by saying, “If anyone does not obey our instruction in this letter, take special note of that man and do not associate with him” (3:4). 1 Timothy was written by “Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus according to the commandment of God” (1 Tim 1:1), this epistle speaks with authority, saying, “Prescribe and teach these things” (4:11). 2 Timothy The apostle instructed his disciple Timothy in the faith to “retain the standard of sound words which you have heard from me” (1:13), and he charged him “in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus” to “preach the word” (4:1–2). Titus claims to come from Paul “an apostle of Jesus Christ” (1:1), with the injunction to “let these things speak and exhort and reprove with all authority” (2:15) and “Concerning these things I want you to speak confidently” (3:8). Philemon claims authority from the apostle Paul (v. 1), brings salutation “from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ” (v. 3), and asserts apostolic authority (v. 8). Hebrews is based on the voice of God through Christ “in these last days” (1:2) and “confirmed to us by those who heard Him [viz., apostles] (2:3). He concludes his epistle with authoritative exhortations (13:22). James is the brother of Jesus (1:1) and speaks with authority about doctrine (cf. chap. 2) and practice (chap. 3) as a “pillar” of the church (Gal. 2:9). 1 Peter is from “an apostle of Jesus Christ” (1:1) and gives an exhortation on “the true grace of God” (5:12). 2 Peter is an “apostle of Jesus Christ” (1:1) and gives commandments from the Lord (3:2), claiming to “have the prophetic word made more sure” (1:19) and who offers prophecies about the future (3:10–13). 1 John comes from an apostle and eyewitness (1:1) who has “the spirit of truth” (4:6) and that his readers may be assured of eternal life (5:12). 2 John records a “commandment” (v.5), warns against deceivers (v.7), and claims to possess “the teaching of Christ” (v.9). 3 John is written with apostolic authority (v. 9) and claims to have “the truth itself” (v. 12). Jude claims to be a record of “our common salvation” and “the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints” (v. 3). Revelation claims to be “The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave” (1:1) through John, who considered himself to be one with the “prophets” (22:9) and ends with a severe warning for anyone who “adds to” or “takes away from its words” (22:18–19). I. The Source---God A. Source of the OT B. Source of the NT 1. Claim in the NT 2. Claim for the NT A. The Number of the Citations EARLY CITATIONS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT Writer Gospels Justin Martyr 268 Irenaeus Clement Alex. Origen Tertullian Hippolytus Eusebius Grand Totals 1,038 1,017 9,231 3,822 734 3,258 19,368 Acts 10 194 44 349 502 42 211 1,352 Pauline Epistles 43 499 1,127 7,778 2,609 387 1,592 14,035 General Epistles 6 23 207 399 120 27 88 870 Revelation Totals 3 (266 allusions) 65 11 165 205 188 27 664 330 1,819 2,406 17,922 7,258 1,378 5,176 36,289 B. The Dating of the Citations 1. By 100 A.D., all were accepted, as they were written (Col. 4:16; 2 Peter 3:15-16; 1 Tim. 5:18). 2. By 140 A.D. all the NT was cited by the Fathers (except 3 Jn.).* 3 By 170 A.D. all NT books were recognized. 2. By 400 A.D. all the NT was accepted by the Church Councils of Hippo (393) and Carthage (397). *Note: Lack of citation does not mean exclusion. The only books not cited early were onechapter books. No major early Father rejected any of these books. C. The Nature of the Citations Clement of Rome (c. 95-97)-- He quotes the gospels Mt. 9:13; Mark 2:17; Luke 5:32) after calling them “Scripture” (chap. 2). He appeals to “the Holy Scriptures, which are true, given by the Holy Spirit” (Epistles, chap. 45). Polycarp (c. 110-135)—He was the disciple of John the apostle. He cites Philippians 2:16 and 2 Timothy 4:10 as “the word of righteousness” (chap. 9). He also cites numerous Old and New Testament passages as “the Scriptures.” Papias (c. A.D. 130-140) --He wrote five books titled Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord (the same title given by Paul to the OT–Rom. 3:2). Justin Martyr (d. 165)-- He spoke of the gospels as the “Voice of God” (chap. 65). He added, “We must not suppose that the language proceeds from men who were inspired, but from the Divine Word which moves them” (Apology 1.36). Elsewhere, he declared that Moses wrote the Hebrew character by divine inspiration“ and that the Holy Spirit of prophecy taught us this, telling us by Moses that God spoke thus.” Tatian (c. 160)—He called John 1:5 “Scripture” (apology, 13). His Diatessaron (a harmony of the Gospels) reveal his high regard for the divine authority of the Gospels. Irenaeus (c. 130-202)--He knew Polycarp, disciple of the apostle John. He referred to the divine authority of the New Testament declaring: "For the Lord of all gave the power of the Gospel to his apostles [who]...handed it down to us in the Scriptures, to be the pillar and ground' of our faith." He said the apostles were “above all falsehood” (3.5.1). He called the Bible “Scriptures of truth,” and we are “most properly assured that the Scriptures are indeed perfect, since they are spoken by the Word of God and His Spirit.” (Against Heresies 3.1.1). Clement of Alexandria (c. 150-215)-- In his Stromata he noted that "There is no discord between the Law and the Gospel, but harmony, for they both proceed from the same Author….” He spoke of “the Scriptures…in the Law, in the Prophets, and besides by the blessed Gospel…[which] are valid from their omnipotent authority.” Tertullian (c. 160-220)---The "...apostles have the Holy Spirit properly, who have Him fully, in the operations of prophecy….” He said, "The Law and the Prophets were from God…. He added, "These blessed men [NT writers]…having been perfected by the Spirit of Prophecy… were brought to an inner harmony like instruments, and having the Word within them, as it were to strike the notes, by Him they were moved, and announced that which God wished." For "they did not speak of their own power….They spake that which was [revealed] to them alone by God." Origen (c.185-c.254).--He said God “gave the law, and the prophets, and the Gospels, being also the God of the apostles and of the Old and New Testaments.” He added, “This Spirit inspired each one of the saints, whether prophets or apostles…. Thus, “the Scriptures were written by the Spirit of God....” Cyprian (c. 200-258).--He reaffirmed the inspiration of the NT, saying, “When the Holy Spirit says, in the person of the Lord.” He added, “The Holy Spirit warns us through the Apostle” [in 1 Cor. 11:19]. He held both the OT and NT are “Divine Scriptures.” Athanasius (c. 295-373).--He was the first to use the term “canon” in reference to the NT books, which he called “the fountains of salvation.” Cyril of Jerusalem (c. 315-86).--He spoke of “the divinelyinspired Scriptures of both the Old and the New Testament.” He added, “No doctrine, however trivial, may be taught without the backing of the divine Scriptures.... For our saving faith derives its force, not from capricious reasoning, but from what may be proved out of the Bible.” Saint Jerome (c. 340-420).--He said, “Read the divine scriptures constantly; never indeed, let the sacred volume out of your hand.” He added, “I beg you, my dear brother, to live among these books, to meditate upon them, to know nothing else, to seek nothing else…. “ Saint Augustine (354-430).--In The City of God he spoke of “Sacred Scripture” (9.5), “the words of God,” (10.1), “Infallible Scripture” (11.6), and “divine revelation” (13.2). “When they write that He has taught and said, it should not be asserted that he did not write it, since the members only put down what they had come to know at the dictation [dictis] of the Head. Therefore, whatever He wanted us to read concerning His words and deeds, He commanded His disciples, His hands, to write. Hence, one cannot but receive what he reads in the Gospels, though written by the disciples, as though it were written by the very hand of the Lord Himself. He added, “I have learned to yield this respect and honour only to the canonical books of Scripture: of these alone do I most firmly believe that the authors were completely free from error.” The Bible: Who Wrote It? I. The Source---God II. The Means—Prophets of God A. Nature of a Prophet Amos 3:8.-- “The Lord God has spoken! Who can but prophesy?” Num. 22:18.--“I could not do anything, either small or great, contrary to the command of the Lord my God.” Ex. 7:1.--“See, I make you as God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron shall be your prophet.” Deut. 18:18.--“I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him.” Deut. 4:2.--“You shall not add to the word which I am commanding you, nor take away from it.” 1 Kings 22:14.--“As the Lord lives, what the Lord says to me, that I will speak.” Ex. 4:16.--“He shall be as a mouth for you, and you shall be as God to him.” Obeying the prophet’s word was obeying God (Isa. 8:5; Jer. 3:6; Eze. 21:1; Amos 3:1). B. The Extent of the Prophets 1. The Whole OT is Prophetic A. Whole OT is “Law and Prophets” “Beginning at Moses [Law] and all the prophets He expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself” (Lk.24:27). “Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them” (Mt. 5:17 cf. Lk. 16:31). B. Whole OT is written by “prophets” “The Law and the prophets were until John” (Lk. 16:16). “To him [Christ] all the prophets bear witness…” (Acts 10:43). “Long ago…God spoke to our fathers by the prophets” (Heb. 1:1). “…no prophecy of Scripture is from someone’s own interpretation. For no prophecy was ever produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit” (2 Pet. 1:202-21). 2. The Whole NT is prophetic a. The Church is built on “apostles and [NT] prophets” (Eph. 2:20 cf. Eph. 3:5 and Col. 1:26). b. The apostle John was considered a prophet. 1. The angel said to John: “I am your fellow servant, and of your brethren the prophets” (Rev. 22:9). 2. John’s book of Revelation is referred to as “the words of the prophecy of this book” (22:10). 3. The gift of “prophecy” was a special NT gift (1 Cor. 12:10) exercised in the church (1 Cor. 14:29-32). 4. Peter refers to his teaching as “the prophetic word made more sure” (2 Peter 1:19). II. The Means—Prophets of God A. The Nature of a Prophet B. The Extent of the Prophets C. The Role of a Prophet C. The Role of a Prophet A. He is not a mere Secretary (Mechanical Dictation) B. He is not a mere Poet (Human Intuition) C. He is more like a Student (It is Providential) 1. God is the Teacher 2. Human culture and language is the medium 3. The result is a he Word of God in the words of men of God— a. Who were moved by the Spirit of God; b. Whose personalities, vocabularies, and styles were providentially prepared by God. c. Whose writing were providentially preserved by God from all error. The Bible is 100% Human 1. It was written in human languages (Heb. & Greek). 2. It has human authors (about 40). 3. It has human literary styles (Amos to Luke). 4. It uses human literary forms (poetry, parables, and allegory). 5. It reflects different human perspectives (e.g., shepherd, priest, and prophet). 6. It reveals different human thought patters (e.g., logic of Romans and memory loss in 1 Cor. 1). 7. It reflects human emotions (e.g., Rom. 9:2). 8. It manifest human interest (e. g., Luke’s medical interest and James’ love of nature). 9. It utilized human sources (Greek poets in Acts 17 and other writings—Josh. 10; Lk. 1). 10. It is expressed in human culture (kiss, veil, and sandals). A False Conclusion The Argument: 1. The Bible is a human book. 2. Humans error. 3. Therefore, the Bible errs. The Error: Human’s don’t always error. Further, human never err when so guided by the Holy Spirit who cannot err (Heb. 6:18; Jn. 14:26; 16:13). The Bible: Who Wrote It? I. The Source---God II. The Means—Prophets of God III. The Result---Word of God A. Nature of the Results 1. It is Divinely Authoritative Jesus said: “It is written: ‘Man does not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God.’... It is also written: ‘Do not put the Lord your God to the test.…’ Away from me, Satan! For it is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God, and serve him only’” (Mt. 4:4, 7, 10). 2. It is imperishable Matthew 5:17-18:“Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished.” 3. It is infallible “If he called them ‘gods,’ to whom the word of God came—and the Scripture cannot be broken….” (John 10:35) 4. It has ultimate supremacy Matthew 15:3, 6: “Jesus replied, ‘And why do you break the command of God for the sake of your tradition? .... Thus you nullify the word of God for the sake of your tradition.’” 5. It is Inspired of God Inspiration: Means “God-breathed” or “breathed out by God.” Mt. 4:4: “Man shall not live by bread alone but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.” 2 Tim. 3:16-17: “All Scripture is inspired [breathed out] of God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be competent, equipped for every good work.” 2 Sam. 23:2: “The Spirit of the Lord speaks by me; his word is on my tongue” (cf. Mt. 22:43). 2 Peter 1:20-21: “No prophecy was ever produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.” 6. It is the inerrant truth of God Jesus replied: “You are in error because you do not know the Scriptures or the power of God” (Matt. 22:29). “Thy Word is truth” (Jn. 17:17). The Bible: Who Wrote It? I. The Source---God II. The Means—Prophets of God III. The Result---Word of God A. Nature of the Results B. Extent of the Results B. Extent of the Results A. What is “written” (Mt. 4:4,7,11). B. The “Scripture” (2 Tim. 3:16). C. The very “words” are inspired (Deut. 18:18: 1 Cor. 2:13). D. Even letters are inspired (Gal. 3:16). “He does not say…seeds…but seed, who is Christ.” E. Even tenses of verbs are included (Mt. 22:32). “I am [not was] the God of Abraham….” F. Even parts of letters are inspired (Mt. 5:18). “One jot or one tittle will not pass away….” Conclusion: Inspiration refers to-1. The writings, not the writers. 2. The words, not mere ideas. Why Every Part is Inspired 1. Parts of letters make different letters (e.g., I and T) 2. Different letters make different words (e.g., go and no) 3. Different words make different meaning (e.g., “I do” or “I don’t” Note: The whole is made up of the parts. So, the parts can change the whole meaning. C. The End of the Results I. The Bible was not verbally dictated by God, but it is just as divinely authoritative as if it were. 2. What the Bible affirms, God affirms. 3. There is an agreement between God’s words and the human author’s words. Both say the very same thing. 4. The Bible is a co-authored book. 5. The Bible is God speaking in our language. 6. The Bible is 100 % of divine origin and 100% of human origin. 7. Just as Jesus is 100% God and 100% man in one person (human life), even so the Bible is both 100% divine and 100% human in one set of propositions (human language). 8. Just as God can’t err in anything He teaches, neither can the Bible err in anything it teaches. Conclusion Same Books with Different Order and Numbering Original Jewish OT Later Jewish OT The Law (5) The Law (5) Protestant OT The Law (5) (Gen.-Deut.) (Gen.-Deut.) (Gen.-Deut.) The Prophets (19) The Prophets (8) History (12) Joshua (1) (Josh.-Twelve) (Josh.-Esther) Judges and Ruth (2) The Writings (11) I-2 Samuel (1) 1-2 Kings (1) 1-2 Chronicles (1) Ezra-Neh. (1) Esther (1) Job-Song (5) Poetical (3) (Psa., Job, Prov.) Five Rolls (5) (Ruth, Song, Lam., Esther) Historical (3) Poetry (5) Isa.-Daniel (5) Twelve (1) Daniel Ezra-Neh. 1&2Chron. Prophecy (17) (Job, Psa., Prov., Eccles., Song) Isa.-Daniel (5) The Twelve (12) Same Books: Different Numbering Protestant OT Law (5) History (12) Poetry (5) Prophecy (17) Total 39 Jewish OT Law (5) Prophets (8) Writings (11) Total 24 (24 was made into 22 by combing Ruth with Judges and Lamentations with Jeremiah) How 39 Books = 24 Books By combining books: 2 Samuels into 1 2 Kings into 1 2 Chron. into 1 Ezra-Neh into 1 Twelve Prophets into 1 Total less (1 less) (1 less) (1 less) (1 less) (11 less) (15 less) 39 minus 15 = 24 The Bible: Who Wrote It? I. The Source---God II. The Means—Prophets of God III. The Result---Word of God The Bible It is the traveler’s map, The pilgrim’s staff, The pilot’s compass, The soldier’s sword, And the Christian’s character. Here Heaven is opened, The gates of hell disclosed. Christ is the object. Our good it’s design, The glory of God its end. It should fill the memory, Rule the heart And guide the feet. Read it carefully, Frequently, prayerfully. It is a mine of wealth, And a river of pleasure. It is given to you here in this life, Will be opened at the judgment And is established forever. It involves the highest responsibility, Will reward the greatest labor, And condemns all who trifle with its Sacred Contents.