The Bible:
Who Wrote ?
Copyright by Norman L. Geisler 2013
Can We Trust the Bible?
The Bible:
Who Wrote it?
Has It Been Copied Accurately?
Which Books Belong in It?
Does the Bible Have any Errors?
What about the Alleged Errors?
From God to Us:
The Three Links
1. Inspiration—From the mouth of God.
2. Canonization—Collected by the people
of God.
3. Transmission—Copied by scribes of
God.
The Bible: Who Wrote It?
I. The Source---God
II. The Means—Prophets of God
III. The Result---Word of God
I. The Source---God
A. Source of the Old Testament
1. Claim in the OT
2. Claim for the OT
1. Claim in the OT for Inspiration
A. Claim in the Law
Exod. 20:1.--“God spoke all these words.”
Exod. 35:1.--Moses said “These are the things that the
Lord has commanded you to do.”
Lev. 1:1.--“The Lord called to Moses and spoke to him
from the tent of meeting, saying . . .” (1:1). “The Lord
said to Moses” is found repeatedly (4:1; 5:14; 6:1, 8).
Num. 36:13.--“The Lord spoke to Moses” is found over
and over (see 1:1; 2:1; 4:1; 5:1; 6:1; 8:1).
Num. 36:13.--“These are the commandments and the
ordinances which the Lord commanded to the sons
of Israel.”
Deut. 4:2.--“You shall not add to the word which I am
commanding you, nor take away from it.”
Deut. 18:22.--“When a prophet speaks in the name of the
Lord, if the thing does not come about or come true,
that is the thing which the Lord has not spoken.”
1. Claim in the OT for Inspiration
A. Claim in the Law
B. Claim in the Prophets
Josh. 1:1.--“After the death of Moses...the Lord
spoke to Joshua….”
Josh. 24:26.--“And Joshua wrote these words in
the book of the law of God.”
Jud. 1:2.--“The Lord said.”
Jud. 6:25.--“God spoke to Gideon” (Jud. 2, 5, 6,13)
1 Sam. 3:11--“And the Lord said to Samuel.”
1 Sam. 4:1.—“Thus the word of Samuel came to
all Israel.”
1 Chron.29:29.--“The acts of King David, from first
to last, are written in the chronicles of
Samuel the seer, in…Nathan the prophet,
and in the chronicles of Gad the seer.”
Job 38:1,--“Then the Lord answered Job out of the
whirlwind and said….”
Prov. 1:1.--“The proverbs of Solomon” (1:1) to whom God
spoke directly (1 Kings 9:2).
Prov. 22:20-21.--“Have not I written to you excellent things
of counsels and knowledge, to make you know the
certainty of the words of truth, that you may correctly
answer to him who sent you?”
Proverbs 30:1(and 31:1).—Each is called an “oracle” or
“utterance” from the Lord (2 Chron. 9:29).
Eccles. 12:13.—“Fear God and keep His commandments
because this applies to every person.”
Isa. 1:1-2.--“The vision of Isaiah . . . for the Lord speaks.”
Jer. 1:1–2.--“The words of Jeremiah . . . to whom the word of
the Lord came.”
Eze.1:3.--“The word of the Lord came expressly to Ezekiel.”
Daniel received visions and dreams (Dan. 2, 7).
Hos.1:1; Joel 1:1; Amos 1:1, Obad. 1:1; Jonah 1:1; Mic. 1:1;
Nah. 1:1; Hab. 1:1; Zeph. 1:1; Hag. 1:1; Zech. 1:1; Mal. 1:1.
Why God’s Name is not in Esther
Response:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Providence of God is there (4:14)
Prayer to God is there (4:16).
People of God are there (8:8,11).
Purim feast of God is there (9:29-32).
Personal Name (YHWH) of God is there in
(in acrostic form four times at crucial
places in the story, twice forward and twice
backward--1:20; 5:4; 5:18; 7:7).
For example, “You have worked hard.”
6. Pagan distortion was not possible by
replacing God’s name with their god’s
name.
1. Claim in the OT
2. Claim for the OT
A. Claim for the Whole OT
1. Inspired Writing
2 Tim. 3:15-16.—“From childhood you have
known the Holy Scriptures…. All Scripture is
given by inspiration of God, and is profitable
for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for
instruction in righteousness….”
2. Prophetic Writing
2 Peter 1:20-21.—“For prophecy never came
by the will of man, but holy men of God
spoke as they were moved by the Holy
Spirit.”
Law and Prophets
Law and Prophets always means the whole OT
Zech. 7:12.– “They made their hearts like flint, refusing to
hear the law and the words which the Lord of hosts had
sent by His Spirit through the former prophets.”
Dan. 9:6, 13.—“As it is written in the Law of Moses, all this
disaster has come upon us…. Neither have we heeded
Your servants the prophets….”
Luke 24:27.—“Beginning at Moses [the Law] and all the
prophets, He expounded to them in all the Scriptures the
things concerning Himself.”
Mat. 5:17-18.—“Do not think that I came to destroy the Law
or the Prophets…. For assuredly, I say to you till heaven
and earth pass away, one jot or tittle will by no means
pass from the law till all is fulfilled.”
Luke 16:16.—“For the law and the prophets were until John”
Luke 16:31.—“If they hear not Moses and the prophets,
neither will they believe though one rise from the dead.”
1. Claim in the OT
2. Claim for OT (in the NT)
a. Claim for the Whole OT
1. Inspired Writing
2. Prophetic Writing
3. Law and Prophets
4. The Law (Torah)
Mat. 5:17-18.—“Do not think that I came to
destroy the Law or the Prophets…. For
assuredly, I say to you till heaven and earth
pass away, one jot or tittle will by no means
pass from the Law (Torah) till all is fulfilled.”
John 10:34-35.—“Is it not written in your Law…
and the Scripture cannot be broken.”
1. Claim in the OT
2. Claim for the OT
a. Claim for the Whole OT
1. Inspired Writing
2. Prophetic Writing
3. Law and Prophets
4. The Law (Torah)
5. The Word of God
John 10:35.—“If He called them gods, to whom
the word of God came (and the Scripture
cannot be broken)” (cf. Heb.4:12; Rev. 1:2).
Mk. 7:10-13—“And Moses said, ‘Honor your father
and your mother…. And you no longer let
him do anything for his father or his mother,
making the word of God of no effect through
your traditions….”
1. Claim in the OT
2. Claim for the NT
a. Claim for the Whole OT
1. Inspired Writing
2. Prophetic Writing
3. Law and Prophets
4. The Law (Torah)
5. The Word of God
6. The Oracles of God
Rom. 3:1-2.—“What advantage then has the
Jew?... Chiefly because to them were
committed the oracles of God.”
Heb. 5:12.—“For though by this time you ought to
be teachers, you need someone to teach you
again the first principles of the oracles of
God.”
1. Claim in the OT
2. Claim for the OT
a. Claim for the Whole OT
1. Inspired Writing
2. Prophetic Writing
3. Law and Prophets
4. The Law (Torah)
5. The Word of God
6. The Oracles of God
7. (Holy) Scripture(s)
Jn. 10:35.—“The Scripture cannot be broken.”
Lk. 24:27.—“He expounded to them in all of the
Scriptures….”
2 Tim. 3:15.—“You have known the holy Scriptures...”
2 Tim. 3:16.—“All Scripture is inspired of God….”
1. Claim in the OT
2. Claim for the OT
a. Claim for the Whole OT
b. Claim for Specific Books in the OT
1. NT cites OT near 600 times
2. NT cites almost every OT book
a. Omission does not mean rejection.
b. There was no occasion to cite some.
c. All books were accepted by Judaism.
d. All books were accepted by Christianity
I. The Source---God
A. Source of the OT
B. Source of the NT
1. Claim in the NT
A. The Promise of Jesus to Guide Their Teaching.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.
“Do not become anxious about how or what you will speak;
for it shall be given you in that hour what you are to speak.
For it is not you who speak, but it is the Spirit of your
Father who speaks in you” (Mt. 10:19-20).
Jesus said: “The one who listens to you listens to Me, and
the one who rejects you rejects Me” (Luke 10:16).
“Do not be anxious beforehand about what you are to say,
but say whatever is given you in that hour; for it is not you
who speak, but it is the Holy Spirit” (Mk 13:11).
“But…the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name,
He will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance
all that I said to you” (John 14:26).
Jesus said the “Holy Spirit…will guide you into all truth” (Jn
16:13).
Jesus commanded them to “make disciples” and be
“teaching,” saying, “I am with you always, even to the
end of the age” (Matt. 28:20).
Luke (1:1) records what Christ “began to do and teach”
and what He continued to do and to teach through
the apostles (Acts 1:1-2).
1. Claims for the NT in General
a. The Promise of Jesus
b. The Foundation of the Church
1. Apostles were the foundation of the church.
The church was “built upon the foundation
of the apostles and prophets…” (Eph. 2:20).
2. The first church continued in “the
apostles’ teaching” (Acts 2:42).
3. The only authentic record of apostolic
preaching (Acts 2, 4, 10) and teaching
(2:42; 6:4) is found in the NT.
4. Hence, the NT is the foundational teaching
of the church.
(1) What the apostles taught was Spirit-directed.
(2) The NT is what the apostles taught.
(3) Hence, the NT is Spirit-directed teaching.
1. Claims for the NT in General
a. The Promise of Jesus
b. The Foundation of the Church
c. The Claim to be Scripture
1. The Gospels are “Scripture”
“The scripture says, “…the laborer is worthy
of his wages” (1 Tim. 5:18; cf. Mt. 10:10).
2. The Epistles are “Scripture”
“Paul…in all his epistles [is twisted by some]
…as they do the rest of Scripture” (2 Peter
3:15-16).
(1) All Scripture is inspired of God (2 Tim. 3:16).
(2) The NT is Scripture (along with the OT).
(3) Hence, the NT is inspired of God.
1. Claims for the NT in General
2. Claims of Specific Books in the NT
Matthew begins, “The book of the genealogy of
Jesus Christ, the son of David,” linking it with
the inspired OT, as does the repeated
assertion that Christ is the fulfillment of OT
prophecy (cf. 5:17–18, 21). It ends with
Christ’s command to teach the truth of Christ
(28:8–20) which is what the book of Matthew
does (cf. 10:7).
Mark is titled “The beginning of the gospel of
Jesus Christ, the Son of God. As it is written
in Isaiah the prophet. . . .” Authority is
assumed throughout (cf. 13:11). As an
associate of Peter (1 Pet. 5:13), Mark taught
under apostolic authority.
Luke claims that it is an authentic “account of
the things accomplished [by God through
Christ]” that Theophilus “might know the
exact truth about the things you have been
taught” (1:1, 4). As an associate of Paul, it has
an apostolic connection as well.
John was an apostle and eye-witness who wrote
“that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ,
the Son of God; and that believing you may
have life in His name” (20:3). He further adds,
“This is the disciple who bears witness of
these things, and wrote these things; and we
know that his witness is true” (2:24; cf. 14:26,
16:13).
Acts is a continuation of Luke and of what Jesus
“began to do and teach” (1:1). Acts is an
authentic record of the teaching (and working)
of Christ through the apostles.
Romans is by an apostle of Jesus Christ (1:1).
Paul declares In 9:1 that “I am telling the
truth in Christ, I am not lying, my conscience
bearing me witness in the Holy Spirit.” The
final appeal of the epistle is to reject any
other doctrine (16:17).
1 Corinthians contains what “God revealed . . .
through the Spirit” (2:10; cf. also 7:40). It
makes authoritative pronouncements on
morals (5:1–3) and doctrine (15:15). Paul
asserts, “The things which I write to you are
the Lord’s commandment” (14:37).
2 Corinthians is introduced by an apostle of
God (1:1), who strongly defends his own
authority (10:8; 2:2) and declares lofty
revelations from God (12:1–4) and he has
miraculous gifts as an apostle (12:12).
Galatians is by “Paul, an apostle (not sent from
men, nor through the agency of man, but
through Jesus Christ, and God the Father)”
(1:1). “For I neither received it from man, nor
was I taught it, but I received it through a
revelation of Jesus Christ” (1:2). “Even though
we, or an angel from heaven, should preach to
you a gospel contrary to that which we have
preached to you, let him be accursed” (1:8).
Ephesians is written by an apostle (1:1) who
declares a revelation of the mystery of God,
showing “that by revelation there was made
known to me [Paul] the mystery” (3:3).
Philippians comes as from an apostle “from God
our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ” (1:2). It
exhorts: “Brethren, join in following my
example” (3:7). It command the readers to
“practice these things” learned from Paul (4:9).
Colossians comes from “an apostle of Jesus
Christ” (1:1) as an authoritative refutation of
heresy (2:4, 8), with a command to be
circulated and read in the churches (4:16).
1 Thessalonians charges the church “to have
this letter read to all the brethren” (4:16) and
claims, “For we say to you by the word of the
Lord” (4:15).
2 Thessalonians warning about a false letter
“as if from” Paul (2:2). It closes by saying,
“If anyone does not obey our instruction in
this letter, take special note of that man and
do not associate with him” (3:4).
1 Timothy was written by “Paul, an apostle of
Christ Jesus according to the commandment
of God” (1 Tim 1:1), this epistle speaks with
authority, saying, “Prescribe and teach these
things” (4:11).
2 Timothy The apostle instructed his disciple
Timothy in the faith to “retain the standard of
sound words which you have heard from
me” (1:13), and he charged him “in the
presence of God and of Christ Jesus” to
“preach the word” (4:1–2).
Titus claims to come from Paul “an apostle of
Jesus Christ” (1:1), with the injunction to “let
these things speak and exhort and reprove
with all authority” (2:15) and “Concerning
these things I want you to speak confidently”
(3:8).
Philemon claims authority from the apostle
Paul (v. 1), brings salutation “from God our
Father and the Lord Jesus Christ” (v. 3), and
asserts apostolic authority (v. 8).
Hebrews is based on the voice of God through
Christ “in these last days” (1:2) and
“confirmed to us by those who heard Him
[viz., apostles] (2:3). He concludes his epistle
with authoritative exhortations (13:22).
James is the brother of Jesus (1:1) and speaks
with authority about doctrine (cf. chap. 2)
and practice (chap. 3) as a “pillar” of the
church (Gal. 2:9).
1 Peter is from “an apostle of Jesus Christ”
(1:1) and gives an exhortation on “the true
grace of God” (5:12).
2 Peter is an “apostle of Jesus Christ” (1:1)
and gives commandments from the Lord
(3:2), claiming to “have the prophetic word
made more sure” (1:19) and who offers
prophecies about the future (3:10–13).
1 John comes from an apostle and eyewitness
(1:1) who has “the spirit of truth” (4:6) and that
his readers may be assured of eternal life (5:12).
2 John records a “commandment” (v.5), warns
against deceivers (v.7), and claims to possess
“the teaching of Christ” (v.9).
3 John is written with apostolic authority (v. 9)
and claims to have “the truth itself” (v. 12).
Jude claims to be a record of “our common
salvation” and “the faith which was once for all
delivered to the saints” (v. 3).
Revelation claims to be “The revelation of Jesus
Christ, which God gave” (1:1) through John,
who considered himself to be one with the
“prophets” (22:9) and ends with a severe
warning for anyone who “adds to” or “takes
away from its words” (22:18–19).
I. The Source---God
A. Source of the OT
B. Source of the NT
1. Claim in the NT
2. Claim for the NT
A. The Number of the Citations
EARLY CITATIONS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT
Writer
Gospels
Justin Martyr
268
Irenaeus
Clement Alex.
Origen
Tertullian
Hippolytus
Eusebius
Grand Totals
1,038
1,017
9,231
3,822
734
3,258
19,368
Acts
10
194
44
349
502
42
211
1,352
Pauline
Epistles
43
499
1,127
7,778
2,609
387
1,592
14,035
General
Epistles
6
23
207
399
120
27
88
870
Revelation
Totals
3
(266 allusions)
65
11
165
205
188
27
664
330
1,819
2,406
17,922
7,258
1,378
5,176
36,289
B. The Dating of the Citations
1. By 100 A.D., all were accepted, as they were
written (Col. 4:16; 2 Peter 3:15-16; 1 Tim. 5:18).
2. By 140 A.D. all the NT was cited by the
Fathers (except 3 Jn.).*
3 By 170 A.D. all NT books were recognized.
2. By 400 A.D. all the NT was accepted by the
Church Councils of Hippo (393) and Carthage
(397).
*Note: Lack of citation does not mean exclusion.
The only books not cited early were onechapter books. No major early Father rejected
any of these books.
C. The Nature of the Citations
Clement of Rome (c. 95-97)-- He quotes the
gospels Mt. 9:13; Mark 2:17; Luke 5:32) after
calling them “Scripture” (chap. 2). He appeals to
“the Holy Scriptures, which are true, given by the
Holy Spirit” (Epistles, chap. 45).
Polycarp (c. 110-135)—He was the disciple of John
the apostle. He cites Philippians 2:16 and 2
Timothy 4:10 as “the word of righteousness”
(chap. 9). He also cites numerous Old and New
Testament passages as “the Scriptures.”
Papias (c. A.D. 130-140) --He wrote five books titled
Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord (the same
title given by Paul to the OT–Rom. 3:2).
Justin Martyr (d. 165)-- He spoke of the gospels
as the “Voice of God” (chap. 65). He added,
“We must not suppose that the language
proceeds from men who were inspired, but
from the Divine Word which moves them”
(Apology 1.36). Elsewhere, he declared that
Moses wrote the Hebrew character by divine
inspiration“ and that the Holy Spirit of
prophecy taught us this, telling us by Moses
that God spoke thus.”
Tatian (c. 160)—He called John 1:5 “Scripture”
(apology, 13). His Diatessaron (a harmony of
the Gospels) reveal his high regard for the
divine authority of the Gospels.
Irenaeus (c. 130-202)--He knew Polycarp,
disciple of the apostle John. He referred to
the divine authority of the New Testament
declaring: "For the Lord of all gave the power
of the Gospel to his apostles [who]...handed
it down to us in the Scriptures, to be the
pillar and ground' of our faith." He said the
apostles were “above all falsehood” (3.5.1).
He called the Bible “Scriptures of truth,” and
we are “most properly assured that the
Scriptures are indeed perfect, since they are
spoken by the Word of God and His Spirit.”
(Against Heresies 3.1.1).
Clement of Alexandria (c. 150-215)-- In his Stromata
he noted that "There is no discord between the Law
and the Gospel, but harmony, for they both proceed
from the same Author….” He spoke of “the
Scriptures…in the Law, in the Prophets, and
besides by the blessed Gospel…[which] are valid
from their omnipotent authority.”
Tertullian (c. 160-220)---The "...apostles have the
Holy Spirit properly, who have Him fully, in the
operations of prophecy….” He said, "The Law and
the Prophets were from God…. He added, "These
blessed men [NT writers]…having been perfected
by the Spirit of Prophecy… were brought to an inner
harmony like instruments, and having the Word
within them, as it were to strike the notes, by Him
they were moved, and announced that which God
wished." For "they did not speak of their own
power….They spake that which was [revealed] to
them alone by God."
Origen (c.185-c.254).--He said God “gave the law, and the
prophets, and the Gospels, being also the God of the
apostles and of the Old and New Testaments.” He added,
“This Spirit inspired each one of the saints, whether
prophets or apostles…. Thus, “the Scriptures were written
by the Spirit of God....”
Cyprian (c. 200-258).--He reaffirmed the inspiration of the
NT, saying, “When the Holy Spirit says, in the person of the
Lord.” He added, “The Holy Spirit warns us through the
Apostle” [in 1 Cor. 11:19]. He held both the OT and NT are
“Divine Scriptures.”
Athanasius (c. 295-373).--He was the first to use the term
“canon” in reference to the NT books, which he called “the
fountains of salvation.”
Cyril of Jerusalem (c. 315-86).--He spoke of “the divinelyinspired Scriptures of both the Old and the New
Testament.” He added, “No doctrine, however trivial, may
be taught without the backing of the divine Scriptures....
For our saving faith derives its force, not from capricious
reasoning, but from what may be proved out of the Bible.”
Saint Jerome (c. 340-420).--He said, “Read the divine
scriptures constantly; never indeed, let the sacred volume
out of your hand.” He added, “I beg you, my dear brother, to
live among these books, to meditate upon them, to know
nothing else, to seek nothing else…. “
Saint Augustine (354-430).--In The City of God he spoke of
“Sacred Scripture” (9.5), “the words of God,” (10.1),
“Infallible Scripture” (11.6), and “divine revelation” (13.2).
“When they write that He has taught and said, it should not
be asserted that he did not write it, since the members only
put down what they had come to know at the dictation
[dictis] of the Head. Therefore, whatever He wanted us to
read concerning His words and deeds, He commanded His
disciples, His hands, to write. Hence, one cannot but
receive what he reads in the Gospels, though written
by the disciples, as though it were written by the very
hand of the Lord Himself.
He added, “I have learned to yield this respect and honour
only to the canonical books of Scripture: of these alone do I
most firmly believe that the authors were completely free
from error.”
The Bible: Who Wrote It?
I. The Source---God
II. The Means—Prophets of God
A. Nature of a Prophet
Amos 3:8.-- “The Lord God has spoken! Who can but
prophesy?”
Num. 22:18.--“I could not do anything, either small or
great, contrary to the command of the Lord my
God.”
Ex. 7:1.--“See, I make you as God to Pharaoh, and your
brother Aaron shall be your prophet.”
Deut. 18:18.--“I will put My words in his mouth, and he
shall speak to them all that I command him.”
Deut. 4:2.--“You shall not add to the word which I am
commanding you, nor take away from it.”
1 Kings 22:14.--“As the Lord lives, what the Lord says to
me, that I will speak.”
Ex. 4:16.--“He shall be as a mouth for you, and you shall
be as God to him.”
Obeying the prophet’s word was obeying God (Isa. 8:5;
Jer. 3:6; Eze. 21:1; Amos 3:1).
B. The Extent of the Prophets
1. The Whole OT is Prophetic
A. Whole OT is “Law and Prophets”
“Beginning at Moses [Law] and all the
prophets He expounded unto them
in all the Scriptures the things
concerning Himself” (Lk.24:27).
“Do not think that I came to destroy
the Law or the Prophets; I have not
come to abolish them but to fulfill
them” (Mt. 5:17 cf. Lk. 16:31).
B. Whole OT is written by “prophets”
“The Law and the prophets were until
John” (Lk. 16:16).
“To him [Christ] all the prophets bear
witness…” (Acts 10:43).
“Long ago…God spoke to our fathers by
the prophets” (Heb. 1:1).
“…no prophecy of Scripture is from
someone’s own interpretation. For no
prophecy was ever produced by the will
of man, but men spoke from God as they
were carried along by the Holy Spirit” (2
Pet. 1:202-21).
2. The Whole NT is prophetic
a. The Church is built on “apostles and [NT]
prophets” (Eph. 2:20 cf. Eph. 3:5 and Col. 1:26).
b. The apostle John was considered a prophet.
1. The angel said to John: “I am your fellow
servant, and of your brethren the prophets”
(Rev. 22:9).
2. John’s book of Revelation is referred to as
“the words of the prophecy of this book”
(22:10).
3. The gift of “prophecy” was a special NT gift (1
Cor. 12:10) exercised in the church (1 Cor.
14:29-32).
4. Peter refers to his teaching as “the prophetic
word made more sure” (2 Peter 1:19).
II. The Means—Prophets of God
A. The Nature of a Prophet
B. The Extent of the Prophets
C. The Role of a Prophet
C. The Role of a Prophet
A. He is not a mere Secretary (Mechanical
Dictation)
B. He is not a mere Poet (Human Intuition)
C. He is more like a Student (It is Providential)
1. God is the Teacher
2. Human culture and language is the medium
3. The result is a he Word of God in the words of
men of God—
a. Who were moved by the Spirit of God;
b. Whose personalities, vocabularies, and
styles were providentially prepared by God.
c. Whose writing were providentially
preserved by God from all error.
The Bible is 100% Human
1. It was written in human languages (Heb. & Greek).
2. It has human authors (about 40).
3. It has human literary styles (Amos to Luke).
4. It uses human literary forms (poetry, parables,
and allegory).
5. It reflects different human perspectives (e.g.,
shepherd, priest, and prophet).
6. It reveals different human thought patters (e.g.,
logic of Romans and memory loss in 1 Cor. 1).
7. It reflects human emotions (e.g., Rom. 9:2).
8. It manifest human interest (e. g., Luke’s medical
interest and James’ love of nature).
9. It utilized human sources (Greek poets in Acts 17
and other writings—Josh. 10; Lk. 1).
10. It is expressed in human culture (kiss, veil, and
sandals).
A False Conclusion
The Argument:
1. The Bible is a human book.
2. Humans error.
3. Therefore, the Bible errs.
The Error: Human’s don’t always error.
Further, human never err when so guided
by the Holy Spirit who cannot err (Heb.
6:18; Jn. 14:26; 16:13).
The Bible: Who Wrote It?
I. The Source---God
II. The Means—Prophets of God
III. The Result---Word of God
A. Nature of the Results
1. It is Divinely Authoritative
Jesus said:
“It is written: ‘Man does not live on
bread alone, but on every word that
comes from the mouth of God.’... It is
also written: ‘Do not put the Lord your
God to the test.…’ Away from me,
Satan! For it is written: ‘Worship the
Lord your God, and serve him only’”
(Mt. 4:4, 7, 10).
2. It is imperishable
Matthew 5:17-18:“Do not
think that I have come to
abolish the Law or the
Prophets; I have not come to
abolish them but to fulfill
them. I tell you the truth,
until heaven and earth
disappear, not the smallest
letter, not the least stroke of
a pen, will by any means
disappear from the Law until
everything is accomplished.”
3. It is infallible
“If he called them ‘gods,’ to whom
the word of God came—and the
Scripture cannot be broken….”
(John 10:35)
4. It has ultimate supremacy
Matthew 15:3, 6: “Jesus
replied, ‘And why do you break
the command of God for the
sake of your tradition? ....
Thus you nullify the word of
God for the sake of your
tradition.’”
5. It is Inspired of God
Inspiration: Means “God-breathed” or “breathed
out by God.”
Mt. 4:4: “Man shall not live by bread alone but by
every word that comes from the mouth of God.”
2 Tim. 3:16-17: “All Scripture is inspired [breathed
out] of God and profitable for teaching, for
reproof, for correction, and for training in
righteousness, that the man of God may be
competent, equipped for every good work.”
2 Sam. 23:2: “The Spirit of the Lord speaks by me;
his word is on my tongue” (cf. Mt. 22:43).
2 Peter 1:20-21: “No prophecy was ever produced
by the will of man, but men spoke from God as
they were moved by the Holy Spirit.”
6. It is the inerrant truth of God
Jesus replied: “You are in error
because you do not know the
Scriptures or the power of God” (Matt.
22:29). “Thy Word is truth” (Jn. 17:17).
The Bible: Who Wrote It?
I. The Source---God
II. The Means—Prophets of God
III. The Result---Word of God
A. Nature of the Results
B. Extent of the Results
B. Extent of the Results
A. What is “written” (Mt. 4:4,7,11).
B. The “Scripture” (2 Tim. 3:16).
C. The very “words” are inspired (Deut. 18:18:
1 Cor. 2:13).
D. Even letters are inspired (Gal. 3:16).
“He does not say…seeds…but seed, who is
Christ.”
E. Even tenses of verbs are included (Mt. 22:32).
“I am [not was] the God of Abraham….”
F. Even parts of letters are inspired (Mt. 5:18).
“One jot or one tittle will not pass away….”
Conclusion: Inspiration refers to-1. The writings, not the writers.
2. The words, not mere ideas.
Why Every Part is Inspired
1. Parts of letters make different letters
(e.g., I and T)
2. Different letters make different words
(e.g., go and no)
3. Different words make different
meaning (e.g., “I do” or “I don’t”
Note: The whole is made up of the parts.
So, the parts can change the whole
meaning.
C. The End of the Results
I. The Bible was not verbally dictated by God, but it
is just as divinely authoritative as if it were.
2. What the Bible affirms, God affirms.
3. There is an agreement between God’s words and
the human author’s words. Both say the very
same thing.
4. The Bible is a co-authored book.
5. The Bible is God speaking in our language.
6. The Bible is 100 % of divine origin and 100% of
human origin.
7. Just as Jesus is 100% God and 100% man in one
person (human life), even so the Bible is both
100% divine and 100% human in one set of
propositions (human language).
8. Just as God can’t err in anything He teaches,
neither can the Bible err in anything it teaches.
Conclusion
Same Books with Different Order and Numbering
Original Jewish OT Later Jewish OT
The Law (5)
The Law (5)
Protestant OT
The Law (5)
(Gen.-Deut.)
(Gen.-Deut.)
(Gen.-Deut.)
The Prophets (19)
The Prophets (8)
History (12)
Joshua (1)
(Josh.-Twelve)
(Josh.-Esther)
Judges and Ruth (2)
The Writings (11)
I-2 Samuel (1)
1-2 Kings (1)
1-2 Chronicles (1)
Ezra-Neh. (1)
Esther (1)
Job-Song (5)
Poetical (3)
(Psa., Job, Prov.)
Five Rolls (5)
(Ruth, Song,
Lam., Esther)
Historical (3)
Poetry (5)
Isa.-Daniel (5)
Twelve (1)
Daniel
Ezra-Neh.
1&2Chron.
Prophecy (17)
(Job, Psa., Prov.,
Eccles., Song)
Isa.-Daniel (5)
The Twelve (12)
Same Books: Different Numbering
Protestant OT
Law (5)
History (12)
Poetry (5)
Prophecy (17)
Total
39
Jewish OT
Law (5)
Prophets (8)
Writings (11)
Total
24
(24 was made into 22 by combing Ruth with
Judges and Lamentations with Jeremiah)
How 39 Books = 24 Books
By combining books:
2 Samuels into 1
2 Kings into 1
2 Chron. into 1
Ezra-Neh into 1
Twelve Prophets into 1
Total less
(1 less)
(1 less)
(1 less)
(1 less)
(11 less)
(15 less)
39 minus 15 = 24
The Bible: Who Wrote It?
I. The Source---God
II. The Means—Prophets of God
III. The Result---Word of God
The Bible
It is the traveler’s map,
The pilgrim’s staff,
The pilot’s compass,
The soldier’s sword,
And the Christian’s character.
Here Heaven is opened,
The gates of hell disclosed.
Christ is the object.
Our good it’s design,
The glory of God its end.
It should fill the memory,
Rule the heart
And guide the feet.
Read it carefully,
Frequently, prayerfully.
It is a mine of wealth,
And a river of pleasure.
It is given to you here in this life,
Will be opened at the judgment
And is established forever.
It involves the highest responsibility,
Will reward the greatest labor,
And condemns all who trifle with its
Sacred Contents.
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Inspiration of the Old Testament