ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
Сибирский федеральный университет
Красноярск, 2008
Т. Н. Ямских
Р. А. Короленко
Ю. В. Глущенко
Профессиональный английский язык
Красноярск, 2008
УДК
ББК
8020
81.2
Я58
Электронный учебно-методический комплекс по дисциплине «Профессиональный английский язык» подготовлен в рамках
инновационной образовательной программы «Создание института экономики и управления в рамках Сибирского федерального
университета», реализованной в ФГОУ ВПО СФУ в 2007 г.
Рецензенты:
Красноярский краевой фонд науки;
Экспертная комиссия СФУ по подготовке учебно-методических комплексов дисциплин
Ямских, Т. Н.
Я58
Профессиональный английский язык. Презентационные материалы. Версия 1.0 [Электронный ресурс] :
наглядное пособие / Т. Н. Ямских, Р. А. Короленко, Ю. В. Глущенко. – Электрон. дан. (4 Мб). – Красноярск : ИПК СФУ,
2008. – (Профессиональный английский язык : УМКД № 197-2007 / рук. творч. коллектива Т. Н. Ямских). – 1 электрон.
опт. диск (DVD). – Систем. требования : Intel Pentium (или аналогичный процессор других производителей) 1 ГГц ;
512 Мб оперативной памяти ; 4 Мб свободного дискового пространства ; привод DVD ; операционная система Microsoft
Windows 2000 SP 4 / XP SP 2 / Vista (32 бит) ; Microsoft PowerPoint 2003 или выше.
ISBN 978-5-7638-1106-3 (комплекса)
ISBN 978-5-7638-0962-6 (пособия)
Номер гос. регистрации в ФГУП НТЦ «Информрегистр» 0320802622 от 08.12.2008 г. (комплекса)
Номер гос. регистрации в ФГУП НТЦ «Информрегистр» 0320802624 от 08.12.2008 г. (пособия)
Настоящее издание является частью электронного учебно-методического комплекса по дисциплине «Профессиональный английский
язык», включающего учебную программу, конспект лекций, практикум, учебное пособие по самостоятельной работе, контрольноизмерительные материалы «Профессиональный английский язык. Банк тестовых заданий».
Представлена презентация (в виде слайдов) теоретического курса «Профессиональный английский язык».
Предназначено для студентов направления подготовки бакалавров 080300.62 «Коммерция» укрупненной группы 080000 «Экономика и
управление».
© Сибирский федеральный университет, 2008
Рекомендовано к изданию Инновационно-методическим управлением СФУ
Разработка и оформление электронного образовательного ресурса: Центр технологий электронного обучения информационно-аналитического
департамента СФУ; лаборатория по разработке мультимедийных электронных образовательных ресурсов при КрЦНИТ
Содержимое ресурса охраняется законом об авторском праве. Несанкционированное копирование и использование данного продукта запрещается. Встречающиеся
названия программного обеспечения, изделий, устройств или систем могут являться зарегистрированными товарными знаками тех или иных фирм.
Подп. к использованию 01.09.2008
Объем 4 Мб
Красноярск: СФУ, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Contents
Part I. Grammar review
Unit 1
Unit 2
•
•
•
•
Past Simple & Present Perfect
Countable & uncountable nouns
Articles usage
Nouns in Groups
•
•
•
•
Comparisons
Plural of nouns
Quantifiers
Relative clauses
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Contents
Part I. Grammar review
Unit 3
Unit 4
•
•
•
•
•
Present Simple &Present Continuous
Modal verbs can/could may/might
Modal verbs must/need
Modal verbs must/have to/be to
Modal verbs should/ought to
•
•
•
•
•
•
Active/Passive Forms
Future forms
Conditional 0
Conditional 1
Conditional 2
Conditional 3
Профессиональный английский язык
5
Contents
Part I. Grammar review
Unit 5
Unit 6
• Present Perfect Continuous
• Past Continuous
Past Perfect &Past Perfect Continuous
• Purpose, Reason & Result Clauses
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Contents
Part I. Grammar review
Unit 7
Unit 8
•
•
•
•
Reported Statements
Reported orders, requests, suggestions
Reported questions
Gerund
• Infinitive
• Participles
• Punctuation
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Contents
Part II. Language check
Unit 1
Unit 2
• Word formation in English
• Cinquain Poetry
• English units of measurement
• Reading English numerals
• Symbols and conventions used in
Dictionaries
• Linking words
Профессиональный английский язык
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Contents
Part II. Language check
Unit 3
• Negotiating in English
Unit 4
• Telephone English
• Meetings in English
Unit 5
•
•
•
•
Writing memos
How to write an essay
Phrasal verbs
The verb to get
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Contents
Part II. Language check
Unit 6
Unit 7
Unit 7
• Writing business letters
• Letters of complaint
• The guidelines to write e-mail
• Letters of Enquiry
• Lack / lack of
• Public Speaking
• Writing job adverts
Профессиональный английский язык
10
Contents
Part II. Language check
Unit 8
Unit 7
•
•
•
•
•
•
How to write a CV (resume) in English
Vocabulary for job interviews
Staff or staffs
Describing Trends
Describing importance
Describing satisfaction
Bibliography
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Part I. Grammar review
12
Part I. Grammar review
Past Simple
FORM: [VERB+ed] or irregular verbs
• You called Debbie
• Did you call Debbie?
• You did not call Debbie
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Part I. Grammar review
Past Simple is used to denote:
Completed Action in the Past
I checked the reports yesterday.
Last year, I traveled to Japan
I finished work, walked to the beach,
and found a nice place to swim
A Series of Completed Actions
He arrived from the airport at 8:00,
checked into the hotel at 9:00, and
met the others at 10:00
Duration in the Past
A: How long did you wait for them?
B: We waited for one hour
Habits in the Past
They never went to school, they
always skipped class
Past Facts or Generalizations
People paid much more to make cell
phone calls in the past
Профессиональный английский язык
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Part I. Grammar review
Present Perfect
FORM: [has/have + past participle]
• You have seen that movie many times
• Have you seen that movie many times?
• You have not seen that movie many times
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15
Part I. Grammar review
Present Perfect is associated with
the following topics:
Experience
I think I have seen that movie before.
He has never traveled by train.
Joan has studied two foreign languages
Change Over Time
You have grown since the last time I saw
you.
The government has become more
interested in arts education.
Japanese has become one of the most
popular courses at the university since the
Asian studies program was established.
My English has really improved since I
moved to Australia
Accomplishments
Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
Scientists have split the atom
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Part I. Grammar review
Present Perfect is associated
with the following topics
An Uncompleted Action
You Are Expecting
James has not finished his homework yet.
Multiple Action sat
Different Times
The army has attacked that city five times.
Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she
can communicate
I have had four quizzes and five tests so far
this semester
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Part I. Grammar review
Countable & uncountable nouns
• Countable nouns refer to people, places,
or things that can be counted
(one dollar/two dollars, one house, two houses)
• Uncountable nouns often refer to
beverages, substances, or abstractions
(meat, tea, steel, information)
Профессиональный английский язык
food,
18
Part I. Grammar review
Common Uncountable English Nouns
Food and Drink:
Nonfood Substances
bacon, beef, beer, bread,
broccoli, butter, cabbage,
candy, cauliflower, celery,
cereal, cheese, chicken,
chocolate, coffee, corn,
cream, fish, flour, fruit, ice
cream, lettuce, meat, milk, oil,
pasta, rice, salt, spinach,
sugar, tea, water, wine, yogurt
air, cement, coal, dirt,
gasoline, gold, ice, leather,
paper, petroleum, plastic, rain,
rubber, silver, snow, soap,
steel, wood, wool
Профессиональный английский язык
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Part I. Grammar review
Common Uncountable English Nouns
advice, anger, beauty, confidence,
courage, employment, fun,
happiness, health, honesty,
Abstract nouns Others
information, intelligence,
knowledge, love, poverty,
satisfaction, truth, wealth
Others
work, biology, clothing, equipment,
furniture, homework, jewelry,
luggage, lumber, machinery, mail,
money, news, poetry, pollution,
research, scenery, traffic,
transportation, violence, weather
Профессиональный английский язык
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Part I. Grammar review
The Indefinite article a/an
• in front of any word that
begins with a consonant or
consonant-like vowel sound
• conversely, an is put in
front of any word that
begins with a pure vowel
sound or a mute 'h'
• Note that spelling is not a
reliable indicator of when to
use a or an!
• in front of a countable
noun that is being
mentioned for the very first
time. Once introduced, all
further references to it can
be preceded by the definite
article the
Our town has a theatre, a university,
a large park and a conference hall.
Many Chinese still believe an
Englishman always carries an
umbrella.
It's an old custom.
It's a strange old custom
The coastguard received an SOS.
He spent an hour standing in line
I have two cars: a Ford and an Audi.
The Ford is white and the Audi is
silver
Профессиональный английский язык
21
Part I. Grammar review
The Indefinite article a/an
• in front of professions
• instead of per when giving
the rate or pace of
something
She is an architect and he is a doctor
He earns $200 a day
She swims twice a week
He drove at 60 miles an hour
• Note too that little and few
become a whole lot more
positive when preceded by
the indefinite article!
She has a little money and a few
friends, so she'll probably get by.
Compare:
She has little money and few friends,
so I doubt if she'll get by
Профессиональный английский язык
22
Part I. Grammar review
The Definite Article the
• in front of any noun the
listener or reader already
knows about
• when the existence of
something is common
knowledge or comes as no
surprise because of the context
in which it is mentioned
• in front of things generally
regarded as unique
• in front of nouns preceded
by superlative adjectives and
ordinal numbers
I have two cars: a Ford and an Audi.
The Ford is white and the Audi is silver
Last week a fighter plane crashed into a
field but the pilot managed to eject
safely.
Yesterday I spent the afternoon at
home.
I put my clothes into the washing
machine and went outside to sit in the
garden
The sun, the moon, the sea, the sky, the
Arctic Circle, the environment, the
capital, the air, the ground, etc.
It was the worst day of my life! The
captain was the first person to leave he
burning tanker.
AmE June twenty-first. BrE June the
twenty-first. The twenty-first (day) of
June
Профессиональный английский язык
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Part I. Grammar review
The Definite Article the
• in front of countable nouns
representing a whole class or
category of something
The computer has changed our lives.
It is left up to the consumer to decide
which one to buy
• in front of oceans, seas,
rivers, island and mountain
chains, deserts, countries with
plural names, and noun forms
of points of the compass
The Pacific, the Mediterranean, the
Amazon,the West Indies, the Rockies,
the Sahara, the Netherlands, the Far
East, etc
• in place names and titles
including of
It is unlikely the Queen of Denmark
has ever swum in the Bay of Bengal.
Margrethe II is (the) Queen of Denmark.
Donald was elected chairman of the
board
Профессиональный английский язык
24
Part I. Grammar review
The Definite Article the
• in proper names consisting
of noun(s) and/or adjective(s)
+ noun
The Empire State Building, the English
Channel, the White House, the Festival
Hall, the Rolling Stones, the Berlin
Philharmonic Orchestra, the British
Museum, etc.
• in hotel names
The Hilton Hotel, the Savoy, the
Sheraton
• for newspapers
The Times, the Baltimore Sun, the Daily
Mail
• for many larger
organizations and institutions
(not commercial enterprises),
including those with initials
that are normally spelled out
The Commonwealth, the Fed, the EU,
the WHO, the BBC, the FDA, the IAEA,
etc.
Compare: OPEC, NATO, ICANN, etc.
•
The U.S. dollar has risen against the
yen but fallen against the euro
for currencies
Профессиональный английский язык
25
Part I. Grammar review
The Definite Article the
• in front of people's names,
however, the is only used to
avoid confusion
I'm the David Appleyard that lives in
Japan
• with the names of musical
instruments
Richard Clayderman plays the piano
• instead of a possessive
form when referring to parts
of the body and items of
clothing
She was hit on the head by a snowball
(=a snowball hit her head).
Joe grabbed the youth by the collar
(=Joe grabbed the youth's collar)
• with some forms of
entertainment (not the
medium of television )
I go to the cinema/movies, the
theatre, the circus, the ballet and the
opera.
In the daytime I listen to the radio, but
in the evenings I like to watch
television
Профессиональный английский язык
26
Part I. Grammar review
The Zero Article
• before abstract nouns used in a
general sense
Inflation is a growing problem in developing
countries
• for most places consisting of just the
name of a person, or the name of a
person/place followed by a noun
Harrods, Macys, McDonald's, Lloyds Bank,
St. Paul's Cathedral, Buckingham
Palace,Kennedy Airport, Waterloo Station,
Cambridge University, etc.
•
• in front of most roads, streets, parks,
squares or bridges
Cisco Systems, Microsoft, CBS, EMI,
Hitachi, Lufthansa, etc
Gordon Brown is (the) Chancellor of the
Exchequer.
Compare: Gordon Brown is a cabinet
minister
Queen's Road, Oxford Street, Central Park,
Times Square, Tower Bridge, etc.
•in the names of single mountains
While in New Zealand I climbed Mount Cook
• before the names of meals, unless it
is a formal occasion
Roger had breakfast in his hotel room.
Compare: I attended a dinner at the Rotary
Club
in front of company names
• in official job titles, if there is only one
person holding this position at any given
time
Профессиональный английский язык
27
Part I. Grammar review
The Zero Article
•for the names of games or sports
He plays tennis to keep in shape
•in more abstract expressions of
situation like to/at sea, to/at/out of work,
in/out of town, in/out of office, etc. if not
talking about somewhere concrete
This government has been in office for
about a year now.
Compare: She didn't get out of the office
much before 7 o'clock
•before television as a medium, only as
an appliance
Carol saw her brother on television
Compare: She had an indoor antenna on
the television
•before a noun followed by a
categorizing letter or number
The students have just read section C.
The Her flight leaves from gate 32
•in the titles of books, movies, music
and other works of art
"Have you read 'Lord of the Rings'?"
•in headlines
"Iraqi Head Seeks Arms"
"Stolen Painting Found by Tree"
"Police Confirm Shotgun Attack on Bullet
Train"
Профессиональный английский язык
28
Part I. Grammar review
Possessive case
of nouns `s is used:
• to express a relationship between a person or
animal and another person, animal or thing. eg.
Peter's friends
• to show that something belongs to or is
associated with a group of people, a place
or an organization. eg. our company's policy
• with nouns referring to the duration of an event
or a specific time. eg. yesterday's newspaper
• with noun that specifies a part of an object
or a quality it has. eg. the computer's memory
Профессиональный английский язык
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Part I. Grammar review
Compound nouns
• Compound nouns are commonly formed by
placing two or three nouns together. The first
noun classifies the second
Eg. an assembly line, a credit card
• In expressions of measurement with a numeral,
the first noun is singular
Eg. a fifty-dollar bill, a five-day course
• We tend to combine two nouns with - of - when
referring to more abstract concepts
Eg. the history of business
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30
Part I. Grammar review
Adjectives. Degrees of Comparison
1. - er/-est
•
adjectives with one syllable
clean
•
cleaner
the cleanest
adjectives with two syllables and endings
- y,-er,-le,-ow
dirty
clever
simple
narrow
dirtier
cleverer
simpler
narrower
the dirtiest
the cleverest
the simplest
the narrowest
Профессиональный английский язык
31
Part I. Grammar review
Adjectives. Degrees of Comparison
Spelling of the adjectives using the endings -er/-est
large
larger
the largest
leave out the silent -e
big
bigger
the biggest
sad
sadder
the saddest
dirty
dirtier
the dirtiest
double the consonant after
short vowel
double the consonant after
short vowel
change -y to – i (consonant
before -y)
shy
shyer
the shyest
here -y is not changed to – i
(although consonant before y)
2. more-the most - adjectives with more than one syllable
difficult - more difficult - (the) most difficult
Профессиональный английский язык
32
Part I. Grammar review
Irregular adjectives
good
bad
much
many
little
far
old
better
worse
the best
the worst
more
the most
less
farther
further
older
elder
the least
the farthest
the furthest
the oldest
the eldest
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33
Part I. Grammar review
Constructions:
- as…as (to copare similar
objects)
My salary is as high as yours
- not so…as (to compare
different objects)
My salary is not so high as yours
- less…than + comparative
adjective
The income this year is less than the
year before
- the least…of (or in) +
superlative adjective
The economic situation in African
countries is the least stable of the rest
countries
- gradual increase
Finding a job is getting easier and easier
Finding a job is getting more and more
easy
- parallel increase
The more we invest, the more we get
Профессиональный английский язык
34
Part I. Grammar review
Adverbs. Degrees of Comparison
hard - harder - (the) hardest
carefully - more carefully - (the) most carefully
Irregular adverbs
well
better
the best
badly
worse
the worst
much
more
the most
little
less
the least
late
later
the last
far
farther
further
the farthest
the furthest
Профессиональный английский язык
35
Part I. Grammar review
Plural of nouns
Countable nouns
Single
noun
Uncountable or
taken from other
language nouns
Add –s
or -es
Use
special
rules
Профессиональный английский язык
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Part I. Grammar review
Variations of final -s rule
• Nouns that end with -s, -z, -x, -sh, -ch, add -es
glass/glasses, buzz/buzzes, box/boxes
• Nouns that end in - o, add -es:
potato/potatoes, echo/echoes, hero/heroes
exceptions: auto/autos, kangaroo/kangaroos, memo/memos,
piano/pianos
either: buffalo/buffalo(e)s, cargo/cargo(e)s, motto/motto(e)s,
volcano/volcano(e)s
• Nouns that end in a consonant + -y , change -y to -i
and add -es
baby/babies, spy/spies, poppy/poppies
• Nouns that end in -f, or -fe, change the -f to -v and
add -es
shelf/shelves, wolf/wolves, knife/knives, wife/wives
Профессиональный английский язык
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Part I. Grammar review
Exeptions
•
children/ child
•
ox/oxen
•
foot/feet
•
goose/geese
•
man/men
•
woman/ women
•
mouse/mice
•
tooth/teeth
Профессиональный английский язык
38
Part I. Grammar review
Nouns adopted
from other languages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Singular ends in –is / plural ends in -es
analysis/analyses, axis/axes, basis/bases, crisis/crises
Singular ends in –um / plural ends in -a
bacterium/bacteria, curriculum/curricula, datum/data, erratum/errata
Singular ends in –on / plural ends in -a
criterion/criteria, phenomenon/phenomena, automaton/automata
Singular ends in –a / plural ends in -ae
formula/formulae, antenna/antennae, vertebra/vertebrae
Singular ends in -ex or –ix / plural ends in -ices
appendix/appendices, cervix/cervices, index/indices, matrix/matrices
Singular ends in -us / plural ends in -i
bacillus/bacilli, cactus/cacti, focus/foci, fungus/fungi, nucleus/nuclei,
octopus/octopi, radius/radii
Singular ends in -us / plural ends in -a
corpus/corpora, genus/genera
Singular ends in -eau / plural ends in -eaux
bureau/bureaux, beau/beaux
Профессиональный английский язык
39
Part I. Grammar review
Quantifiers
both and each
Both (of the) documents have to be sent
in triplicate
few (not many)
Jf there are few opportunities for
promotion, young high-flyers will look for
another job. Few people like their boss
interfering with their work
a few (some/a small number of)
We'll all be doing our shopping by
computer in a few years' time. You'll
settle in after a few weeks
There is little time left for discussion so
we need to make a decision right away.
There's very little space in my office
I need a little more time to think about
your proposal
How much money have you got?
How many people work in your firm?
little (not much)
a little a small amount)
much (uncountable nouns)
many (plural nouns)
a lot of, a great deal of, plenty of, A great deal of the money we earn
lots of (informal situations)
is from repairing old bicycles
Профессиональный английский язык
40
Part I. Grammar review
Relative clauses
A relative clause is a subordinate clause that
begins with a relative pronoun
(who, which, whose, that)
Students who can develop
independent learning skills often
achieve good academic results
Профессиональный английский язык
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Part I. Grammar review
Relative pronouns
• who for people
• that for both people and things
What’s the name of the person who/that first landed on
the moon?
• which for things
The ELC, which provides language support to students,
is located on the first floor
• whom as the object of a relative clause
This is Dr. Perkins, whom we met at a conference in
Canada last year
• whose to indicate possession
All students whose registration numbers begin with 374
should immediately go to the library for a tour
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Part I. Grammar review
Present Simple
VERB + s/es in the third person singular
is used to denote:
Repeated Actions
She always forgets her purse
California is in America.
Facts or
Generalizations California is not in the United Kingdom
Scheduled Events The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it
arrives at 11 PM.
in the Near
Future
When do we board the plane?
Now (NonContinuous
Verbs)
He has his passport in his hand
Do you have your passport with you?
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Part I. Grammar review
Present continuous
am/is/are + present participle
is used:
• to express the idea that
something is happening
now
Why aren't you doing your homework?
• to denote longer actions
happening now
Are you working on any special
projects at work?
• to indicate that something
will or will not happen in
the near future
Is he visiting his parents next weekend?
• to show repetition and
irritation with "Always”
I don't like them because they are always
complaining
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Part I. Grammar review
Present simple versus present
continuous
is used to express general truths and
habitual actions which are in or
around the present
is used to express temporary actions
which are in or around the present
KEY WORDS
The frequency adverbs: always, usually,
often, sometimes, occasionally, seldom,
rarely, hardly ever, never, every (week,
day, ...)
Note: Frequency adverbs can be used
with tenses other than present simple,
depending on the meaning
John Lennon always wore glasses
KEY WORDS
Now, right now, presently, at the moment
EXCEPTIONS: Certain verbs are rarely
used in the continuous tenses. These
verbs are: be, seem, need, owe, want,
verbs of possession (have, own, possess,
belong), verbs which express thoughts
(think, remember, forget, know, believe),
involuntary sense verbs (see, taste, feel,
hear, smell)
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Part I. Grammar review
Present simple versus present
continuous
is used to express general truths and is used to express temporary actions
habitual actions which are in or
which are in or around the present
around the present
Note:
Note:
There are many examples where an
a) When the verb HAVE does not signify
action can be considered both habitual or
possession, it can be used in the
temporary. Your choice of tense will
continuous tenses.
depend on what kind of emphasis you
They are having a meeting right now
want
b) Voluntary sense verbs, such as listen,
I am studying at UQAM. I study at
can be used with continuous tenses
UQAM.
At the moment, she is listening to the
Both sentences have the same basic
news
meaning, but the first sounds more
temporary than the second
When we talk about where we work and
where we live, the two tenses are used
interchangeably.
I live in Montreal = I am living in Montreal
He works at Bell = He is working at Bell
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Part I. Grammar review
Can
Can is used:
• to express ability
He can speak Spanish ,
but he can't write it very well
• to express permission
Can I talk to my friends in the library
waiting room?
• to express theoretical possibility
American automobile makers can make better cars
if they think there's a profit in it
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Part I. Grammar review
Could
Could is used:
• to express an ability in the past
I could always beat you at tennis when we were
kids
• to express past or future permission
Could I bury my cat in your back yard?
• to express present possibility
We could always spend the afternoon just sitting
around talking
• to express possibility or ability in contingent
circumstance
If he studied harder, he could pass this course
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Part I. Grammar review
May and might
• In the context of granting or seeking permission, might
is the past tense of may
May I leave class early?
• In the context of expressing possibility, may and might
are interchangeable for present and future forms
might + have + past participle is used
for the past form:
She might be my advisor next semester
She might have advised me not to take sociology
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Part I. Grammar review
Need
Modal
•
•
The use of NEED as a modal verb is
restricted
to
negative
and
interrogative sentences mostly
The use of NEED as a modal verb is
more common when we talk about
one particular occasion
e.g. Need I stand up now?
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Part I. Grammar review
Need
Regular
•
•
•
•
•
NEED as a modal verb has many tense forms and regular negative and
interrogative forms. It combines either with a noun or with
the to + Infinitive
e.g. Do I need to do it everyday?
It is used in all types of sentences and is more common
It is used mainly when the following Infinitive denotes habitual repeated
action
e.g. Do I need to stand up every time you come into the room?
In affirmative sentences NEED is used to show necessity but it may be
used in negative and in question sentences
e.g. Do you need to work so hard all the time?
As for the form, didn’t need to do smth is equivalent to didn’t have to do
smth
e.g. She didn’t have to spend money. She had no money at all
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Part I. Grammar review
Must / to have to / to be
concrete
imperative
suppositional
Real necessity (mt)
e.g. I must see the
head teacher because
I want to discuss
something with her
Circumstantial
necessity (have to,
have got to)
e.g. I have to see
the head teacher
because she’s called
me to her office
Order, admonition (must)
e.g. You must come
and see her
Strict order (to be to)
e.g. You are to come
and see her
Prohibition
e.g. You mustn’t do it
Near certainty about
the present smb must
do\be doing smth
e.g. She must
know her
Near certainty about
the past smb must
have done\have been
doing smth
e.g. She must
have done it
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Part I. Grammar review
Must / to have to / to be
concrete
imperative
suppositional
a) Prearranged
necessity (to be to)
e.g. The lecture is to
begin at 9.30
b) A prearranged
action that was not
fulfilled
e.g. She was to have
taken part in the new
film but fell ill
Strict prohibition
e.g. You are not to
do it!
You may not do it!
Note!
Must expressing near certainty
is not used with the future time
reference. Instead we use
“probably” and “evidently”
e.g. He will probably be a
good student
Note!
In negative forms negative
meaning is conveyed with the
help of negative affixes,
pronouns or lexically with the
help of the verb “to fail”
e.g. She must have failed
to do it
e.g. No one must have
seen him
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Part I. Grammar review
Should / ought to
The modal verbs ought to and should are used
to express:
•
expectation
I'm in a meeting at the moment. We should / ought to / expect
to finish by 3 p.m. and I'll call you back then
•
probability
You should / ought to receive the goods on Tuesday
•
desirability
You should / ought to have stayed for the last day of the
conference, it was very interesting
•
an obligation or duty, giving advice
You should / ought to look at our prices, they are very
competitive
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Part I. Grammar review
Active- and Passive-Voice Verbs
Active-voice verbs show the subject
performing the action
Examples:
Most major employers require drugtesting
(Active voice; the subject is acting)
Dr. Smith recommended Tina for the job
(Active voice; the subject is acting)
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Part I. Grammar review
Active- and Passive-Voice Verbs
In passive-voice sentences, the subject is being
acted upon. Passive-voice verbs
require helper verbs
Examples:
Drug testing is required by most
major employers
(Passive voice; the subject is being acted upon)
Tina was recommended for the job
by Dr. Smith
(Passive voice; the subject is being acted upon)
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Part I. Grammar review
How to identify passive voice
• Usually contains a combination of a form of be and
the past tense (or past participle) of an action verb
– am, is, are, was, were
+
– thrown, made, given …
• Ask “Is or was a subject being acted upon?” (by
someone or something)
• Ask, “Who or what was responsible for the action?”
– If you can’t identify who or what is responsible for the
action visited upon someone or something, it’s probably
passive
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Part I. Grammar review
Using Active- and Passive-Voice Verbs
• Use the active voice for most business
writing
• Use the passive voice to emphasize an
action or the recipient of the action – rather
than the actor (Specialists were hired; Laura
was honored)
• Use the passive voice to break bad news
(Although your lease cannot be renewed, we
can offer . . . )
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Part I. Grammar review
Passive Voice Verb Forms
Present Simple
Once a week, Tom checks the
sales figures
Once a week, the sales
figures are checked by Tom
Present
Continuous
Right now, Sarah is writing the
report
Right now, the report is being
written by Sarah
Past Simple
Sam repaired the car
The car was repaired by Sam
Past
Continuous
The salesman was helping the
customer when the thief came
into the store
The customer was being
helped by the salesman when
the thief came into the store
Present Perfect
Many clients have visited that
office
That office has been visited
by many clients
Present Perfect
Continuous
Recently, John has been doing
the work
Recently, the work has been
being done by John
Past Perfect
George had repaired many cars
before he received his
mechanic's license
Many cars had been repaired
by George before he received
his mechanic's license
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Part I. Grammar review
Passive Voice Verb Forms
Past Perfect
Continuous
Bob had been preparing reports The reports had been being
for two years before he moved prepared by Bob for two years
to Paris.
before he moved to Paris
Simple Future
Someone will finish the work by
5:00 PM
The work will be finished by 5:00
PM
Future Perfect
They will have completed the
project before the deadline
The project will have been
completed before the deadline
Used to
Jerry used to pay the bills
The bills used to be paid by
Jerry
Would Always
My boss would always write
memos
The memos would always be
written by my boss
Future in the
Past
I knew John would finish the
work by 5:00 PM
I knew the work would be
finished by 5:00 PM
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Part I. Grammar review
Future Simple
Will
Be Going To
will + verb
am/is/are + going
to + verb
You are going to meet
Jane tonight
Are you going to meet
Jane tonight?
You are not going to
meet Jane tonight
You will help him later
Will you help him later?
You will not help
him later
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Part I. Grammar review
Will or be going to?
• to express a
voluntary action
• to express a
promise
Will
Be going to
Will send you the information
when I get it.
I will translate the email, so
Mr. Smith can read it
I will call you when I arrive.
If I am elected President of
the United States, I will
make sure everyone has
access to inexpensive health
insurance
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Part I. Grammar review
Will or be going to?
Will
Be going to
• to express a
plan
A: When are we
going to meet each
other tonight?
B: We are going to
meet at 6 PM
• to express a
prediction
The year 2222 will be a The year 2222 is
very interesting year.
going to be a very
interesting year.
John Smith will be the John Smith is going
next President
to be the next
President
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Part I. Grammar review
Conditional 0
Situations that are always true
if something happens
if clause
the present simple
result clause
the present simple
If you buy more than 200 calculators, we give you
20% discount
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Part I. Grammar review
Conditional 1
Real or possible situations
if clause
the present simple
result clause
will+ verb (base form)
We will send you the first consignment of goods in
April if we sign the agreement now
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Part I. Grammar review
Conditional 2
Unreal, impossible or improvable situations
if clause
result clause
the past simple
would+ verb (base form)
I would forbid smoking during the day if I were the
director of our company
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Part I. Grammar review
Conditional 3
Past situations with hypothetical results
if clause
the past perfect
result clause
would have+ past participle
If I had known that boss was watching I wouldn’t
have played videogames on the working place
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Part I. Grammar review
Present Perfect Continuous
has/have + been + present participle
You have been waiting here for two hours.
Have you been waiting here for two hours?
You have not been waiting here for two hours
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Part I. Grammar review
Present Perfect Continuous
is used:
• to talk about activities that started They have been coordinating
happening in the past and are still network development for 5 years
happening now with for, since, and
How long ...? , for five minutes, for
two weeks, since Tuesday, …
• to talk about an activity that was in The ground is very wet. It has
progress, but has just finished and
been raining
about recently finished activities
• when something is still going on
I've been writing a report about
international characters usage
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Part I. Grammar review
Past Simple vs Present Perfect vs
Present Perfect Continuous
The Past Simple
The Present
Perfect
We normally use the simple past to
talk about actions that took place at
a time that is separated from the
present.
It is used with expressions like
yesterday, on Monday, last week,
in 1998, etc.
Last month Vodafon
launched a takeover bid
for Airtouch.
He did his PhD at Delft
Technical University
We can use the simple past and
for to talk about something that
happened during a period that has
now finished
He lived in Amsterdam for
five years; then he came
back to England
to talk about the present result of
past actions and recent events, and
often used with words like ever,
never, just, already, yet, and
phrases of unfinished time such as
so far
A2000 has cut installation
price for Internet over TV
cable network by 30%.
Have you ever tried Swiss
wine
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Part I. Grammar review
Past Simple vs Present Perfect vs
Present Perfect Continuous
• The Present Perfect + for and since with for and since
and stative verbs, or to refer to actions that are seen as
long term or permanent .
We use for to talk about the duration of the period of
time and since to talk about the starting point of an
action or state.I have been with my department for three
years.I have been in Internet technologies since 1992
• It is also used in the negatives with for and since to talk
about the last time something took placeI haven't met
him for six month .I haven't been feeling well recently
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Part I. Grammar review
Past Simple vs Present Perfect vs
Present Perfect Continuous
• It is used with since to talk about completed action.The
Commission has launched three new programs since
December
• The Present Perfect ContinuousThe present perfect
continuous can be used with for and since to talk about
activities that have gone on repeatedly or continuously for
a period of time, and are still going on.
The Commission has been coordinating network
development for 5 years
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Part I. Grammar review
Past Continuous
was/were + present participle
You were studying when she called.
Were you studying when she called?
You were not studying when she called
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Part I. Grammar review
Past Continuous is used:
• to indicate that a longer Sammy was waiting for us when
action in the past was
we got off the plane.
interrupted
While I was writing the email, the
computer suddenly went off.
A: What were you doing when you
broke your leg?
B: I was snowboarding
• to express the idea that I wasn't paying attention while I
parallel actions were
was writing the letter, so I made
happening at the same
several mistakes.
time
What were you doing while you
were waiting?
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Part I. Grammar review
Past Continuous is used:
• to describe the
atmosphere at a
particular time in the
past
• to expresse the idea
that something irritating
or shocking often
happened in the past.
When I walked into the office,
several people were busily typing,
some were talking on the phones,
the boss was yelling directions,
and customers were waiting to be
helped. One customer was yelling
at a secretary and waving his
hands. Others were complaining
to each other about the bad service
He was constantly talking. He
annoyed everyone. I didn't like them
because they were always
complaining
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Part I. Grammar review
Past Perfect
had + past participle
You had studied English before you
moved to New York
Had you studied English before you
moved to New York?
You had not studied English before you
moved to New York
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Part I. Grammar review
Past Perfect is used:
• to express the idea
that something occurred
before another action in
the past
Had Susan ever studied Thai before she
moved to Thailand?
We were not able to get a hotel room
because we had not booked in advance.
A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before
your trip in 2006?
B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before
• to show that something
started in the past and
continued up until
another action in the
past
By the time Alex finished his studies, he
had been in London for over eight years.
They felt bad about selling the house
because they had owned it for more than
forty years
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Part I. Grammar review
Past Perfect Continuous
had been + present participle
You had been waiting there for more than
two hours when she finally arrived
Had you been waiting there for more than
two hours when she finally arrived?
You had not been waiting there for more than
two hours when she finally arrived
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Part I. Grammar review
Past Perfect Continuous is used:
• to show that something
started in the past and
continued up until another
time in the past
• before another action in the
past to show cause and
effect
She had been working at that company
for three years when it went out of
business.
How long had you been waiting to get on
the bus?
Mike wanted to sit down because he had
been standing all day at work.
James had been teaching at the
university for more than a year before he
left for Asia
Jason was tired because he had been
jogging Sam gained weight because he
had been overeating.
Betty failed the final test because she had
not been attending class
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Part I. Grammar review
Purpose clauses
• to state the purpose of the action in the independent
clause. The most common type of purpose clause
is a to-infinitive clause
Sarah went to the computer lab to print out her research
report
• In formal writing, in order to and so as to are often used
The company conducted a detailed survey in order to gauge
its clients’ views
• In formal writing, so that or in order that can be used
These finite purpose clauses usually contain a modal
Dr Green adjusted the overhead projector so that the
students would be able to see the chart more clearly
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Part I. Grammar review
Reason clauses
• to explain why something happens, you can use a
reason clause introduced by the conjunctions
because, as or since
As she wanted to practice her spoken English, Carrie
regularly took part in the ELC’s Big Mouth Corner
• to express reason use the prepositional phrases
because of and on account of
We were unable to carry out the experiment on
account of a malfunction in the computer
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Part I. Grammar review
Result clauses
• to indicate the result of an action or situation, you
can use a result clause. Result clauses are
introduced by conjunctions such as so, so... that, or
such … that
The lecture was boring and irrelevant, so some of the
students began to fall asleep
• to talk about the result of an action or situation you
may prefer to use and as a result or with the result that
The lecture was boring and irrelevant, and as a result
some of the students began to fall asleep
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Part I. Grammar review
Direct
Speech
‘Direct’
reported
speech
‘Indirect’
reported
speech
He said, Our boss told
us to finish project till
Friday
He said that their boss
had told them to finish
project till Friday
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Part I. Grammar review
Backshift of tenses
Present
Simple
Past Simple
Past Simple
Past Perfect
Peter: "We invest much in
R&D."
Peter: "We invested much
in R&D."
Present
Perfect
Peter: "We have invested
much in R&D."
Past Perfect
Peter: "We had invested
much in R&D."
Peter said that they
invested much in R&D
Peter said that they
had invested much in
R&D
will
would
Peter: "We will invest
much in R&D."
Peter said that they
would invest much in
R&D
can
could
Peter: "We can invest
much in R&D."
Peter said that they
could invest much in
R&D
may
might
Peter: "We may invest
much in R&D."
Peter said that they
might invest much in
R&D
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Part I. Grammar review
Backshift of tenses
would,
could,
might,
should,
ought to
would,
could,
might,
should,
ought to
Peter: "We would invest
much in R&D."
am/are/is
was/were
Peter: "We are investing Peter said that they
much in R&D
were investing much
in R&D."
was/were
has been
had been
Peter said that they
would invest much
in R&D
Peter: "We were
Peter said that they
investing much in R&D." had been investing
."Peter: "We have been much in R&D."
investing much in R&D."
had been
Peter: ""We had been
investing much in R&D."
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Part I. Grammar review
Shifting of expressions of time
this (evening)
today/this day
these (days)
now
(a week) ago
last weekend
→
→
→
→
→
→
here
next (week)
tomorrow
yesterday
→
→
→
→
that (evening)
that day
those (days)
then
(a week) before
the weekend before / the
previous weekend
there
the following (week)
the next/following day
the day before
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Part I. Grammar review
Reported orders, requests, suggestions
Patterns:
• to report an order or request
verb + indirect object + to-clause
“Bring me the file, please.” → She told the
secretary to bring her the file
• to report a request for objects
ask + for + object
“Can you call him later? He is at meeting” →
Secretary asked him to call later
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Part I. Grammar review
Verbs
• tell, command, order, warn, ask, advise, invite,
beg, teach, forbid , urge with a to-clause
“Do not leave this file in the office!.” → He
advised not to leave that file in the office
• suggest, insist, recommend, demand, request,
propose are usually make a reported speech
with a that-clause
“So lets work twice intensive to finish project till
Friday.” → It was suggested to work twice
intensive to finish project in time
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Part I. Grammar review
Reported questions
• yes/no questions → if оr whether
“Will you bring me some coffee, please?” →
He asked her if she would bring him some coffee
• Questions beginning with a question word → verb +
subject → to subject + verb
"Where are you staying?" - Peter asked me where
I was staying
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Part I. Grammar review
Gerund
Functions
Subject
Indicators
Part of a
compound nominal
predicate
Part of a
modal
compound
verbal
predicate
Patterns
Riding a bicycle is my
favorite pastime.
It’s no use crying over
split milk
All he wanted was
getting out of here
After the verbs
I can’t help smiling.
and verbal
I like reading at meal
phrases denoting times
modality: can’t
stand, cant help
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Part I. Grammar review
Gerund
Functions
Part of a
aspect
compound
verbal
predicate
Indicators
After the verbs
denoting the beginning,
duration or end of an
action: begin, cease,
commence, go on,
continue, finish, give
up, keep on,
stop,proceed, etc.
Object (Direct and
Prepositional)
Attribute
Always preceded by a
preposition
Профессиональный английский язык
Patterns
The baby started
crying.
He kept on asking till
she agree
Would you mind my
opening the window?
She didn’t apologize
for being late
He had no desire of
seeing her again
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Part I. Grammar review
Gerund
Functions
Indicators
Adverbial manner
modifier of
time
Patterns
With the
prepositions by, in
David interrupted the
boy by talking him by
the elbow
With the
prepositions after,
before, on (upon),
in, at
On hearing the bell,
she went to open the
door
attendant With the preposition She could talk about
impersonal things
circumsta without
without turning the
nces
conversation into a
lecture
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Part I. Grammar review
Gerund
Functions
Adverbial
modifier of
Indicators
Patterns
purpose
With the preposition This room is used
for
for studying
condition
With the
prepositions
without, in case of
He couldn’t enter
without being
invited
cause/reason With the
Through being
prepositions for, for careless, he met
fear of, owning
with an accident
through, because
concession
With the preposition In spite of being
in spite of
tired, he continued
working
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Part I. Grammar review
Infinitive
• An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word
to + verb and functioning as a noun,
adjective, or adverb
to go to do to speak to read
• In a sentence the infinitive can function as a
subject, part of a predicate, an attribute, an
object, and an adverbial modifier
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Part I. Grammar review
The bare infinitive
(without to) is used:
•
•
•
•
•
after most auxiliaries
She can't speak to you
after verbs of perception, with the pattern
verb + object + bare infinitive
He saw her fall from the cliff
after the verbs 'make' and 'let', with the
pattern make/let + object + zero infinitive
Her parents let her stay out late
after the expression 'had better‘
She had better ask him not to come
after the expression 'would rather' when
referring to the speaker's own actions
Не said he would rather stay at home
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Part I. Grammar review
Predicative constructions
wth the infinitive
The Objective-with-the-Infinitive
Construction
The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive
Construction
Infinitive + N (common case) / pron
(objective case)
after
verbs
denoting
sense
perception;
I haven't heard anyone call me
- after verbs denoting mental activity;
I know you to be the most honest,
spotless creature that ever lived
- after verbs of declaring:
She declared him to be the most
disobedient child in existence
- after verbs denoting wish and
intention and after “I would like”
Infinitive + N (common case)/
pron ( nominative case)
with verbs denoting sense
perception;
Mr. Mc'Cord was heard to laugh
heartily
- with verbs denoting mental
activity;
He was thought to be honest and
kindly
- with verb “to make”
-
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Part I. Grammar review
Predicative constructions
wth the infinitive
The For-to-Infinitive Construction, the
Absolute Infinitive
The Absolute Infinitive
Infinitive + N/pron preceded by for
with + to Infinitive
Functions:
- subject, often with the introductory “it”;
I sometimes think it is shame for
people to spend so much money this
way
- predicative;
That was for him to find out.
- attribute;
There is nobody for him to speak with
- complex object
Functions:
- an adverbial modifier of
attending circumstances
Mr Brown is below, Sir, with a
car to take you to the airport
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Part I. Grammar review
Participles
Participle I
present participle
Participle II
past participle
V+ ing
regular verbs - V+ ed
irregular verbs - III form
Active
Indefinite
Perfect
writing
having
written
Passive
returned
discussed
written
being written
having been
written
Having returned from a business trip, he
suggested new methods of work
The project, which had been
discussed at the workers'
meeting, was soon approved
by the directors of the factory
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Part I. Grammar review
Predicative Constructions with Participle
The Objective Participial
Construction
Please, help me to start
these mechanisms working
The Subjective
Participial
Construction
- with participle I of the
active voice
- after the verbs to make, to get, to They were seen
like, to want the construction is
speaking to the headused only with participle II
teacher
He soon made his presence felt
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Part I. Grammar review
Predicative Constructions with Participle
The Absolute Participial
Construction
The Prepositional
Absolute Participial
Construction
Functions as an adverbial modifier Functions as an adverbial
of time, reason, condition, manner modifier of manner or
or attendant circumstances
attendant circumstances
Her luggage registered, he went to
With the clock chiming
the platform
seven times, she jumped
We spent the summer in
out of bed and hurried to
theircottage, they ocupying the
the kitchen
front room and we having the
verandah at our disposa
Профессиональный английский язык
100
Part I. Grammar review
Punctuation marks
apostrophe ( ’ ' )
brackets ( ), [ ], { }, < >
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( ‒, –, —, ― )
ellipsis ( …, ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, ‐ )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( ∕ )
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Part I. Grammar review
General typography
ampersand ( & )
asterisk ( * )
at ( @ )
backslash ( \ )
bullet ( • )
caret ( ^ )
currency ( ¤ ) ¢, $, €, £, ¥, ₩, ₪
degree ( ° )
dele ( )
emoticons (☻ )
inverted exclamation point ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
number sign ( # )
numero sign ( № )
percent and related signs
( %, ‰, ‱ )
pilcrow ( ¶ )
prime ( ′ )
section sign ( § )
tilde/swung dash ( ~ )
umlaut/diaeresis ( ¨ )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/pipe/broken bar ( |, ¦ )
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Part I. Grammar review
Always follow these rules
of punctuation:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Put one space after punctuation
Put no spaces before punctuation, but always put a
space between words
Put two spaces after colons and between sentences
Put end-of-sentence punctuation inside quotation marks
Put commas and other sentence punctuation outside of
parentheses
Put a comma (plus a space) before and, but, or, and nor
when they join two sentences
In general, if you use an adjective-plus-noun (or adverbadjective) phrase to modify another noun the adjective
and noun should be joined with a hyphen
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Part I. Grammar review
Always follow these rules
of punctuation:
•
•
•
Names of newspapers, books, movies, ships,
magazines, journals, and poems are usually italicized or
underlined
Ellipsis (...) is used to show that something has been
omitted
For quotes within quotes, use single quotes
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Part II. Language check
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Part II. Language check
Word formation in English
Affixation
adding a prefix to
the root to change
the meaning of the
word
a. suffixes: careful,
Russian
b. prefixes:
disconnect,
supermarket
Compounding
joining two or more
words into one new
word
some suffixes can
be used to create or
coin new words
skateboard,
whitewash, cat lover
Coinage
Профессиональный английский язык
health-conscious,
money-minded
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Part II. Language check
Word formation in English
Zero derivation
Stress shift
Clipping
adding no affixes;
simply using a word
of one category as a
word of another
category
no affix is added to
the base, but the
stress is shifted
from one syllable to
the other. with the
stress shift comes a
change in category
butter, referee,
proposition
shortening of a
polysyllabic word
bro (brother), pro
(professional)
Профессиональный английский язык
cómbine - combíne ,
transport - transpórt
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Part II. Language check
Word formation in English
Acronym
formation
forming words from the initials of NATO (north
a group of words that designate atlantic treaty
one concept
organization)
Blending
parts (which are not
morphemes!) of two alreadyexisting words are put together
to form a new word
motel (motor
hotel) brunch
(breakfast &
lunch)
Backformation a suffix identifiable from other pronunciate
words is cut off of a base which (pronunciation has previously not been a word; pronounce)
that base then is used as a root,
and becomes a word through
widespread use
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Part II. Language check
Word formation in English
Adoption of brand a brand name becomes
xerox, kleenex, bandnames as common the name for the item
aid, kitty litter
words
or process associated with
the brand name
Onomatopoeia
words are invented which
(to native speakers at
least) sound like the
sound they name or the
entity which produces the
soun
hiss, sizzle, cuckoo,
buzz, beep, ding-dong
Borrowing
a word is taken from
another language. it may
be adapted to the
borrowing language's
phonological system to
varying degrees
skunk, tomato (from
indigenous languages
of the americas)
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Part II. Language check
Cinquain poetry
• A cinquain is a type of poetry. In many ways it is
similar to a Japanese haiku
• A cinquain goes by the number of words in each
line. It was invented by US poet Adelaide Crapsey.
She named her new construction cinquain, based
on the French word for "five"
• The cinquain is always made up of five lines.
Modern forms of the cinquain often use word
counts
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Part II. Language check
The layout for a cinquain
• Title ________
• Line 1 (one noun)
________________________________________
• Line 2 (two adjectives describing the noun)
__________________________________
• Line 3 (three “ing” verbs describing the noun)
________________________________
• Line 4 (statement about the noun)
__________________________________________
• Line 5 (repeat the noun or give a synonym)
___________________________________
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Part II. Language check
Eagles
Peaceful, Precious
Soaring, Rising, Dying
Symbol of freedom and glory
Eagle
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Part II. Language check
How to write a summary
Steps
1. Read through the whole piece - carefully. Annotate as you read
2. Look back for the 1-2 sentences that state the author's main
point. Write it/them down
3. Reread the selection, dividing it into sections of thought
4. Write a sentence or two summarizing each section of thought
5. Write a first draft of your summary
6. Check your draft against the original piece for accuracy
7. Revise the summary. In other words, link your section summary
sentences together with good transitional words or phrases
8. Proofread and spellcheck
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Part II. Language check
Word patterns
1. The title of the article (book, text) I’m going to speak (to
write) about is…
2. As the title presumes, the article is about…
3. The article deals with…
4. The author of the article touches upon the problem(s) of…
5. The author of the article raises such urgent (acute,
important, series, complicated, vital) problems (questions,
issues) as...
6. The prime objective/target of the author is to attract the
reader’s attention to the problem of...
7. The author starts with the statement of the problem and
then logically passes over its possible solution
8. The author begins his article with the statement (comment,
idea, question, remark) on/about...
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Part II. Language check
Word patterns
9. The author continues with the idea(s) (views, facts,
figures) about...
10. The author concludes with the idea(s) (statement) that...
11. The article says “...”
The article runs “...”
12. The author refers to the data/the results of the
research/the fact(s) that...
13. The idea (point of view, viewpoint, standpoint) of the
author is the following...
14. The author’s opinion is that...
15. The article is informative (significant, profound, thoughtprovoking, captivating, urgent, acute...).
16. The message of the article is that...
17. The main idea of the article is the following...
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115
Part II. Language check
Measures of Length
Imperial
Metric
1 inch [in]
2.54 cm
1 foot [ft]
12 in
0.3048 m
1 yard [yd]
3 ft
0.9144 m
Metric
1760 yd
1.6093 km
1 int nautical
mile
2025.4 yd
1.853 km
0.03937 in
1 millimetre [mm]
10 mm
0.3937 in
100 cm
1.0936 yd
1000 m
0.6214 mile
1 centimetre [cm]
1 metre [m]
1 mile
Imperial
1 kilometre [km]
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Part II. Language check
Measures of Area
Metric
Imperial
Imperial
1 sq inch [in2]
1 sq cm [cm2]
1 sq m [m2]
100 mm2
10,000 cm2
6.4516
cm2
0.1550 in2
1.1960 yd2
1 hectare [ha]
10,000 m2
2.4711 acres
1 sq km [km2]
100 ha
0.3861 mile2
Metric
1
sq foot 144 in2
[ft2]
0.0929 m2
1
sq yd 9 ft2
[yd2]
0.8361 m2
1 acre
4840 yd2
1 sq mile 640 acres
[mile2]
Профессиональный английский язык
4046.9 m2
2.59 km2
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Part II. Language check
Measures of Volume
Metric
Imperial
1 cu cm [cm]
0.0610 in3
Imperial
1 cu inch [in3]
1 cu decimetre
1,000 cm3 0.0353 ft3
3
[dm ]
1 cu metre
[m3]
1 litre [l]
1 hectolitre [hl]
1,000
dm3
1 dm3
1.3080
1 cu foot [ft3]
16.387 cm3
1,728
in3
1 fluid ounce [fl oz]
yd3
Metric
0.0283 m3
28.413 ml
1 pint [pt]
20 fl oz 0.5683 l
1 gallon[gal]
8 pt
1.76 pt
100 l
21.997 gal
USA measure
Metric
1 fluid ounce
1.0408 uk fl oz 29.574 ml
1 pint (16 fl oz)
0.8327 uk pt
0.4731 l
1 gallon
0.8327 uk gal
3.7854 l
Профессиональный английский язык
4.5461 l
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Part II. Language check
Measures of Mass
Metric
Imperial
1 milligram [mg]
0.0154 grain
1 gram [g]
1 kilogram
[kg]
1 tonne [t]
1,000 mg
1,000 g
0.0353 oz
Imperial
Metric
1 ounce [oz]
437
grain
28.35 g
1 pound [lb]
16 oz
0.4536 kg
1 stone
14 lb
6.3503 kg
1 hundredweight
[cwt]
112 lb
50.802 kg
1 long ton (uk)
20 cwt
1.016 t
2.2046 lb
1,000 kg
0.9842 ton
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Part II. Language check
Temperature
• To change
temperature given in
Fahrenheit (F) to
Celsius (C) :
• Start with (F)
• Subtract 32
• Multiply by 5
• Divide by 9
• The answer is (C)
• To change
temperature given in
Celsius (C) to
Fahrenheit (F):
• Start with (C)
• Multiply by 9
• Divide by 5
• Add on 32
• The answer is (F)
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Part II. Language check
Reading English Numerals
"a" instead of "one"
• 100 - "a hundred"
• 1/2 - "a half "
• 11/2 - "one and a half "
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Part II. Language check
Fractions & decimals
•
•
•
•
1/8
1/5
1/4
3/4
quarters
• 1/3
• 2/3
• 1/2
one eighth
one fifth
one quarter
three
one third
two thirds
one half
• 1.36 one point thirty six
• 0.06 nought point oh six
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Part II. Language check
0 in English
when we use it
0 = oh
after a decimal point
in bus or room
numbers
for example:
9.02 = "nine point oh
two"
room 101 = "room one
oh one"
bus 602 = "bus six oh
two"
in phone numbers
9130472 = "nine one
three oh four seven
two"
in years
1906 = "nineteen oh
six"
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Part II. Language check
0 in English
when we use it
0 = nought
0 = zero
for example:
before a decimal point
0.06 = "nought point
oh six"
in temperature
0 = zeroin
temperature -10°c =
"10 degrees below
zero"
for the number
0 = "zero"
0 = nil
in football
chelsea 2 manchester
united 0 = "chelsea
two manchester
united nil"
0 = love
in tennis
20 - 0 = "twenty love"
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Part II. Language check
Symbols
Sums:
Word (common term in brackets)
+
Plus (And)
-
Minus (Take away)
x
Multiplied by (Times)
÷
Divided by
=
Equals (Is)
.
Point
%
Percent
1 + 6 - 2 x 2 ÷ 2.5=4
10% 100=10
One plus six minus two multiplied by two divided
by two point five equals four. / One and six take
away two times two divided by two point five is
four.
Ten percent of one hundred equals ten.
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Part II. Language check
Dates
• June 1, 1977 – (US) June first, nineteen seventyseven
• 1 June 1977 (GB) the first of June nineteen
seventy-seven
• What day is it? It is the twenty-sixth of February
(GB).
• It’s February twenty-sixth (US) – 2/26/1978
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Part II. Language check
Numbers in Writing
Spell out
•
•
•
•
numbers of one hundred or less
numbers that are rounded to hundreds
any number that begins a sentence
a fraction that stands alone without a whole
number (one-half, two-thirds, threequarters, etc.)
• ordinal numbers (first, second, third, ....)
• an expression of time unless it is a specific
time using A.M. or P.M.
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Part II. Language check
Symbols and conventions used in
dictionaries
We use dictionaries
•
•
•
•
•
•
to learn meanings of unfamiliar word
to find correct spellings
to find out how to correctly use a word – as
what part of speech
to find the pronunciation for a word
to find the derivation of a word (the origins of
the word)
to find the correct spellings of derivatives
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Part II. Language check
Dictionary entry
Mobility /mUə‘biləti; AmE moU-/
1.
The ability to move easily from one place, social class, or job to
another: social/geographical/ career mobility-see also UPWARD
MOBILITY
2. The ability to move or travel around easily:
An electric wheelchair has given her greater mobility
*Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary, Oxford university press 8-th ed.,2004.-
P.818
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Part II. Language check
Some useful abbreviations:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
abbrev - abbreviation
adj - adjective
adv - adverb
agric - agriculture
bus - business
coll - colloquial
conj.- conjunction
econ - economics
e.g. - for example
esp -especially
etc. - and so on
id - idiomatic
i.e. -that is
interj.-interjection
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
n - noun
opp - opposite to
pl - plural
pron.- pronoun
pv - phrasal verb
sb - somebody
sing - singular
sl - slang
sth - something
tdmk -trademark
UK - british english
us - american english
usu -usually
vb.- verb
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Part II. Language check
Linking Words
Function
Giving
examples
Giving a result
Adding
information
Summarising
Word
Example
for example; for instance;
namely
There are two problems:
namely, the expense and
the time
therefore; so; consequently; this The company are
expanding. Therefore
means that;
they are taking an extra
as a result
staff
and; in addition; as well as;
also; too; furthermore;
moreover; apart from; in
addition to; besides
We discussed training,
ducation and the
budget
in short; in brief; in summary; to
summarise; in a nutshell; to
conclude; in conclusion
To summarise this result
we have found the
necessary configuration
of parameters
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Part II. Language check
Linking Words
Function
Sequencing
ideas
Giving a reason
Contrasting ideas
Word
Example
the former … the latter; firstly,
secondly, finally; the first point
is; lastly; the following
Marketing and finance are
both covered in the
course. The former is
studied in the first term
and the latter is studied in
the final term
due to / due to the fact that;
owing to /owing to the fact that;
because; because of; since; as
Due to the rise in oil
prices, the inflation rate
rose by 1.25%
but; ; however; although / even
though; despite /
despite the fact that; n spite of /
in spite of the fact
That; nevertheless;
nonetheless; while; hereas;
Unlike; in theory… in practice…
He works hard. However,
he doesn't earn much
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Part II. Language check
Negotiating in English
Rules to successful negotiations
• Always try to negotiate for at least 15 minutes
• Always offer to let the other party speak first
• Always respect and listen to what your opponent
has to say
• Asknowledge what the other party says
• Pay attention to your own and your
counterpartner's body language
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Part II. Language check
Language to use…
Language to use…
to show understanding/
agreement on a point:
…
• I agree with you on that point
•That's a fair suggestion
•So what you're saying is that you...
• I think we can both agree that...
for objection on a
point or offer:
…
• The way I look at it...
• I'm afraid I had something
different in mind
•From my perspective...;
•Is that your best offer?
…in closing:
•Let's leave it this way for now
•I'm willing to work with that
•I think we both agree to these terms
•I'm satisfied with this decision
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Part II. Language check
Body language in negotiating
Body Language
Possible meaning
Avoiding Eye Contact
•Lying
•Not interested
•Not telling the whole truth
Serious Eye Contact
•Trying to intimidate
•Showing anger
Touching the face/fidgeting
•Nervousness
•Lack of confidence
•Submission
Nodding
•Agreeing
•Willing to compromise
Shaking the head/turning away
•Frustrated
•In disbelief
•Disagreeing with a point
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Part II. Language check
The words and terms for telephoning
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Answering machine-something that you can record a message on if the person
you are calling isn't home
Answer- to say "hello" into the phone when it rings
Call-a telephone conversation; to telephone
Caller-the person who telephones
Call back/phone back-to call someone who called you first
Call display-a screen that shows you who is calling
Cellular phone/cell phone-a telephone that you can take with you away from
your house; mobile phone
Dial-to press the buttons on the phone
Operator- a person who answers telephone-related questions when you dial "0“
Phone-a telephone; to telephone
Ring-the sound a phone makes when somebody calls; to make that sound
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Part II. Language check
Answering the
phone
• Hello? (informal)
• Thank you for calling Boyz Autobody. Jody speaking
How can I help you?
• Doctor's office
• Hey George. It's Lisa calling. (informal)
• Hello, this is Julie Madison calling
• Hi, it's Gerry from the dentist's office here
• This is she
• Speaking
Introducing
yourself
Asking to speak
with someone
• Is Fred in? (informal)
• Is Jackson there, please? (informal)
• Can I talk to your sister? (informal)
• May I speak with Mr. Green, please?
• Would the doctor be in/available?
Профессиональный английский язык
137
Part II. Language check
Connecting
someone
• Just a sec. I'll get him. (informal)
• Hang on one second. (informal)
• Please hold and I'll put you through to his office
• One moment please
• All of our operators are busy at this time
• Please hold for the next available person
Leaving a message • Hey Mikako. It's Yuka. Call me! (informal)
• Hello, this is Ricardo calling for Luke. Could you please
on an answering
return my call as soon as possible. My number is 334-5689.
machine
Thank you
• Hello Maxwell. This is Marina from the doctor's office calling
I just wanted to let you know that you're due for a check-up
this month. Please give us a ring/buzz whenever it's
convenient.
Finishing a
conversation
• Well, I guess I better get going. Talk to you soon
• Thanks for calling. Bye for now
• I have to let you go now
• I have another call coming through. I better run
• I'm afraid that's my other line
• I'll talk to you again soon. Bye
Профессиональный английский язык
138
Part II. Language check
Meetings in English
•
•
•
•
•
•
Well, since everyone is here, we should get started
Hello, everyone. Thank you for coming today
I think we'll begin now. First I'd like to welcome you all
Thank you all for coming at such short notice
I really appreciate you all for attending today
We have a lot to cover today, so we really should begin
Профессиональный английский язык
139
Part II. Language check
Meeting
Introducing new
people
•I'd like to take a moment
to introduce our new tour
coordinator.
•I know most of you, but
there are a few unfamiliar
faces.
•Stella, would you like to
stand up and introduce
yourself?
•Hi everyone. I'm Judy
Strauss. I'll be acting as
Amanda's assistant while
Nancy is away on
maternity leave.
Discussing
•If I could just come in here...
•I'm afraid I'd have to disagree
about that.
•Could I just say one thing?
•I'm really glad you brought
that up, Kana.
•I couldn't agree with you
more. (I agree)
•Jane, could you please speak
up. We can't hear you at the
back.
•If I could have the floor
(chance to speak) for a
moment...
Attendance
•It looks like everyone is
here today.
•If you notice anyone
missing, please let Jane
know so that she can
make a note of it.
•Unfortunately,
Ken
cannot join us today. He
has been called away on
business
•Mike will be standing in
to take the minutes today,
as Lisa is at home with
the flu.
Taking the
meetings
•I think we've spent
enough time on this topic.
•We're running short on
time, so let's move on.
•We're running behind
schedule, so we'll have to
skip the next item.
•We only have fifteen
minutes remaining and
there's a lot left to cover.
•If we don't move on, we'll
run right into lunch
Voting
•All in favour? (Those
who agree raise their
hands or say "Aye".)
•All opposed?
•Motion to hire more
tour guides, moved by
Thomas
Профессиональный английский язык
Keeping the
discussion
focused
•Let's stick to the task at
hand, shall we?
•I think we're steering off
topic a bit with this.
•I'm afraid we've strayed
from the matter at hand.
•You can discuss this
among yourselves at
another time.
•We've lost sight of the
point here.
•This matter is not on
today's agenda.
•Let's save this for
another meeting.
•Getting back to item
number 5...
•Now where were we?
Oh yes, let's vote
140
Part II. Language check
Closing the meeting
• It looks like we've run out of time, so I guess we'll finish here
• I think we've covered everything on the list
• I guess that will be all for today
• Well, look at that...we've finished ahead of schedule for once
• If no one has anything else to add, then I think we'll wrap this up
• I'm afraid we're going to have to cut this meeting short.
I've just been informed of a problem that needs my immediate attention
Профессиональный английский язык
141
Part II. Language check
Writing memos
used for
communicating
inside an
organisation
a hard-copy
(sent on paper)
document
A memo is:
contains To, From,
Date, Subject
Headings and
Message sections
Профессиональный английский язык
usually short
142
Part II. Language check
Memo
A 'To' section
( Health & Safety Committee)
To:
A 'From' section.
From:
(Joe Chan, Chairperson, H&S Ctte)
A 'Date' section.
A Subject Heading
(Room change for next meeting)
Health & Safety Committee
Joe Chan, Chairperson, H&S
Ctte
Date:
12 December 2007
Subject:
Room change for next
meeting
The message
Signature (optional)
The meeting on has been changed to
Room 101
Профессиональный английский язык
143
Part II. Language check
How to write an essay
• Here's How
• Select the topic of your essay
• Outline your essay into introductory, body and summary paragraphs
• Use one sentence to introduce every body paragraph to follow
• Finish the introductory paragraph with a short summary or goal
statement
• The penultimate sentence should restate your basic thesis of the
essay
• In each of the body paragraphs the ideas first presented in the
introductory paragraph are developed
• Body paragraphs should develop the central idea and finish with
•
a summary of that idea. There should be at least two examples
•
or facts in each body paragraph to support the central idea
Профессиональный английский язык
144
Part II. Language check
Tips
• Use strong verbs and avoid modals to
state your opinion
• Do not apologize for what you are saying.
An essay is about your opinion
• Do not translate from your mother tongue,
it will quickly get you into trouble!
Профессиональный английский язык
145
Part II. Language check
Phrasal verbs
• A phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition or adverb
which creates a meaning different from the original
verb
I ran into my teacher at the movies last night
• Some phrasal verbs are intransitive. An intransitive
verb cannot be followed by an object
He suddenly showed up
• Some phrasal verbs are transitive. A transitive verb can
be followed by an object
I made up the story
Профессиональный английский язык
146
Part II. Language check
Phrasal verbs
• Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable. The object
is placed between the verb and the preposition.
She looked the phone number up
• Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable. The
object is placed after the preposition
I ran into an old friend yesterday.
They are looking into the problem
• Some transitive phrasal verbs can take an object in both
places
I looked the number up in the phone book.
I looked up the number in the phone book
Профессиональный английский язык
147
Part II. Language check
To get + …
• direct object
- to obtain, to receive, to buy
• place expression
- reach, arrive at a place
• adjective
- to become, show a change of state
Профессиональный английский язык
148
Part II. Language check
To get + preposition
Phrasal Verb
Meaning
get at
try to express
get away with
escape punishment for a crime or bad action
get by
manage (financially)
get down
descend; depress
get off
leave a form of transport
(train, bus, bicycle, plane)
get on
enter/sit on a form of transport
(train, bus, bicycle, plane)
have a relationship with someone
manage
get out of
avoid doing something, especially a duty
get over
recover (from an illness, a surprise)
get through
use or finish the supply of something
get up
leave your bed
get up to
do – usually something bad
Профессиональный английский язык
149
Part II. Language check
Expressions with GET
• - to get rid of something → to throw it away
I'm going to get rid of all these old newspapers
• - to get out of the wrong side → to be in a bad
mood
He got out of the wrong side of the bed this morning and he's
been horrible all day
• - to get your own back → to have your revenge
or punish someone
She's getting her own back for all those rude things you said at
the party last night
Профессиональный английский язык
150
Part II. Language check
Get + adjective or Past Participle
• I got sick after eating the red meat
(I became sick)
• They will get married tomorrow
(They changed from single to married)
• He got killed in the accident
(Something caused him to die)
Профессиональный английский язык
151
Part II. Language check
A standard business letter
has 10 elements:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Return Address
Date
Inside Address
Salutation
Body
Closing
Signature
Name
Position
Abbreviations at the
end of a letter
Профессиональный английский язык
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Part II. Language check
Full Block Format
XYZ COMMCO INC.[1]
111 Any Street -- San Francisco, CA 94118 -- (415) 221-1212 [1]
May 22, 2007 [2]
Mr. John Smith [3]
XYZ Company
123 Anything Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94115
Dear Mr. Smith: [4]
With the full-block letter style each paragraph begins on the left margin. Some more
important information continues in the first paragraph for two to four sentences. [5]
Between paragraphs there is additional line space indicating a new paragraph. As
before, this paragraph begins at the left margin, as do the date of composition,
receiver’s address, complimentary close, sender’s name, title, and additional
information. [5]
Sincerely yours, [6]
Terry or Terry D. Sender(signed) [7]
Terry D. Sender [8]
Project Manager [9]
TDS:YS [10]
CC: A. Receiver, B. Receiver
Профессиональный английский язык
153
Part II. Language check
Block Format
XYZ COMMCO INC [1]
111 Any Street -- San Francisco, CA 94118 -- (415) 221-1212 [1]
May 22, 2007 [2]
Mr. John Smith [3]
XYZ Company
123 Anything Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94115
Dear Mr. Smith: [4]
With the block letter style each paragraph begins on the left margin. Some more important
information continues in the first paragraph for two to four sentences. [5]
Between paragraphs there is additional line space indicating a new paragraph. As before, this
paragraph begins at the left margin, as do , receiver’s address, salutation., and additional information.
However, the date of composition, complimentary close, sender’s name, and title are placed right of
center. This makes the block style both functional and a bit more stylized in composition. [5]
Sincerely yours, [6]
Terry or Terry D. Sender(signed) [7]
Terry D. Sender [8]
Project Manager [9]
TDS:YS [10]
CC: A. Receiver, B. Receiver
Профессиональный английский язык
154
Part II. Language check
Semi Block Format
XYZ COMMCO INC [1]
111 Any Street -- San Francisco, CA 94118 -- (415) 221-1212 [1]
May 22, 2007 [2]
Mr. John Smith [3]
XYZ Company
123 Anything Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94115
Dear Mr. Smith: [4]
With the block letter style each paragraph begins on the left margin. Some more important
information continues in the first paragraph for two to four sentences. [5]
Between paragraphs there is additional line space indicating a new paragraph. As before,
this paragraph begins at the left margin, as do , receiver’s address, salutation., and additional
information. However, the date of composition, complimentary close, sender’s name, and title are
placed right of center. This makes the block style both functional and a bit more stylized in
composition. [5]
Sincerely yours, [6]
Terry or Terry D. Sender(signed) [7]
Terry D. Sender [8]
Project Manager [9]
TDS:YS [10]
CC: A. Receiver, B. Receiver
Профессиональный английский язык
155
Part II. Language check
Writing letters of complaint
Background
Problem
Cause
I am writing
to inform
you that the
goods we
ordered
from your
company
have not
been
supplied
correctly
You sent
us an
invoice for
$10,532,
but did not
deduct our
usual 10%
discount
Solution
Warning
(optional)
Closing
Please
send us a
corrected
invoice for
$9,479
Otherwise,
we may
have to
look
elsewhere
for our
supplies
I look
forward to
receiving
your
explanation
of these
matters
Effect
I am
therefore
returning
the invoice
to you for
correction
Профессиональный английский язык
156
Part II. Language check
Everlong Batteries
171 Green Road
Sydney
Tel/Fax 2235 2449
The Letter of Complaint
Mr J Wong
Purchasing Officer
Fortune Goods
317 Orchard Road
Singapore
Dear Mr Grey
Order No. 2639/L
Please accept our apologies for the error made by our company in filling your order no. 2639/L
dated . You ordered 12,000 size Ultra super-long-life premium batteries, but our dispatch office
sent 1,200. This was due to a typing error.
The balance of 10,800 batteries was dispatched by express courier to your store this morning and
will arrive by the next week.
Since we value your business, we would like to offer you a 10% discount off your next order with
us.
We look forward to receiving your further orders and assure you that they will be filled correctly.
Yours sincerely
David Brown
Distributions Manager
Профессиональный английский язык
157
Part II. Language check
Writing e-mail
E - mail sections:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Subject
Subject content
Greeting
Purpose
Action
Attachments
Endings
Names
Профессиональный английский язык
158
Part II. Language check
Tips to writing business e-mails
• Use proper salutations and subject headings
• Avoid using all caps
• Check and re-check before sending an e-mail
• Ask the original sender's permission before forwarding
an e-mail
• Abbreviations and emoticons should not be used
in professional e-mails
• Remember that certain situations still require
face-to-face communication
Профессиональный английский язык
159
Part II. Language check
Writting letters of enquiry
• Letters of enquiry
describe what the
writer wants and why
It should inform the
reader that this is an
enquiry or request
Профессиональный английский язык
160
Part II. Language check
Letter of enquiry
Rich Lucky Trading Company
345, Nathan Rd, Kowloon, H.K.
10 August 2007
Hi-fashion Garment Ltd
Unit 398
Industrial Estate
Dear Sir or Madam
Request for Catalogue
Please send me your current catalogue.
Your company was recommended to me by Ms. Elsie Wong of Far Eastern
Logistics. Our African customer is interested in importing a range of printed 100%
cotton cloth.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours
K.Brown
K.Brown
Merchandiser
Профессиональный английский язык
161
Part II. Language check
First Paragraph
•
tells the reader what you want; e.g.
» Please send me...
» (for things that the organisation offers to
send)
» I would be grateful if you could tell me...
» (for things that are not normally offered)
» I am writing to enquire whether...
» (to see if something is possible)
» I would especially like to know...
» ( + a more detailed request)
Профессиональный английский язык
162
Part II. Language check
Second Paragraph
• tells the reader why you are contacting his or her
organisation, and gives further details of the
enquiry ; e.g.
• I saw your advert in the New York
Times on Monday, 6 August 2007
• Your company was recommended to
me by Ms. Barbara Green
Профессиональный английский язык
163
Part II. Language check
Final Paragraph
• contains a polite expression and/or an expression of
thanks to the reader :
e.g.
• Thanks (For a very informal and normal
enquiry or request)
• I look forward to hearing from you
• I am looking forward to hearing from you
• Thank you for your assistance
• I look forward to hearing from you
Профессиональный английский язык
164
Part II. Language check
Abbreviations used in letters
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
asap - as soon as possible
cc - carbon copy
enc. or encl. - enclosure
pp = per procurationem
ps - postscript
pto (informal) - please turn over
RSVP - please reply
Rd., St., Sq. – road, street, square
# 24., No. 24 – number (US/UK)
c/o – care of
Attn. – for the attention of
P.OB. – Post office Box
e.g. – for example
eg, i.e. or ie – that is
etc. or etc – and so on/etcetera
cf. – compare
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
do – ditto
viz – namely
PLC – Public Limited Company
Ltd – Limited
Bros&Co – Brothers and company
Corp. – Corporation
Inc.- Incorporated
@¥ 3000 each – at 3000 yen
© 2005 – copyright
Apple® - registered
Macintosh™ - trade mark
P.S. – postscript
inst. – this month (instant)
prox. – next month (proximo)
ult. – last month (ultimo)
Профессиональный английский язык
165
Part II. Language check
Lack/lack of
Word
lack
lacks
Part of Speech
Example Sentences
verb I/you/we/they lack
he/she/it lacks
singular noun + lacks
uncountable noun + lacks
The government overall lacks
dynamism.
It was so interesting to see how
Western thinking lacks creativity
and is not geared to changes
lacking
'_ing' form (present
participle)
Lacking any respect for the
union, the workers went on
strike
lacking in
adjective
It was a well organized meeting
but lacking in good leadership
Профессиональный английский язык
166
Part II. Language check
Lack/lack of
Word
Part of Speech
Example Sentences
lacking
adjective
Financial support for the
programme is still lacking
lacking
'_ing' form (reduced Students lacking a dictionary can
relative clause: the use an online dictionary
relative pronoun
e.g. 'who' and the
verb are missing)
lacked
lackedverb perfect and past
tenses
His leadership has lacked
imagination
and aggression
lack of
noun
Social workers blame the
Government for the severe lack of
residential places
Профессиональный английский язык
167
Part II. Language check
Public speaking
• A successful
presentation is one of
the most effective ways
of communicating your
message
Профессиональный английский язык
168
Part II. Language check
Advice
•
•
•
•
Your language must be simple and clear
Use short words and short sentences
Do not use jargon
Talk about concrete facts rather than abstract
ideas
• Use active verbs instead of passive verbs
Профессиональный английский язык
169
Part II. Language check
Signposting
Function
Language
Introducing the subject
I'd like to start by... , Let's begin
by...
Finishing one subject...
Well, I've told you about..., That's
all I have to say about..., We've
looked at..., So much for...
...and starting another
Now we'll move on to..., Let me
turn now to..., Next..., Turning to...
Analysing a point and giving
recommendations
Where does that lead us?,Let's
consider this in more detail..,What
does this mean for
ABC?,Translated into real terms...
Профессиональный английский язык
170
Part II. Language check
Signposting
Function
Giving an example
Language
For example,A good example of
this is...,As an illustration,To give
you an example,To illustrate this
point
Dealing with questions
We'll be examining this point in
more detail later on..,I'd like to deal
with this question later, if I may...
Summarising and concluding
In conclusion,...,Right, let's sum up,
shall we? ,I'd like now to recap...
Ordering
Firstly...secondly...thirdly...lastly...
First of all...then...next...after
that...finally...
To start with...later...to finish up...
Профессиональный английский язык
171
Part II. Language check
Writing job adverts
Job adverts tips :
• Make the advert easy to read!
• Use short sentences
• Use bullet points and short bitesized paragraphs
• Use different point-size for
headings, subheadings and
main text
• Normally the logical headline is
the job title itself - this is after all
what people will be looking for
• Try to incorporate something
new, innovative, exciting,
challenging
Administrative Assistant
We require PC knowledge, excellent
spoken and written English, flexibility and
reliability. We can offer work withayoung
team in a pleasant non moking
environment. Salary negotiable depending
upon experience and qualification.
Position available immediately
Responses including C.V. should be sent
to the following address within 14 days
from the date of this advertisement: .....
Call 04 587 954 for further details
Профессиональный английский язык
172
Part II. Language check
An effective job advert
should contain
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
job title
job base location
indication of scale, size, responsibility, timescale, and territory of role
outline of ideal candidate profile - expressed in 'second-person‘
qualifications and experience required
salary or salary guide
whether the role is full-time or permanent or a short-term contract
explanation of recruitment process
response and application instructions
contact details
website address
Профессиональный английский язык
173
Part II. Language check
How to write resume in English
Resume Sections Include:
• Name and Address
• Career Objective
• Education
• Activities and honors
• Qualifications
Профессиональный английский язык
174
Part II. Language check
Name and Address
Address section:
• your permanent address
• telephone numbers
• your email address
•
6660 North River Road
West Lafayette, IN 47906
(765) 555-3366
E-Mail: [email protected]
home page address
Name section:
•
your full legal name at the top of your resume
Профессиональный английский язык
175
Part II. Language check
Career Objective
• the length of the position you are seeking
• the job title you for which you are applying
• the field or industry in which you wish to work
• your most relevant skills or qualifications
Purdue University, West Lafayette,
Indiana
Bachelor of Science, May 1999
Major: Supervision; GPA 5.5/6.0
Профессиональный английский язык
176
Part II. Language check
Education
• the name and location of your college or university
• your degree and graduation date
• your major(s) and minor(s)
• grade point average
Purdue University, West Lafayette,
Indiana
Bachelor of Science, May 1999
Major: Supervision; GPA 5.5/6.0
Профессиональный английский язык
177
Part II. Language check
Activities and honors
•
Activities and honors that support your career objective
•
List your college organizations and
arrange them in order of importance
as they relate to your career objective
•
Include any office or official position you held
•
Spell out any acronyms your employer may not recognize
Accounting Club, President
Alpha Zeta Professional Fraternity
Purdue Grand Prix Foundation, President
Purdue Association for the Education of
Young Children (PAEYC)
Профессиональный английский язык
178
Part II. Language check
Qualifications
•
jobs, activities, projects and special offices
• skills gained through those experiences
Conducted monthly club and board meetings
for Lafayette Junior Woman's Club.
Headed club's $8,000 philanthropic project
sponsored by Tippecanoe County Historical
Association.
Coordinated responsibilities of committees to
sell and serve food to 1500 people at fund
raiser
Профессиональный английский язык
179
Part II. Language check
Job Interview
The job interview contains specific
questions and appropriate answers
Most important part of any job interview
is:
• Education
• Work experience
• Qualification
Профессиональный английский язык
180
Part II. Language check
Job Interview common questions
• What type of position are you looking for?
• Are you interested in a full-time or part-time
position?
• Can you tell about your responsibilities at your last
job?
• What is your greatest strength?
• What is your greatest weakness?
• Why do you want to work here?
• When can you begin?
Профессиональный английский язык
181
Part II. Language check
Word
Staff or staffs
Part of Speech
Example
staff
noun, plural (a group
of workers)
Three-quarters of our staff are
graduates.
None of the staff have volunteered
staff
noun (uncountable,
collective)
The staff were very good
a member of
staff
noun phrase (one
worker)
She has been a member of staff for
20 years.
Seven members of staff are on
sick-leave today.
Some members of staff are late
Профессиональный английский язык
182
Part II. Language check
Staff or staffs
Word
Part of Speech
Example
to staff
verb
How are we going to staff the new
office?
staffing
noun (uncountable)
The Government has revised its
staffing requirement to eighty
staffed
verb (usually passive
voice)
They are staffed by volunteers
staffed
adverb (e.g. wellstaffed, over-staffed,
under-staffed)
The ship is well-staffed, with one
crew member for every three
passengers
a staffer
noun (one worker,
American English)
The studio is run by technical
staffers
Профессиональный английский язык
183
Part II. Language check
What is a trend?
Trends are the changes or movements in facts
and figures over a period of time
To describe trends follow the tips:
•
Don’t repeat verbs
•
Before you start to write, make a list of
synonyms words with the same meaning)
•
See how many ways you can rephrase the title
•
Be careful with prepositions. They can make a
big difference in meaning. Learn your verbs with
the preposition that goes with them
Профессиональный английский язык
184
Part II. Language check
Vocabulary to describe trends
Upward
movement
climb
rise
increase
surge
rocket
soar
gain
go through the roof
jump
rally
strengthen
Downward
movement
decline
decrease
drop
fall
slide
lose ground
crash
collapse
plummet
plunge
take a fall
Stability
For specifying
the degree
of change
flatten out
hold steady
level off
stabilize
bounce back
rally
recover
slow
steady
slight
sharp
gradual
disastrous
massive
perilous
rapid
heavy
nervous
Профессиональный английский язык
185
Part II. Language check
What is a chart?
A chart is a diagram that makes information easier to
understand by showing how two or more sets of data
are related
There are two common types of charts:
Types of charts
a pie chart
a bar chart
Профессиональный английский язык
186
Part II. Language check
What is a pie chart?
A pie graph (or pie chart) is a specialized graph used in
statistics
It is a circle divided into segments. It is usually used to
show percentages
Structure of import
Example:
Minerals
F inished
goods
Services
Профессиональный английский язык
187
Part II. Language check
Pie chart
It will consist of two variables
The independent variable
The dependent variable
(usually a percentage)
It is plotted around a circle
in either a clockwise
direction or a
counterclockwise direction
It is rendered as an arc
whose measure is
proportional to the
magnitude of the quantity
It can attain any value from
zero to 100 percent
It can attain a finite number
of discrete values (for
example, five)
Профессиональный английский язык
188
Part II. Language check
What is a bar chart?
A bar chart is a diagram that makes
information easier to understand by
showing how two or more sets of data are
related. A bar chart is divided into columns
These are the most popular
type of chart used in technical
analysis.
The visual representation of
price activity over a given
period of time is used to spot
trends and patterns.
Example:
Structure of import
90
100
80
60
40
20,4
27,4
20
0
Minerals
Профессиональный английский язык
Finished
goods
Services
189
Part II. Language check
What is a graph?
A graph is a diagram, usually a line or
curve, which shows how two or more sets
of numbers or measurements are related
Dynamics of import
Example:
mln $
240
It is mainly used for evident
representation about character of
change (dynamics) of function, sizes
230
230
220
216
210
208,9
205
200
0
Профессиональный английский язык
1
2
3
4
5
190
Part II. Language check
What is a table?
A table is a set of facts and figures arranged
in columns and rows
It is the list of data, the numerical data
resulted in certain system and carried under
columns; the report, the sheet
Example: Table 1 - Structure of import
Articles of import
A table is a very useful way of
organising numerical information
Part from the whole,
(%)
Minerals
0, 12
Finished goods
0, 78
Services
0,10
Профессиональный английский язык
191
Part II. Language check
Describing importance
or unimportance
Word
Part of
Speech
important
adjective
importantly
adverb
Example Phrase
Example Sentence
- extremely important
- very important
- quite important
- not very important
- not at all important
Students saw Job
Satisfaction as a very
important factor.
Contribution to Society
was seen as very
important by social work
students
- very importantly
- most importantly
- more importantly
- less importantly
- least importantly
Most importantly, students
gave the highest rating to
Job Satisfaction, with nine
out of ten students saying
it was important or highly
important
Профессиональный английский язык
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Part II. Language check
Describing importance
or unimportance
Word
Part of
Speech
importance
noun
Example Phrase
Example Sentence
- of very high importance
- of high importance
- of medium importance
- of some importance
- of little importance
- of no importance
- the importance of...
Students saw Job
Satisfaction as of great
importance.
Contribution to Society
was seen as of great
importance by social
work students.
The high importance of
Interest in the Job Nature
can be seen from the fact
that 70% of students rated
it as important or very
important
Профессиональный английский язык
193
Part II. Language check
These vocabulary can also be used
to describe importance
or unimportance
major
marginal
focus
minority
crucial
significant
predominant primary
minimal
core
foremost
trivial
emphasis
negligible
stress
subsidiary dominant subordinate
priority
fundamental centre
secondary minor
Профессиональный английский язык
principal
194
Part II. Language check
Describing satisfaction
Word
Part of speech
satisfy
verb (infinitive form)
satisfying
verb (continuous tenses)
satisfied
- this did not satisfy him
- this could satisfy them
- it is satisfying their needs
adjective
- it is a satisfying
experience
verb (past tense)
- it satisfied them
adjective
dissatisfied
Example phrase
adjective (meaning: not
satisfied with the quality)
Профессиональный английский язык
- he was satisfied with...
- he feels satisfied with...
- he is not satisfied with...
- they were dissatisfied
with...
- they felt dissatisfied
with...
195
Part II. Language check
Describing satisfaction
Word
Part of speech
Example phrase
unsatisfied
adjective (meaning: not satisfied with
the quantity)
- they were unsatisfied by...
- they felt unsatisfied with...
satisfactory
adjective (more general or impersonal - it is satisfactory
than 'satisfying')
unsatisfactory
adjective (negative)
satisfactorily
adverb
satisfaction
noun
(uncountable)
- the level of satisfaction
- the degree of satisfaction
dissatisfaction
noun
(uncountable)
- the level of dissatisfaction
- the degree of
dissatisfaction
Профессиональный английский язык
- it is an unsatisfactory
situation
- has satisfactorily
explained
196
Part II. Language check
Describing dissatisfaction
- use negatives such as "not satisfied
with" and “dissatisfied with”
- use comparatives that show low levels
of satisfaction; e.g. " less than a third of
staff "
- use negative-sounding phrases such
as "a minority of staff", "a very small
number of staff", "just a third of the staff"
and "only a quarter of the staff"
Профессиональный английский язык
197
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