English language
Teaching and Learning
CLIL METHODOLOGY
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CLIL DEFINITION
 Approach in which curricular subjects, such as
History or Mathematics, or parts of subjects
are taught through the medium of a second
or foreign language.
 Learners are dealing with content matter in a
language they would have otherwise learnt in
conventional language classes.
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The Background
Language across the curriculum (UK)
Immersion programmes (Canada)
 Canada 70s and 80s: In Quebec English
speaking children were instructed in French, the
official language.
Content-based language teaching/learning
(USA)
 1980s: introduced subject content in language
courses with immigrant students.
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CLIL dimensions:
 Linguistic:
 From
• UK formula ‘Language across the curriculum’
 To
• ‘Languages across the curriculum’
» (Woolf, 1998)
 Educational: the 4 Cs
• ‘It is through progression in the knowledge, skills and
understanding of the content, engagement in associated
cognitive processing and interaction in the
communicative context that learning takes place (Coyle,
1998:7).
 Social:
 Multilingualism and multiculturalism=
• Ethos of European citizenship
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Features of CLIL programmes:
 The L2 is the medium of instruction
 Overt support exists for the L1
 Students enter with limited levels of language
proficiency
 The teachers are sufficiently competent (in both
languages)
 The L2 dimension curriculum parallels the local
L1 curriculum
 The classroom culture is that of the local
community.
(C. Pérez Vidal, 2005)
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COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE
TEACHING (CLT)
+ Focus on meaning
+ Group work interaction
+ Genuine questions
+ Opportunities to use lang. creatively
+ Opportunities to participate in task
negotiations of topics
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4Cs Conceptual Framework:
Coyle (1999)
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Content
Communication
Cognition
Culture
 Coyle developed the 4Cs Conceptual Framework from a holistic
perspective to provide a basis for bringing together different facets
of CLIL in order to support the development of CLIL pedagogies.
 The framework goes beyond considering subject matter and
language as two separate elements but rather positions content in
the ‘knowledge for learning’ domain (integrating content and
cognition) and language, a culture-bound phenomenon, as a
medium for learning (integrating communication and intercultural
understanding).
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CLIL demands a reconceptualisation of the role
of language in CLIL settings from language
learning per se (based on grammatical
progression) towards an approach which
combines learning to use language and using
language to learn
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In the 4Cs Framework communication
involves CLIL teachers and learners in using
and developing :
 language of learning,
 Language for learning and
 Language through learning.
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Language of Learning
 Language of learning is based on an analysis of the
language needed for learners to access basic concepts
and skills relating to the subject theme or topic.
 An analysis of the language needed to scaffold content
learning will lead to a complementary approach to
learning progression i.e. the use of tenses will not be
determined by grammatical difficulty but by functional
need demanded by the content.
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Language for Learning
 The development of teaching strategies to scaffold learning must
take into account the language required for both these processes to
operate successfully.
 In CLIL settings this means learning how to learn effectively and
developing skills such as those required for pair work, cooperative
group work, asking questions, debating, chatting, enquiring,
thinking, memorising and so on.
 McGuiness (1999) claims that unless learners are able to
understand and use language to learn, to support each other and to
be supported, then quality learning will not take place.
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Language for Learning
 In CLIL settings using the second language to learn
raises the teacher’s awareness of learners’ linguistic
needs and triggers ‘tuned-in’ strategic language
behaviour such as comprehensible input, contextembedded language and comprehension checks
 CLIL fosters fluency rather than grammatical accuracy.
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Language for Learning
Research has shown that cognitively
undemanding work, such as copying or
repetition, especially when there is little or no
context to support it, does not enhance
language learning (Smith & Paterson,1998: 1):
by actively involving pupils in intellectually
demanding work, the teacher is creating a
genuine need for learners to acquire the
appropriate language.
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Language for Learning
 Language is a matter of meaning as well as of form.
 Discourse does not just express meaning. Discourse
creates meaning.
 Language development continues throughout our lives,
particularly our educational lives.
 As we acquire new areas of knowledge, we acquire new
areas of language and meaning. (Mohan & van
Naerssen, 1997: 2)
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TESOL-SPAIN 2006
Approach
Plurilingual approach
Curriculum
Integrated curriculum
Methodology CLIL methodology
Subjects
L1, L2 and L3
At least two content subjects
Teachers
Subject teachers
Language teachers
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CORE FEATURES OF CLIL
METHODOLOGY
Multiple focus
Safe and enriching learning environment
Authenticity
Active Learning
Scaffolding
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Summary: CLIL Methodology
 It’s about supporting language within context
 It's about embedding language within task and
 It is a methodology which is based on a specific needs analysis of
each and every learner in the classroom.
 It's a methodology based on a Vygotskyan model of constructing
ways and means for learners to get from where they are to where
they need to be and packages that within an environment of
interaction with peers and the teacher.
 It's about teachers developing skills and knowledge about the
language of their subject and techniques for creating task which
offers learners access to this language.
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Dialogic Teaching
Alexander (2005), suggests that talk is the most
pervasive and powerful learning tool.
 Talk vitally mediates the cognitive and cultural
spaces between . . .teacher and learner, between
society and the individual . . . Language not only
manifests thinking but also structures it, and
speech shapes the higher mental processes
necessary for so much learning. (Alexander,
2005: 2)
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Active teaching
1. Giving instructions clearly,
2. Accurately describing tasks,
3. Maintaining learners’ engagement in
instructional tasks
 by maintaining task focus,
 pacing instruction appropriately,
 and communicating their expectations for
students’success.
(Adapted from Navés et al. 2002)
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Presenting new information
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Demonstrating,
Outlining,
Using visuals,
Building redundancy,
Rephrasing,
Scaffolding,
Linking new information to learners’ previous
knowledge…
(Adapted from Navés et al. 2002)
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Receptive skills
1. Emphasis is on the development of receptive
skills.
2.
Learners are allowed to respond in a wide
variety of ways:
 non-verbal responses
 responding by doing
 Demonstrating…
(Adapted from Navés et al. 2002)
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Experiential learning
Task- work includes:
 hands-on tasks,
 Experiential learning,
 Problem-solving tasks, etc.
(Adapted from Navés et al. 2002)
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Cognitive skills
 Cognitive abilities and processes such as
 identifying,
 comparing,
 drawing conclusions,
 inferring
 finding similarities and differences,...
(Adapted from Navés et al. 2002)
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 Collaborative learning,
 Autonomous learning and
 Self-directed learning
(Adapted from Navés et al. 2002)
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THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE
TEACHERS
CLIL is a tool for teaching and learning of content
and language. Language teachers:
Support content teachers
Help students to gain the language needed to
manipulate content from other subjects
Reinforce the acquisition of content
Incorporates the vocabulary, terminology and
texts from those other subjects
Helps develop learning skills
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 Injecting content into language classes will also help
improve language learning
 Students are likely to learn more if they are not simply
learning language for language’s sake, but using the
language to accomplish concrete tasks and learn new
content
 Content goals are supported by language goals
 Weekly agreement on language goals (with the content
teachers)
 Working through cross-curricular themes and project
 Foster the development of creative and critical thinking
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Development of creative and critical
thinking
 Appreciating
 Assigning
 Associating
 Classifying
 Combining
 Committing
 Comparing
 Condensing
 Converting
 Defining
 Describing
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Development of creative and critical
thinking
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Designating
Discriminating
Extending
Identifying cause and effect
Imaging
Linking
Observing
Predicting
Reconciling
Roleplaying
Separating
Selecting
Triggering
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Curricular Adaptation
Address techniques and estrategies related to
discursive functions (needed on all areas)
Priviledge topics from the other bilingual areas
More oral activities
Promote student intercultural exchanges
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TEACHER COORDINATION
 Organize interdisciplinary proje
 Develop a general common linguistic competence
 Develop common projects to introduce values education
and cross-curricular topics
 Develop and intercultural skills and abilities
 Collaborative work: promote intercultural debate
 Lead a general focus on multiculturalism
 Language teacher helps and coordinates subject
teachers in developing materials, lesson planning and
methodology
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Role of language Teacher
 Anticipate linguistic activities, grammar, etc..
 Simplify content texts
 Formulate comprehension questions
 Summaries, oral expositions
 Writen productive activities
 Promote student’s linguistic reflection
 Develop communicative skills to deal with content area
texts
 Choose FL contents related to the Foreign culture
 Develop cognitive skills
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FL teaching strategies
Work together and guide the content teacher
about:
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Warming-up activities
Word activation
How to exploit a text
Comprehension activities
How to deal with new vocabulary
How to promote oral activities
Turn-taking, conversational skills
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FL teaching strategies
 Strategies for summarising, describing, analysing,
arguing, expressing an opinion, etc..
 Develop ‘macrofunctions’ (functional use of oral
discourse):
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Description
Narration
Text commentary
Exposition
Explanation
Presentation
Instruction
Argumentation
persuasion
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FL teaching strategies
Encourage FL use in the classroom
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Rewarding FL use
Oral game
Using stickers (young students)
Using yellow and red cards
Encourage repetition
Encourage peer correction/evaluation
Encourage students’ learning autonomy
Pair/group work
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Using content materials in the FL
classroom
Use texts about other areas
Work on the features of the text:
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Linguistic complexity
Types of texts
Discourse structure
Outline and presentation
Practise pronunciation
Check spelling
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