Differentiated
Instruction:
One Size Does Not Fit ALL
Overview
Facilitated By
Sara Fridley
Region 3 Education Service Agency
[email protected]
Workshop Outcomes
• Increased understanding of what
Differentiated Instruction IS & IS
NOT
• Add to our Instructional Strategies
Toolbox
“If students don't learn the
way we teach them, we must
teach them the way they
learn.”
- Marcia Tate, Developing Minds Inc., Conyers, GA
Differentiation IS NOT . . .
• The same as an IEP for every student
• Just another way to group kids
• Expecting less of struggling learners than of
typical learners
• A substitute for specialized services
• Chaotic
• New
Good Differentiation IS . . .
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Varied avenues to content, process, product
Respectful of all learners
Proactive
Student-centered
A blend of whole class, small group, and
individual instruction
• Based on students’ readiness, interests, and/or
learning profile
Shift Happens
Essential Questions
• Who are the students in our
classrooms?
• What diversity impacts and
influences curriculum and
instruction?
Diversity in the Classroom
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ADD
ADHD
Gifted/Talented
LD
Vision Impaired
Hearing Impaired
Maturity
Readiness
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Autistic
Physically Disabled
Multiple Handicapped
English Language
Learners
• Social Status
• Economic Status
Do You Know Your Students?
• Getting to know your students is the key to
making DI work
• Variations
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Interest Surveys (students & parents)
Graphing How I’m Smart
Profile Poster
Mystery Bag
Bio Match
How well do YOU know the
people around you?
• 3 Facts & a Fib
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Write 3 facts about yourself
Write 1 fib about yourself
Circulate & talk to 5 people
If they do not correctly identify
the fib, they must sign your
postcard
This activity works great with students as a review of content/knowledge. It does
require some follow-up with the teacher to make sure the fibs are all clearly identified.
Begin With the Brain
Brain Principles
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The brain is a complex adaptive system.
The brain is social.
The search for meaning is innate.
The search for meaning occurs through
patterning.
• Emotions are critical to patterning.
• Every brain simultaneously perceives and
creates parts.
More Brain Principles
• Learning involves both focused attention and
peripheral perception.
• Learning always involves conscious and
unconscious processes.
• Multiple ways of organizing memory.
• Learning is developmental.
• Complex learning is enhanced by challenge and
inhibited by threat.
• Every brain is uniquely organized.
The Body, Movement, and the Brain
• Movement (large motor) increases the flow
of oxygen to the brain
• Stimulates internal memory triggers
• Standing up
• Stretching
• Changing location for a new concept (outside,
library, lunchroom, sitting on the floor)
• Koosh balls, bean bags, “fidgets”
Strategy Ideas
• Stations (centers, etc.)
• These work for EVERY age group
• Movement during a short quiz
• Post questions on bright paper around room
• Students walk around to each “station”
• Create human histograms
Time, Time, and More Time
• Time is a four-letter word!!
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Prep time
Need more time
Time on task
Opportune times for learning
• Attention span is impossible to control
• 10-15 minutes maximum
• Less for younger students
Time On Task . . .
• “Change gears” every 15 minutes
• Break up an activity into parts
• Pause activity to
move/reflect/question/review
• Calling on students at random
• Not just the kids with their hands up!
Need More Time . . .
• Adequate practice & reflection take TIME!!!
• Reflection solidifies understanding of concept
• Practice needs to come in more than one format
• Problem/Question of the Day
• Sometimes the “fluff” is the best learning experience
• Integrate other content areas
• Studying grammar? Use social studies or science
concepts in your sample sentences!
20 – 2 – 20 Rule . . .
• Re-explain within 20 minutes
• Review & apply within 2 days
• Reflect & re-apply within 20 days
Opportune Learning Times . . .
• Hold reasonable expectations
• Some kids aren’t “there” developmentally
• Downtime is real
• Time of day matters
• Not the same for big kids & little kids
• Time during class or lesson matters
• First & Last
Involve the Senses
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See
Hear
Taste
Smell
Touch
The Role of Music
• Stimulates the brain & increases attentiveness
• Right side for creativity
• Activates thinking parts of the brain
• Creates a sound curtain to isolate groups
• Effects emotions, heart rate, mood, mental images of
listener
• Embeds learning faster
• Alphabet song
• http://www.school-house-rock.com/Prea.html
Smell & Taste Trigger Memory. . .
• Common Trigger Smells
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Fresh air
Peppermint
Lavender
Lemon
Cinnamon
Chocolate
• Can trigger both positive & negative memory
• Use common sense & check on allergies
Time For a Break
Color Increases Understanding
• Using color for key
concepts can increase
memory retention up
to 25%
Experiment
Memorize the Pattern
30 seconds
Orange
Orange
Red
Purple
Purple
Pink
Red
Yellow
Yellow
Pink
Orange
Orange
Yellow
Yellow
Blue
Blue
Black
Black
Red
Red
Blue
Blue
Green
Green
Memorize the Pattern
30 seconds
Orange
Orange
Blue
Green
Green
Purple
Purple
Purple
Purple
Yellow
Pink
Pink
Red
Red
Red
Red
Orange
Blue
Blue
Green
Green
Teach in Color
• Color Code
• Key Concepts
• Colored Pens
• Color with Sunshine
• Painted Essay
• Colored Acetate
• Number chart
• Sliding mask
• Highlighting tape
A Quick Start
• “Color Code” key concepts
• Easy in modern classrooms
• White boards, Smart Boards, & computer software
• Key terms in all content areas
• Math (parts of equations)
• Language arts (parts of speech, important vocabulary,
editing)
• Correct “with sunshine”
• Students do their own color coding
• Highlighting Tape
• Colored pens/pencils/highlighters
Word Walls in Color
CALEB GATTEGNO
Correct “With Sunshine”
• Use yellow highlighter to identify incorrect
answers
• Give student option to correct and receive
partial (or whole) credit
• Key to success – require students to explain in
writing what they did wrong and how they
corrected the problem
Use Colored Pens/Pencils
• In writing for peer editing
• Each member of group gets a different color
• Can instantly see if everyone has contributed
• Option – students use colored pen for their own
editing/revising
• For language study
• Color code the different tenses
• Color code the verb endings (world languages)
• Color code roots/prefixes/suffixes
Skier
(to ski)
• Je skie
• Tu skies
• Il/elle/on skie
• Nous skions
• Vous skiez
• Ils/elles skient
The Painted Essay
Peripherals
• Post key concepts or terms on walls
• Use bright colored paper
• At test time . . .
• Leave it up in same place
• Cover the concept with the same color paper
• Memory trigger for visual learners
• They can “picture” the words.
Enhancing Memory
• Memory storage is
stimulated by
• Novelty
• Emotion (fear,
excitement)
• Personal Connections
Phases & Categories of Memory
• Learning/encoding
• Sensory
• Storage
• Short term
• Retrieval
• Immediate
• Active working
• Long term
What Are Memory Barriers?
• Lack of sleep
• Dehydration
• Lack of focus/concentration
• Lack of appropriate cues
• Distortion of information
TEACHER: Donald, what is the chemical
formula for water?
DONALD: H I J K L M N O.
TEACHER: What are you talking about?
DONALD: Yesterday you said it's H to O.
Characteristics of Memory
• Sensory
• The more of the 5 senses stimulated, the easier it will
be to recall
• Intensity
• Stands out in our memories
• Emotional
• Both positive & negative
• Survival
• Emotional & psychological as well as physical
More Characteristics of Memory
• Personal Importance
• Easier to remember things that have a personal impact
• Repetition
• More often we recall info, the better we get at recalling
on demand
• Pattern . . .
• First & Last
• The brain most easily remembers things from beginning
& end of sessions
Memory Strategy Ideas
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Use the 5 senses
Movement
Time
Chunk information
Make connections
between old and new
knowledge
• Find the patterns
• Frequent
understanding checks
• Practice
• Reflection
• Interest
• Intent
Dots on Grids
A
B
C
D
Time For Lunch
Simple Learning Styles
• Auditory
• Learns best from listening
• Visual
• Learns best from seeing
• Kinesthetic/Tactile
• Learns best from doing
Why Visual Literacy?
• Over 80% of today’s students are visual
learners!
• Average youth today
• By age 18 - 22,000 hours watching TV
• By age 14 has seen 12,000 murders on network TV
programming!!!!
• By 18 – 12,500 hours in school
• Average vocabulary of 14-year-olds is
shrinking
• In 1950 – 25,000 words
• In 1999 – 10,000 words
Visual Learner
• Images go directly to long-term memory in
brain
• Humans process visuals 60,000 times faster
than text
• Words processed sequentially
• Keyboard
• Images processed simultaneously
• Camera
perimeter
area
Graphic Organizers – Show ‘n Tell
• Teacher use
• Help learners visualize information
• Critical for visual learners!!
• Student use
• Great way for students to process
understanding
• Add another aspect
• Large size for group work
• Manipulate the pieces
Nomadic Learners
• “If we build in enough movement during
the class period, students will be less likely
to move on their own.”
• Motion resources
• Minds in Motion
• Learning on Their Feet
http://doe.sd.gov/oess/schoolhealth/mindsinmotion/index.asp
Tactile/Kinesthetic Learner
• Needs to manipulate information
• Needs to MOVE frequently
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Act it out
Music stand learning
Home away from home
Fidgets
Turn Your Paper Sideways
• Grades 2-7 (lower or higher if needed)
• A trick for lining up numbers when
working with multi-digit numbers in
columns
• TURN THE PAPER SIDEWAYS & use the
lines as column guides
• Also provides novelty (brain trigger)
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
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Logical/Mathematical
Visual/Spatial
Musical/Rhythmic
Bodily/Kinesthetic
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Naturalist
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Verbal/Linguistic
Sternberg Intelligences
• Analytical
• Practical
• Creative
Essential Question
• How do we enrich the
experiences of our
students, so that they
will remember their
experiences in our
classrooms?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHine
BZTpNw&feature=related
3 Keys to Differentiated Instruction
• Content
• What we teach students
• Materials and methods used
• Process
• Activities
• Calls on students to use key skills
• Product
• How students show what they have learned
• Should also allow students to extend what they learned
Key #1 – Adapt Content
• Refers to both materials & methods
• Accommodate students’ different starting
points
• Some students ready for more complex or
abstract levels
• Some students ready for independent work
Can You Identify This?
• Migrating Bacteria. Bacterial colonies growing in a pattern in
a petri dish.
(ABCNews.com)
Use Large, Rich Words
Encourage kids to ask, “What does that mean?”
• Hydrophobic: what are the roots of this word that help us
know what it means?
(ABCNews.com)
Key #2 – Adapt Process
• Students use key skills
• Bloom’s Taxonomy
• Multiple Intelligence Theories
• Common focus
• Vary student activities – not the target
• Vary complexity
• Teacher uses a variety of methods
More Than One Way to Get There
Examples of Process DI
• Adding “movement”
• Adjusting “time”
• Use good reading strategies in ALL content areas &
grade levels
• Choices of tasks
• Jig Saw Assignments
• Cubing, ThinkDots, Think-Tac-Toe
• RAFTS
• Graphic Organizers
• Learning Centers & Learning Logs
Have a computer in your classroom?
• Great Online Resources
• http://www.free.ed.gov
• http://www.thinkfinity.com (formerly Marco
Polo)
• http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/
• http://www.netrover.com/~kingskid/108.html
• http://www.edhelper.com/
• http://www.ceismc.gatech.edu/busyt/
• http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/edres.htm
eField Trips & Scavenger Hunts
• Virtual Tours
• http://www.theteachersguide.com/virtualtours.html
• http://www.uen.org/utahlink/tours/
• http://www.efieldtrips.org/
• Many require registration
• Includes “ask the expert” sessions
• http://oops.bizland.com/vtours.htm
• http://www.exploratorium.edu/
eField Trips & Scavenger Hunts
• Internet Scavenger Hunts
• http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/archives/hunt.shtml
• http://www.thecoo.edu/~apeter/scavenger_hunts.htm
• Univ. Sioux Falls site with lots of topics
• http://www.nvo.com/ecnewletter/scavengerhuntsonthe
web/
• http://lessonplancentral.com/lessons/Computers_and_In
ternet/Scavenger_Hunts/
• http://www.pitt.edu/~poole/eledScavenger.html
• Q – How many Wiki people
does it take to change a light
bulb?
• A – One, . . . but anyone can
change it back.
Time For a Break
Key #3 – Adapt Product
• Students have choices of product
• Students use key skills to create product
• Bloom’s Taxonomy
• Multiple Intelligence Theories
• Common focus
• Vary student activities
• Vary complexity
Life in the fast lane . . .
In an increasingly fast-paced
world we don’t make time for
creative activities.
Providing Task Choices
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Cubing
Think Dots
Think Tac Toe
RAFTS
Student Contracts
Tiered Assignments
Tiered Assignments
• Rationale – “when tasks are well beyond the grasp
of students, those students do not learn.”
• Burn out
• Rationale – “advanced learner may make A’s when
tasks are too easy for them, but they also do not
learn.”
• Tedium
• Zone of Proximal Development
• “we learn only when tasks are a little too hard for us
and a support system is available to help us.”
• Moderate Challenge
When Tiering – Adjust . . .
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Level of Complexity
Amount of Structure
Materials
Time/Pace
Number of Steps
Form of Expression
Level of Dependence
Indicators of Effective Tiers
• Tiers are squarely focused on essential knowledge,
understanding, and skill
• Tiers are equally engaging to students
• Pre-assessment formed basis for assigning
students to tiers
• ALL students must think at a high level to
complete task
• Support system is in place
• Students understand the task and why they are not
all doing the same thing
Layered Curriculum
• Kathie Nunley
• “C” Level (knowledge base)
• “B” Level
• “A” Level (highest level thinking skills)
• Layers based on Bloom’s Taxonomy
• Each student makes choices from ALL
layers
Differentiated & Tiered Lesson
Resources
• Kathie Nunley’s Layered Curriculum
• http://www.help4teachers.com/
• Indiana Dept. of Ed Gifted & Talented
• http://www.doe.state.in.us/exceptional/gt/tiered_curriculum/welco
me.html
• Regina, Saskatchewan Schools
• http://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/bestpractice/
• Check out their other resources too
• Washington and Lee University
• http://teachereducation.wlu.edu/courses/practicum/Differentiation.
htm
Cubing / Think Dots / Think Tac
Toe
• Provide for levels of thinking
• Bloom’s levels
• Learning Styles
• Multiple Intelligences
• Variety of uses
• Choice of task
• Below, At, or Above Grade Level options
• Individual or group tasks
Cubing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Describe It
Look at the subject closely (perhaps with your senses in
mind).
Compare It
What is it similar to? What is it different from?
Associate It
What does it make you think of? What comes to your
mind when you think of it? Perhaps people? Places?
Things? Feelings? Let your mind go and see what
feelings you have for the subject.
Analyze It
Tell how it is made. If you can’t really know, use your
imagination.
Apply It
Tell what you can do with it. How can it be used?
Argue for It or Against It
Take a stand. Use any kind of reasoning you want—
logical, silly, anywhere in between.
Ideas for Kinesthetic
Cube
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Arrange _________into a 3-D collage to show_________
Make a body sculpture to show__________________
Create a dance to show_______________________
Do a mime to help us understand_________________
Present an interior monologue with dramatic movement
that________________________
Build/construct a representation of________________
Make a living mobile that shows and balances the
elements of __________________
Create authentic sound effects to accompany a reading of
________________
Show the principle of _____________with a rhythm
pattern you create. Explain to us how that works.
Ideas for Cubing in
Math…
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Describe
how you would solve_____________
Analyze
how this problem helps us use
mathematical thinking and problem solving.
Compare
this problem to one on p._____
Contrast
it too.
Demonstrate how a professional (or just a regular
person) could apply this kind of problem to their work
or life.
Change
one or more numbers (elements, signs) in
the problem. Give a rule for what that change does.
Create
an interesting and challenging word
problem from the number problem. (Show us how to
solve it too)
Diagram or Illustrate the solution to the problem.
Interpret the visual so we understand.
Think Dots
• Typically a small group or individual activity
• Vary the purpose for using
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Pre-assessment
Anchor activity
Bell-ringer
Review
Post-assessment
Homework
THINK DOTS
Describe…
Apply…
Question…
Argue for or against…
Satirize…
Compare and/or
contrast…
a, b, c and d each represent a
different value.
If a = 1, find b, c, and d.
Explain the mathematical
reasoning involved in solving
card 1.
Explain how a variable is used to
solve word problem.
Diagram how to solve
3x + 1 = 10.
Explain why
x=4 in 2x = 8,
but x=16 in ½ x = 8.
Why does this make sense?
a+b=c
b-b=d
c + a = -a
Create an interesting word
problem that is modeled by
2x + 4 = 4x - 10.
Solve the problem.
Think Dots
Title: Algebra level 2
R.A.F.T.S.
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Role
Audience
Format
Topic
Strong Verbs
RAFT Activities
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
Gingerbread Man
Our Class
Oral Response
I never should have
listened to the fox
Squanto
Other Native
Americans
Pictographs
I can help the inept
settlers
Band Member
Other Band
Members
Demo Tape
Here’s how it goes
Monet
Van Gogh
Letter
I wish you’d shed
more light on the
subject
Water Vapor
Water
A Love Letter
You make me so hot
Battery
Loose Wire
A Newspaper
Article
Man has shocking
experience
Multiplication Fact
Division Fact
Invitation to a
Family Reunion
Here’s how we’re
related
Wrapping It All Up
Assessing for Differentiation
• Formative Assessment SHOULD
• Happen frequently
• Drive instruction
• Who needs differentiation
• The struggling student?
• The gifted student?
• What needs to be differentiated
• Summative Assessment CAN
• Be used formatively!
Principles to Guide
Differentiated Classrooms
• Focus on essentials
• Attend to student differences
• Assess often and use it to make
adjustments/modifications
• Mutual respect
• Be flexible
• Doesn’t happen 100% of the time!!!!
Simple Ways to Start
• Add an interdisciplinary element to a
favorite unit
• Collaborate with other teachers
• Add movement/touch/visual aids to existing
lessons & activities
• Apply Multiple Intelligence thinking to
group/individual projects
• Offer students choices of
product/presentation
Four Steps to
MUCH better
Curriculum
Step One: Hook
How am I going to make the
task appealing, inviting, and
intriguing to my students?
Step Two: Focus
Does the task absolutely
and with no ambiguity
call on students to
grapple with one or more
of the key understandings
and skills of the unit?
Step Three: Ratchet
Is the task crafted at very high
levels of thought and production
for the students who perform it?
Are you confident it will stretch
them in use of information,
critical and creative thinking,
reflection on their thinking, skill
and accuracy,research, insight, or
other areas valuable in this effort?
Step Four: Tighten
Are the directions written
in such a way that the
students cannot take the
“low road” or the easy
way out with their work?
Are they written to direct
students to the “high
road” of the quest for
quality in work and
thought?
High Quality Teaching…
It’s About Having All the Parts in Place…
Tomlinson ‘01
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