Head Start
Arizona Head Start TTA Office
Infant Toddler Summer Webinar Series:
Language Development
Mary Kramer Reinwasser, M.Ed.
Arizona State-Based TTA Manager
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Agenda
• Define common terminology
• Discuss theoretical viewpoints of language
development
• Identify stages of language development including
milestones
• Review characteristics that influence language
development
• Identify strategies to support language development
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
2
Learning Outcomes
• Participants will be able to define commonly used
language terminology
• Participants will be able to name language
milestones in chronological order
• Participants will be able to describe stages of
language development
• Participants will be able to identify strategies that
support language development
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
3
Using Common Terminology
Dimensions:
• Content (meaning)
• Use (purpose)
• Form (structure)
Definitions
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speech
language
communication
morphology
syntax
semantics
pragmatics
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Theories of Language Development
Behaviorist
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Imitation
Conditioning
Motivated by reinforcement
B.F. Skinner
Interactionist
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Biological
Social
Motivated by others
Vygotsky
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Stages of Language Development
Prelinguistic:
– Early sensitivity to language at birth
– First Vocalizations
Single Word Stage -- Holophrastic Period:
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Declarative: “Doggy big”
Interrogative: “Where ball?”
Negative: “Not egg”
Imperative: “More cookie”
Multiple Word Combinations:
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Declarative: “Doggy is big”
Interrogative: “Where is ball?”
Negative: “That is not an egg ”
Imperative: “I want more cookie”
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Language Milestones
12 weeks cooing, smiles when talked to
16 weeks turns head in response to human voice
20 weeks makes vowels and consonant sounds
6 months babbling (all sounds)
8 months repeat certain syllables (ma-ma)
12 months understands and says some words
18 months can produce up to 50 words
24 months more than 50 words, two-word phrases
30 months about 100 words, phrases of 3-5 words
36 months vocabulary of about 1,000 words
48 months most basic aspects of language are well established
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
7
Necessary Conditions for Development of
Communication Skills
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Sensory system
Central Nervous System
Motor system
Cognitive abilities
Social and Affective growth
Responsive environment
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Characteristics that Interfere with Communication
and Speech Development
• Hearing loss
• Specific Language
Impairment
• Visual Disability
• Cognitive Disability
• Emotional Problems
• Autism
• Lack of Interaction
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Structural abnormality
Motor problems
Voice disorders
Disfluency disorders
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Early Relationships: The Context for Learning
• Interactions are opportunities for communication and
language development.
– Infant/toddler learns to relate/communicate.
• Responsive consistent care-giving nurtures reciprocal
interactions
– Caregivers provide auditory/visual input, pause and wait
for a response from baby.
• Reciprocal interactions are the context for learning
– Early literacy development unfolds.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
10
Strategies for Everyone
• Follow the lead of the infant
– respond to and extend engagement in interesting
toys/objects
• Speak in parentese
– draw the infant’s attention to the rhyme and rhythm
of language
• Pause within interactions
– allow time for the infant to process information and
respond
• Use brief sentences
– reference or point to objects in the child’s visual field
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
©CENTe-R 2005
More Strategies
• Use a variety of language features.
– Intonation
– Pitch
– Rhythm
– Volume
– Pausing
• Allow wait time for child to listen/watch, process,
and respond.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
©CENTe-R 2005
Repeating & Repeating Plus
• Repeating what the child says
– Child says: “Juice all gone.”
– Adult says: “Juice all gone.”
• Repeating and Adding to what the child has said
– Child says: “Hot out there.”
– Adult says: “ It’s hot in here too.”
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
©CENTe-R 2005
Expanding and Describing
• Adding to what the child has said
– Child says: “Raining outside.”
– Adult says: “Yes, it’s raining all over.”
• Describing what you are seeing, hearing, doing as
you do it - Self Talk
– While washing dishes, adult says: “Wash the
dish and now we rinse the dish.”
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
©CENTe-R 2005
Parallel Communicating
• Parallel talk: Talking about what the child is doing,
thinking or feeling
– Child is bouncing a ball;
– Adult says: “You’re bouncing the ball.” or “Jose is
bouncing the ball. The ball is bouncing up and
down.”
– Use “you” or say the child’s name.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
©CENTe-R 2005
Labeling & Answering
• Labeling - Use labeling or explaining phrases or
statements
– Adult says: “That’s a big blue beach ball.” or “That
dog is a poodle.”
• Answering the child’s question
– Child says: “Gampa’s?”
– Adult says: “Yes, we are going to Gampa’s now.”
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
©CENTe-R 2005
Expansions & Extensions
• Expansion - Repeating child’s utterance the way an
adult would have said it
– Child says: “Doggy run”
– Adult says: “Yes, the doggy is running.”
• Extension - Expanding the child’s response to an
adult sentence, then adding an additional related
comment.
– Child says: “Car go”
– Adult says: “The car is going. It’s a red car.”
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
©CENTe-R 2005
Encouraging Infant Communication
• Create a language rich environment that includes novel
materials and varied toys for interaction
– narrate the infant’s world with expression
• Initiate frequent engaging interaction with infants
– look for meaningful opportunities to initiate or respond to
baby’s interest
• Attract baby’s attention
– tap on the toy/object that is the focus of communication
prior to initiation of interaction
• Make eye contact
– position oneself and toys/objects in the infant’s visual field
when interacting
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
18
Opportunities for Communication
• Listen for the infant’s/toddler’s communicative
responses/behaviors
– What is the baby trying to communicate?
• Use observation to identify infant/toddler
vocalizations, cues and signs
– Does the baby need food, diaper change, or just want to
play?
– How can I extend the interaction?
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
19
 Bathe child in language
 Be responsive when children
initiate communication
 Engage in nonverbal
communication
 Use child-directed language
 Use self talk and parallel talk
 Help children expand
language
• Support bilingual
development
• Attend to individual
development and needs
• Engage infants with books
and stories
• Be playful with language
• Create a communication
friendly environment
• Name children’s interests
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
20
Summary
• Acquiring language is complex. Young children play an active
role in learning language.
• Under typical circumstances, young children learn language.
Experience with communication and language is key.
• Language development varies from individual to individual
and from social-cultural context to social-cultural context.
• Young children learn language in the context of human
relationships. Experience with language typically occurs
during everyday routines/activities.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
21
The Arizona Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Office
and STG International thank you for joining our webinar today!
Please continue to join the 2010 Summer Webinar Series
occurring every Tuesday and Thursday during the months of
June and July at 3:00 Pacific Daylight Time.
Please contact Mary Kramer Reinwasser at
[email protected] for more information.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
22
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