LECTURE 2 Theme: The Ukrainian language. Letters and sounds. Basic phrases. PLAN 1. Ukrainian Alphabet. 2. Letters and sounds. 3. Basic phrases. UKRAINE Ukrainian (Українська) Ukrainian is an Eastern Slavonic language closely related to Russian and Belarusian. It is spoken by about 51 million people in Ukraine (Україна) and in many other countries, including Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Brazil, Canada, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Paraguay, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovakia. Ukrainian (Українська) The recorded history of the Ukrainian language began in 988, when the principality of Kiev (Київ) was converted to Christianity. Ukrainian religious material, including translations of the Bible, was written in Old Slavonic, the language used by missionaries to spread Christianity to the Slavic peoples. Major differences of the Ukrainian and English Languages. Cyrillic writing two forms of "you" address: formal and informal absence of articles a relatively loose word order in sentences three genders of nouns nouns change their endings (cases) depending on their functions in the sentence besides grammatical tenses (present, past, future), forms of verbs express the idea of completed or progressive action. The Ukrainian Alphabet The alphabet of the Ukrainian language consists of 33 letters and is derived from the Cyrillic writing system. The modern Ukrainian alphabet is the result of a number of proposed alphabetic reforms from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, in Ukraine under the Russian Empire, in Austrian Galicia, and later in Soviet Ukraine. The Ukrainian Alphabet. Ukrainian Alphabet Ukrainian vowels: A a (English A) O o (English O) У у (English U) Е е (English E) И и (English Y) І і (English I) Ukrainian consonants: Classification of consonants In Ukrainian, a four-fold categorisation of consonants can be made: Labials (In Cyrillic: б, в, м, п, and ф or transliterated as b, v, m, p, and f): These letters are almost always hard in Ukrainian (there are orthographic exceptions), can never be doubled, nor can they in general be followed by an iotified vowel (exception: in combinations CL where C is a dental and L is a labial, a soft vowel can follow, e.g., svjato/свято). Post-alveolar sibilants (In Cyrillic: ж, ч, and ш or transliterated as ž, č, and š. The digraph щ (šč) should also be included). These letters were in Common Slavic all palatal (soft). In Ukrainian, these harden, leading to the creation of the mixed declension of nouns. None of them can be followed by a soft sign (In Cyrillic: ь; transliterated as apostrophe (’)) or any iotified vowel. All but the digraph can be doubled, in which case they can be followed by a soft vowel, e.g., zbižžja/збіжжя. Dentals (In Cyrillic: д, з, л, н, с, т and ц or transliterated as d, z, l, n, s, t, and c): In Ukrainian, as in Common Slavic, these letters can be both hard and soft. These letters can never (unless they are the last letter in a prefix) be followed by an apostrophe. Furthermore, these letters can be doubled. Velars (In Cyrillic: г (ґ), к, and х or transliterated as h (g), k, and x): In both Ukrainian and Common Slavic, these letters are always hard. Should they ever be followed by an iotified or soft vowel, then they undergo the first and second palatalisations. Hence, these letters can never be doubled or followed by an apostrophe. Cyrillic: р (transliterated: r): the letter in general behaves similar to the dental category, with the following exception: Word finally r is always hard. r can never be doubled. А_а - letter, like English a in such words - bath, after, but Ukrainian is rather short. Б_б - letter like English b. В_в - letter like English v. Г_г - letter like English g, but this letter is more tender. Ґ_ґ - letter like English g. This is a ringing g. Generally, this letter very seldom appeared in Ukrainian words. Д_д - letter like English d. Е_е - letter like English e in such words - send, cent. Є_є - in this letter is two sound [je] . Like in such English words - yes, yet, yellow. Ж_ж - letter like English s in word measure. Sometimes, in English its write as "zh". З_з - letter like English z. И_и - it's rather difficult letter. І_і - letter like English i in words ill, index. Ї_ї - there are two sound [ji] , like in English words yield, yielding, ye. Й_й - letter like English y, in word year. К_к - letter like English k. Л_л - letter like English l. М_м - letter like English m. Н_н - letter like English n. О_о - letter like English o in words oil, on. П_п - letter like English p. Р_р - Letter like English r, like in English words rose, raise. It's a ringing R. С_с - letter like English s. Т_т - letter like English t. У_у - letter like English u in word full. Ф_ф - letter like English f. Х_х - letter like English h. But it's a ringing H. Ц_ц - letter which in English write as ts. As in the word "Tsar". Ч_ч - letter like English sound ch, in such words as chair, chief. But, it's a tender, soft letter. Ш_ш - letter like English sound sh in such word as shop. Щ_щ - letter like English sound sh in such word as ship. It's a tender SH. ь - it's special symbol. There aren't a capital letter. Ю_ю - there are two sound [ju], like in English word you. But, it's rather difficult letter. Я_я - there're two sound [ja], as in English word yard. Greeting: Добрий ранок! Доброго ранку! Good morning! Добрий день! Hello! Good day! Good afternoon! Добрий вечір! Good evening! Привіт! Hi! До побачення! Bye! Будь ласка! Please! You are welcome! Прошу! Please! You are welcome! Перепрошую! Excuse me! Introductions: -Як ваше ім’я? [Yak vashe im"ya?] What is your name? -Як вас звати? [Yak vas zvaty?] What is your name? -Як ваше прізвище? [Yak vashe prizvyshche?] What is your last name? -Мене звати Річард Сміт. [Mene zvaty Richard Smit] My name is Richard Smith. -Моє прізвище Сміт. [Moye prizvyshche Smit] My last name is Smith. -Покажіть,будь ласка, документи.[Pokazhit' bud' laska dokumenty] Please show me your documents. -Прошу показати паспорт. [Proshu pokazaty pasport] Please show me your passport. -Ваші документи (ваш паспорт) будь ласка. [Vashi dokumenty (vash pasport) bud' laska] Your documents (passport) please. In a store: Покажіть, будь ласка чорну парасольку за п'ятдесят три гривні. [Pokazhit' bud' laska chornu parasol'ku za p"yatdes'at try hryvni] Please let me see the black umbrella that costs 53 hryvnyas. Скільки це коштує? [Skil'ky tse koshtuye?] How much does it cost? Я це купую. [Ya tse kupuyu] I'll buy this. In a store: Дайте, будь ласка, карту міста. [Dayte bud' laska kartu mista] Please give me a city map. Дайте, будь ласка, телефонну картку на півтори години. [Dayte bud' laska telefonnu kartku na pivtory hodyny] Please give me a 90 minute telephone card. In a restaurant/cafe: Прошу рахунок. [Proshu rakhunok] Bring the bill please. Taxi and public transportation: Вулиця Руська, будь ласка. [Vulytsya Rus’ka, bud' laska] Ruska street, please. Готель “Тернопіль”. [Hotel' Ternopil’] Ternopil hotel. Taxi and public transportation: Ви виходите на наступній зупинці? [Vy vykhodyte na nastupniy zupyntsi?] Are you getting down (out) at the next stop? Довольте вийти. [Dozvol'te vyity] Please let me get out (go out). Other needs: Перепрошую, де тут туалет? [Pereproshuyu de tut tualet?] Excuse me, where is the restroom here? Мені потрібний лікар? [Meni potribnyy likar] I need a doctor. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!