Theme: The Ukrainian
language. Letters and sounds.
Basic phrases.
 1.
Ukrainian Alphabet.
 2. Letters and sounds.
 3. Basic phrases.
Ukrainian (Українська)
 Ukrainian
is an Eastern Slavonic language
closely related to Russian and Belarusian.
It is spoken by about 51 million people in
Ukraine (Україна) and in many other
countries, including Argentina, Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Belarus, Brazil, Canada,
Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova,
Paraguay, Poland, Romania, Russia and
Ukrainian (Українська)
 The
recorded history of the Ukrainian
language began in 988, when the
principality of Kiev (Київ) was converted to
Christianity. Ukrainian religious material,
including translations of the Bible, was
written in Old Slavonic, the language used
by missionaries to spread Christianity to
the Slavic peoples.
Major differences of the Ukrainian and
English Languages.
Cyrillic writing
two forms of "you" address: formal and informal
absence of articles
a relatively loose word order in sentences
three genders of nouns
nouns change their endings (cases) depending on their
functions in the sentence
besides grammatical tenses (present, past, future), forms
of verbs express the idea of completed or progressive
The Ukrainian Alphabet
 The
alphabet of the Ukrainian language
consists of 33 letters and is derived from
the Cyrillic writing system. The modern
Ukrainian alphabet is the result of a
number of proposed alphabetic reforms
from the nineteenth and early twentieth
centuries, in Ukraine under the Russian
Empire, in Austrian Galicia, and later in
Soviet Ukraine.
The Ukrainian Alphabet.
Ukrainian Alphabet
Ukrainian vowels:
a (English A)
 O o (English O)
 У у (English U)
 Е е (English E)
 И и (English Y)
 І і (English I)
Ukrainian consonants:
Classification of consonants
In Ukrainian, a four-fold categorisation of consonants can be made:
Labials (In Cyrillic: б, в, м, п, and ф or transliterated as b, v, m, p, and f):
These letters are almost always hard in Ukrainian (there are orthographic
exceptions), can never be doubled, nor can they in general be followed
by an iotified vowel (exception: in combinations CL where C is a dental
and L is a labial, a soft vowel can follow, e.g., svjato/свято).
Post-alveolar sibilants (In Cyrillic: ж, ч, and ш or transliterated as ž, č,
and š. The digraph щ (šč) should also be included). These letters were in
Common Slavic all palatal (soft). In Ukrainian, these harden, leading to
the creation of the mixed declension of nouns. None of them can be
followed by a soft sign (In Cyrillic: ь; transliterated as apostrophe (’)) or
any iotified vowel. All but the digraph can be doubled, in which case they
can be followed by a soft vowel, e.g., zbižžja/збіжжя.
Dentals (In Cyrillic: д, з, л, н, с, т and ц or transliterated
as d, z, l, n, s, t, and c): In Ukrainian, as in Common
Slavic, these letters can be both hard and soft. These
letters can never (unless they are the last letter in a
prefix) be followed by an apostrophe. Furthermore, these
letters can be doubled.
Velars (In Cyrillic: г (ґ), к, and х or transliterated as h (g),
k, and x): In both Ukrainian and Common Slavic, these
letters are always hard. Should they ever be followed by
an iotified or soft vowel, then they undergo the first and
second palatalisations. Hence, these letters can never
be doubled or followed by an apostrophe.
Cyrillic: р (transliterated: r): the letter in general
behaves similar to the dental category, with the following
Word finally r is always hard.
r can never be doubled.
А_а - letter, like English a in such words - bath, after, but
Ukrainian is rather short.
 Б_б - letter like English b.
 В_в - letter like English v.
 Г_г - letter like English g, but this letter is more tender.
 Ґ_ґ - letter like English g. This is a ringing g. Generally, this
letter very seldom appeared in Ukrainian words.
 Д_д - letter like English d.
 Е_е - letter like English e in such words - send, cent.
 Є_є - in this letter is two sound [je] . Like in such English
words - yes, yet, yellow.
 Ж_ж - letter like English s in word measure. Sometimes, in
English its write as "zh".
 З_з - letter like English z.
И_и - it's rather difficult letter.
І_і - letter like English i in words ill, index.
Ї_ї - there are two sound [ji] , like in English words
yield, yielding, ye.
Й_й - letter like English y, in word year.
К_к - letter like English k.
Л_л - letter like English l.
М_м - letter like English m.
Н_н - letter like English n.
О_о - letter like English o in words oil, on.
П_п - letter like English p.
 Р_р
- Letter like English r, like in English
words rose, raise. It's a ringing R.
 С_с - letter like English s.
 Т_т - letter like English t.
 У_у - letter like English u in word full.
 Ф_ф - letter like English f.
 Х_х - letter like English h. But it's a
ringing H.
 Ц_ц - letter which in English write as ts.
As in the word "Tsar".
 Ч_ч
- letter like English sound ch, in such
words as chair, chief. But, it's a tender, soft
 Ш_ш - letter like English sound sh in such
word as shop.
 Щ_щ - letter like English sound sh in such
word as ship. It's a tender SH.
 ь - it's special symbol. There aren't a
capital letter.
 Ю_ю - there are two sound [ju], like in
English word you. But, it's rather difficult
 Я_я - there're two sound [ja], as in English
word yard.
Добрий ранок! Доброго ранку! Good
Добрий день! Hello! Good day! Good
Добрий вечір! Good evening!
До побачення! Bye!
Будь ласка! Please! You are welcome!
Please! You are welcome!
Перепрошую! Excuse me!
-Як ваше ім’я? [Yak vashe im"ya?] What is your name?
-Як вас звати? [Yak vas zvaty?] What is your name?
-Як ваше прізвище? [Yak vashe prizvyshche?] What is your last
-Мене звати Річард Сміт. [Mene zvaty Richard Smit] My name is
Richard Smith.
-Моє прізвище Сміт. [Moye prizvyshche Smit] My last name is
-Покажіть,будь ласка, документи.[Pokazhit' bud' laska dokumenty]
Please show me your documents.
-Прошу показати паспорт. [Proshu pokazaty pasport] Please show
me your passport.
-Ваші документи (ваш паспорт) будь ласка. [Vashi dokumenty
(vash pasport) bud' laska] Your documents (passport) please.
In a store:
Покажіть, будь ласка чорну парасольку за
п'ятдесят три гривні.
[Pokazhit' bud' laska chornu
parasol'ku za p"yatdes'at try hryvni] Please let me
see the black umbrella that costs 53 hryvnyas.
 Скільки це коштує? [Skil'ky tse koshtuye?] How
much does it cost?
 Я це купую. [Ya tse kupuyu] I'll buy this.
In a store:
 Дайте,
будь ласка, карту міста.
[Dayte bud' laska kartu mista] Please give
me a city map.
 Дайте, будь ласка, телефонну картку
на півтори години. [Dayte bud' laska
telefonnu kartku na pivtory hodyny] Please
give me a 90 minute telephone card.
In a restaurant/cafe:
 Прошу
[Proshu rakhunok]
Bring the bill please.
Taxi and public transportation:
Вулиця Руська, будь ласка.
[Vulytsya Rus’ka, bud' laska]
Ruska street, please.
Готель “Тернопіль”.
[Hotel' Ternopil’]
Ternopil hotel.
Taxi and public
Ви виходите на наступній зупинці?
[Vy vykhodyte na nastupniy zupyntsi?]
Are you getting down (out) at the next
Довольте вийти.
[Dozvol'te vyity]
Please let me get out (go out).
Other needs:
 Перепрошую,
де тут туалет?
 [Pereproshuyu de tut tualet?]
 Excuse me, where is the restroom
 Мені потрібний лікар?
 [Meni potribnyy likar]
 I need a doctor.