SEVENTH GRADE
ENGLISH
BENCHMARK 3
GRAMMAR,
USAGE, AND
MECHANICS
PASS GUM 3.1.b.
Use correct verb tense in writing.
Hey, Kai. Yes, I studied for the verb tense test.
Huh? Oh… let’s see… the principal parts of a verb
are present, past, and past participle. What? No.
Get your own hot chocolate.
PRESENT
PAST
PAST PARTICIPLE
Ends in -ed
Uses helping verb has /
have / had; Ends in -ed
talk
talked
have talked
ask
asked
have asked
write
wrote (No –ed;
it is irregular.)
have written (No –ed; it
is irregular.)
teach
taught (No –ed;
it is irregular.)
have taught (No –ed; it
is irregular.)
PASS GUM 3.1.b.
Use correct verb tense in writing.
1. Olivia (had ran, had run) on the track
team for two years.
2. Kai had already (ate, eaten) his sandwich.
3. Olivia said, “I’ve (went, gone) to track
practice late two days in a row.”
4. Kai said, “I (sung, sang) in the school play
last year.”
5. Olivia said, “I’ve (fell, fallen) over the
hurdles several times.”
Write down what you think the correct verb forms
are. Answers are on the next slide.
(Sigh…) Olivia
is always so
nice, and her
verb tenses
are always
correct.
PASS GUM 3.1.b.
Use correct verb tense in writing.
1.Olivia (had ran, had run) on the
track team for two years.
This is a good way to think of
present, past, and past participle:
2. Kai had already (ate, eaten) his
sandwich.
Today Yesterday
I…
I…
Many times
I…
3. Olivia said, “I’ve (went, gone)
to track practice late two days in
a row.
run
ran
have run
eat
ate
have eaten
4. Kai said, “I (sung, sang) in the
school play last year.”
go
went
have gone
sing
sang
have sung
fall
fell
have fallen
5. Olivia said, “I’ve (fell, fallen)
over the hurdles several times.
PASS GUM 3.1.b.
Use correct verb tense in writing.
Hey, Mei. Did you notice
that big tree has fell down
in our parking area? The
principals have gave us
new parking spots. Man,
I’ve went to the office three
times to register for my
spot – it hasn’t took me
very long – I want a good
spot! That tree has tore up
a school bus!
Hey, have you wrote your
essay for English? Ms.
Periwinkle’s gave me bad
grades for every essay I’ve
did so far!
Did you find all of Kai’s mistakes? Check the next slide to be sure.
PASS GUM 3.1.b.
Use correct verb tense in writing.
Use the Principal Parts of Verbs Chart
to check Kai’s verb tense choices.
1. …big tree has fell…
2. … principals have gave us…
3. … I’ve went to the office…
4. …it hasn’t took me very long…
5. …tree has tore up…
6. …have you wrote your essay…
7. Ms. Periwinkle’s gave me…
8. …for every essay I’ve did…
Principal Parts of Verbs
Past
Present
Past
Participle
fall
fell
has fallen
give
gave
have
given
go
went
have gone
take
took
has taken
tear
tore
has torn
write
wrote
have
written
give
gave
have
given
do
did
have done
PASS GUM 3.1.b.
Use correct verb tense in writing.
Ms. Periwinkle, our English teacher, was
so sweet today. She was telling Kai that
verb tense problems can easily be
overcome!
We use the verb tenses that we grow up
hearing from our friends, our babysitters
at daycare, our aunts and uncles, and
people on TV.
How we hear it is how we say it! It just
sounds right that way!
To change, we just have to make a list of
the verb forms we learned incorrectly and
then memorize the right forms. Soon,
they will begin to sound right to us!
We’re not dumb when we use the wrong
verb form – we just heard it the wrong
way when we were young.
PASS GUM 3.1.c.
Use nominative, objective, and possessive
pronouns correctly.
subject
verb
direct---------------------------object
1. Gidget loves Moondoggie and (I, me).
sub.
verb
indirect----------------object
adj.
dir. obj.
2. Liz gave Gidget and (I, me) new surfboards.
subject
verb
dir.obj. (prepositional phrase ending w/obj. of prep.)
3. Gidget gave a ride to Liz and (I, me, myself).
subjects------------------------------
verb
---direct object---
4. Liz and (I, me, myself) love Moondoggie.
Can you select the
correct pronouns?
PASS GUM 3.1.c. Use nominative, objective, and
possessive pronouns correctly.
Definitions and Examples
1. Subject pronouns
I
(Nominative pronouns)
you
Used as subjects,
he she it
predicate nominatives
2. Object pronouns
Used as direct objects,
indirect objects,
objects of the preposition
3. Possessive pronouns
Used to show possession
we
you
they
me
us
you
you
him her it
them
my mine
our ours
your yours
your yours
his her hers its
their theirs
PASS GUM 3.1.c.
Use nominative, objective, and possessive
pronouns correctly.
subject
Gidget
verb
loves
direct----------------------- object
Moondoggie and (I, me).
Subject – Gidget
Verb – loves
Say “loves who or what?” That’s
your direct object - Moondoggie
and me.
We choose me because the direct
object pronoun must come from the
object pronouns.
We can’t choose I because the
pronoun I is a subject pronoun!
PASS GUM 3.1.c.
Use nominative, objective, and possessive
pronouns correctly.
Dude, don’t overthink; don’t do it the
hard way. You are wasting your surfing
energy on pronoun problems. Be like
me, the Moondog…
I just eliminate the “Gidget and…” and
listen for what sounds right.
Listen…
Liz gave I a surfboard…
Liz gave me a surfboard… See?
sub. verb
indirect--------------object
adj.
dir. obj.
Liz gave Gidget and (I, me) new surfboards.
sub.
verb
dir.obj. (prep. phrase ending with obj. of prep.)
Gidget gave a ride to Liz and (I, me, myself).
subjects--------------------------------------
verb
---direct object---
Liz and (I, me, myself) love Moondoggie.
It’s easy; just mentally mark out the
“compound element”: Liz and…
Then you can listen for the
correct pronoun answer!
Gidget gave a ride to Liz and
(I, me, myself).
Liz and (I, me, myself) love
Moondoggie.
PASS GUM 3.1.c.
Use nominative, objective, and possessive
pronouns correctly.
Try these two:
Liz is taking modeling lessons from
Tyra and (I, me).
Moondog painted
Liz and (me, I) a portrait.
Liz is taking modeling lessons from
Tyra and (I, me).
Moondog painted Liz and (me, I)
a portrait.
Yes!
Liz is taking lessons from ME.
(Just mentally mark out …Tyra and…)
Moondog painted ME a portrait.
(Just mentally mark out …Liz and…)
PASS GUM 3.1.l.
Distinguish and correctly spell commonly
confused words.
Thank you, fellow Panthers! I, Olivia
McPretty, except the honor of being
crowned Prom Queen!
May the Panthers never loose there
glory! Go Cats!
Which is the best change, if any, to make to
the underlined words in the sentence above?
A. except / lose / their
B. accept / loose / there
C. accept / lose / their
D. No change.
These are some of the commonly
confused words. One of the most
abused pairs is its/it’s.
No worries:
It’s always means IT IS. It’s a
contraction!
The other one (its) always means the
possessive pronoun…like…the puppy
licked its paw.
Commonly Confused Words:
to, two, too; our, are;
accept, except; affect, effect;
past, passed; red, read;
there, their, they’re; dessert, desert;
lead, led; its, it’s; loose, lose;
peace, piece; break, brake;
choose, chose; capital, capitol; all right;
all ready, already; altar, alter;
all together, altogether
Here are a few more…
What effect will the new soccer
regulations have on your team?
Will they affect you very much?
They’re saying that their effect
will be felt both in America and
clear over there in England. To
enforce the two regulations
will take too much money! The
economy is already bad. Oh
well, I’m all ready to play!
It’s time for you to look in your grammar book,
make a list of the “commonly confused
words” that you still get mixed up in your
mind, and sit down and study them until you
know them!
You know, whether you are an alert student like Olivia or a
sleepy student like Maynard, you need to realize at some point
that you are in charge of what you learn. If you see something in
this lesson – or in any lesson -- that you don’t know, take
responsibility for it. Make a list of what you don’t know, and
learn it. It will be on your ACT and SAT.
If you wait around
Ma’am, will you
for your teacher to
please email this
figure out exactly
PowerPoint to me
what each of you
at my home? I
doesn’t know and
want to study the
then teach it to
grammar rules.
each of you, it will
be harder for you to
learn everything
you need. Instead,
if you see
something you
don’t know, learn it!
GUM 3.1.m.
Use the correct forms of
plural and possessive forms of nouns.
OK – Noun –
person, place, thing, idea –
right?
OK – Plural form is how we
spell it when there is more
than one – like
computer/computers or
foot/feet – right?
OK – Possessive form
means when the noun
shows ownership – like
Maynard’s computer or my
friends’ cars – right?
Singular: one shopping bag
Plural: many shopping bags
Rules for Making Nouns PLURAL:
Most nouns: Add s
Ex: bike(s), shop(s), the Jackson family/the
Jackson(s), the Scott family/the Scott(s), the Deaver
famly/the Deaver(s), the Dibrell family/the Dibrell(s),
the Coke family/the Coke(s)
Nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, sh: Add es
Ex: church(es), box(es), dress(es), waltz(es),
brush(es), the Katz family/the Katzes, the Jones
family/the Jones(es), the Evans family/ the Evans(es),
the Barghols family/ the Barghols(es), the Butts
family/ the Butts(es), the Burch family/the Burch(es),
the Mills family/ the Mills(es), the Hughes family/ the
Hughes(es), the McWatters family/ the McWatters(es)
Rules for Making Nouns PLURAL, continued
Nouns ending in vowel-y: Add s
Ex: key(s) essay(s) journey(s), the Toney family/
the Toney(s), the Lashley family/ the Lashley(s)
Nouns ending in consonant-y: Drop the y
and add ies*
Ex: baby/babies, sky/skies, comedy/comedies,
trophy/trophies, cavity/cavities
*Proper nouns ending in consonant-y: You
cannot change their spelling, so just add s.
Ex: The Gundy family/the Gundys (not the Gundies!),
There are two Circuit Citys (not Circuit Cities!), the
McElvany family/the McElvanys (not the
McElvanies!), Principal Geri Woody/ the Woodys (not
the Woodies!)
Rules for Making Nouns PLURAL, continued
Nouns ending in vowel-o: Add s
Ex: radio(s), video(s), studio(s), Antonio(s), igloo(s),
patio(s)
Nouns ending in consonant-o: Add es*
Ex: hero(es), tomato(es), potato(es), veto(es),
torpedo(es)
*Exceptions: Music words - piano(s), solo(s)
*Other common exceptions: taco(s), photo(s)…
For proper nouns ending in consonant-o, you
can’t change their spelling, so just add s.
Ex: the LoPresto family/the LoPrestos, the Alvarados
For some nouns ending in consonant-o, add
either s or es.
Ex: tornado/tornado(s) tornado(es), motto/motto(s)
motto(es), banjo/banjo(s) banjo(es)
Rules for Making Nouns PLURAL, continued
Some nouns ending in f or fe: Drop the f or
fe and add ves.
Ex: knife/knives, leaf/leaves, shelf/shelves
But…roof/roofs, safe/safes
Some nouns have irregular plurals.
Ex: child/children, tooth/teeth, goose/geese,
woman/women, mouse/mice, ox/oxen
Some nouns stay the same from singular to
plural forms.
Ex: one deer/two deer, one sheep/two sheep, one
species/two species
Rules for Making Nouns PLURAL, continued
Most compound nouns:
Ex: notebook/notebook(s), disc jockey/ disc jockey(s),
blueprint/blueprint(s), two-year old/two-year-old(s),
Other compound nouns: Form the plural of the
actual noun
Ex: brother(s)-in-law
Nouns from other languages use the plural
form in the original language:
Ex: alumnus/alumni, phenomenon/ phenomena
Some nouns from other languages have two
plural forms – an original one and an English
one. The English one is preferred.
Ex: index/indexes or indices, appendix/appendixes or
appendices, cactus/cactuses or cacti, cherub/cherubs
or cherubim
Rules for Making Nouns PLURAL, continued
Use ‘s to form the plural of numbers,
letters, symbols, etc.
Ex. #1 There are two a’s in the word separate.
(Without the apostrophe, the word a’s would look
like as. Very confusing!)
Ex. #2 Your i’s look like e’s. (Without the
apostrophe, the word i’s would look like is.)
Ex. #3 There are two 8’s in the address. The Civil
War was in the 1860’s. I have several CD’s. (These
are understandable with or without apostrophes.)
FYI: Many grammar books allow either s or ‘s with
example #3 (CDs or CD’s, 1860s or 1860’s).
Grammar rules insist, though, on using ‘s with
examples #1 and #2, when the absence of the
apostrophe would cause confusion.
Rules for Making Nouns POSSESSIVE
Singular nouns: Add ‘s
Ex: the player’s uniform, student’s car, the Jones
family’s house, Sam’s cap, Francis’s baseball
Plural nouns ending in s: Add ‘
Ex: the players’ uniforms, the
students’ cars, the Joneses’ house
Plural nouns not ending in s:
Add ‘s
Ex: the children’s uniforms, the
women’s team, the men’s team
Man, I wish I knew some little trick for checking
my possessive forms after I write them!
Hey, Maynard, Moondoggie taught me to
check my possessive forms by mentally
circling everything to the left of the
apostrophe.
Then ask, “Is that what I’m talking about?”
Try these:
1. Mom gave all of my (sister’s, sisters’) toys
away after they got married.
Hmm… sister’s… or… sisters’ …
Am I talking about sister or sisters?
Right! It’s “they,” so it’s sisters’.
2. I can’t figure out all of this (computer’s,
computers’) problems.
Hmm… computer’s… or… computers’ …
Am I talking about computer or computers?
Right! It’s “this,” so it’s computer’s.
GUM 3.1.m.
Use the correct forms of
plural and possessive forms of nouns.
My Plural Example
Words:
My Possessive
Example Words:
bikes
churches
keys
babies
Gundys
radios
heroes
pianos
tornado(s,es)
knives
children
deer
notebooks
brothers-in-law
cactuses
a’s
the player’s
uniform
the players’
uniforms
the children’s
uniforms
If I can memorize
how to spell these
words, I can
remember each
plural and
possessive rule!
PASS GUM 3.2.b.7.
Use a comma after an
introductory participial phrase.
What is a
participial
phrase?
Participial phrase
1. Phrase – a group of words without a subject
and a verb
2. Participial – beginning with a word that
ends in –ing or –ed
3. A participial phrase always functions as an
adjective in the sentence.
PASS GUM 3.2.b.7.
Use a comma after an
introductory participial phrase.
Taking into consideration my appearance,
can you guess my name?
Walking his dog, Arthur
enjoyed the beautiful weather.
Called “Spot” by all my friends, I have one
beautiful black circle on my back.
Tired from the walk, Arthur
returned home.
PASS GUM 3.2.b.7.
Use a comma after an
introductory participial phrase.
Gripping her surfboard with all ten
toes Liz rode the wave to the shore.
What is the best change,
if any, to make to toes Liz
in the above sentence?
A. toes; Liz
B. toes, Liz
C. toes. Liz
D. No change.
PASS GUM 3.2.b.7.
Use a comma after an
introductory participial phrase.
Won by Gidget the karate championship
trophy was awarded in the gym.
Which is the best change, if any,
to make to Won by Gidget the
in the above sentence?
A. Won by Gidget, the
B. Won by Gidget; the
C. Won by Gidget. The
D. No change.
Hey, I thought
the first word in
the participial
phrase had to
end in
–ing or
–ed!
Won ends in
–on.
What’s that all
about?
Yes, participial phrases do begin with
words ending in –ing and –ed.
Some –ed words, however, are irregular. Examples:
Verb
Present Participle
(-ing form)
Past Participle
(-ed form)
keep
keeping
keeped kept
go
going
goed gone
break
breaking
broked broken
build
building
builded built
win
winning
winned won
The participial phrase
is an adjective modifying the subject, trophy.
Won by Gidget, the karate championship trophy was
awarded in the gym.
PASS GUM 3.2.b.7.
Use a comma after an
introductory participial phrase.
Write two original sentences beginning with intro.
participial phrases. Start one with an “-ing” participial
phrase and one with an “–ed” participial phrase.
1._________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2._________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
PASS GUM 3.2.b.8.
Use a comma after a succession of
introductory prepositional phrases.
A preposition shows association, direction, location,
or relationship.
on
upon
Commonly Used Prepositions
about, above, across, after, against, along, among,
around, as, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside,
besides, between, beyond, but (meaning except), by,
down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like,
near, of, off, on, out, outside, over, past, since, through,
throughout, to, toward, under, underneath, until, unto,
up, upon, with, within, without
in
beneath
down
under
in addition to
Compound Prepositions
according to, along with, apart from, aside from, as of,
because of, by means of, in addition to, in front of, in
place of, in spite of, instead of, next to, on account of,
out of
next to
in front of
A preposition, its object, and any modifiers of the object
form a prepositional phrase.
A preposition shows direction / location
or association / relationship.
Direction / Location Prepositions
above, across, after, against, along, among, around,
at, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond
by, down, in, inside, into, near, on, out, outside, over,
past, through, throughout, toward, under, underneath
up, upon, within
There are no monsters above my bed, on my bed,
behind my bed, beneath my bed, in my bed, on my
bed, under my bed or upon my bed.
A preposition shows direction / location
or association / relationship.
Association / Relationship Prepositions
for, with, about, during, until, from, without, as,
before, like, of, since, to, besides.
but (meaning except), except
I had a dream during the night.
(During makes a relationship
between the direct object
dream and the object of the
preposition night.)
PASS GUM 3.2.b.8.
Use a comma after a succession of
introductory prepositional phrases.
--prep.phrase--
-----prep. phrase----
sub.
verb
adj.
With a look of confidence, Liz operated the
------direct object----
adverb
cash register expertly.
A “succession” of introductory
prepositional phrases just means
that there are two or more at the
beginning of the sentence.
Don’t put the comma in until the
end of the succession of
prepositional phrases.
PASS GUM 3.2.b.13.
Use a comma to set off
parenthetical expressions.
I am, in
fact,
already
playing
a game,
Gidgie.
Wanta play
a game,
Maynie?
This is,
indeed,
very fun!
Well, you did,
after all, come
over to spend
time with me,
Maynie.
You are, I
believe,
correct.
Let’s
play!
PASS GUM 3.2.b.13.
Use a comma to set off
parenthetical expressions.
What? Why are they called
“parenthetical expressions”?
That’s easy!
They are like little explanatory
expressions that sound as if
they could be in parentheses.
Get it? “parentheses…”“parenthetical…”
A writer should (after all) be able
to hear the interruption when
(for example) a parenthetical
expression is used.
We don’t, of course,
really use
parentheses around
parenthetical
expressions; we set
them off with
commas.
PASS GUM 3.2.b.13.
Use a comma to set off
parenthetical expressions.
Commonly used parenthetical expressions:
after all, at any rate, by the way, consequently, for
example, for instance, however, I believe (hope, etc.),
incidentally, in fact, in general, in the first place,
meanwhile, moreover, naturally, nevertheless, of
course, on the contrary, on the other hand, that is,
therefore
Pinball, by the way, is a
great game.
Video games, on the other hand,
bore me!
PASS GUM 3.2.b.13.
Use a comma to set off
parenthetical expressions.
Parenthetical expressions are “interrupters.” They
plop down right in the middle of an independent
clause, splitting it open.
Yeah…parenthetical expressions can come between
subjects and verbs, or they can come after the verb.
-------- subject----------
parenthetical
expression
verb
adj.
dir. object
Maynard Doo, by the way, plays video games
--------prep. phrase------
after school.
See how ,by the way,
splits the sentence in half right
between the subject (Maynard Doo)
and the verb (plays)!
PASS GUM 3.2.b.19.
Use a semicolon between independent clauses
joined by conjunctive adverbs or transitional
expressions followed by a comma.
subject
--verb-
direct obj. conjunctive adv. sub. adverb
verb
Moondog loves surfing; however, he also loves
direct obj. (gerund phrase)
singing in his band.
Check it out:
Independent Clause #1:
Moondog loves surfing
Independent Clause #2:
he also loves singing in his band
Conjunctive Adverb: ;however,
PASS GUM 3.2.b.19.
Use a semicolon between independent clauses
joined by conjunctive adverbs or transitional
expressions followed by a comma.
Commonly Used Conjunctive Adverbs
accordingly, additionally, also, anyway, besides, consequently,
furthermore, however, indeed, instead, meanwhile, moreover,
nevertheless, otherwise, still, then, therefore
Commonly Used Transitional Expressions
as a result, at any rate, by the way, for
example, for instance, in other words, in
addition, in fact, of course, that is
Independent clause:
1. Has a subject and verb
2. Can stand on its own
PASS GUM 3.2.b.19.
Use a semicolon between independent clauses
joined by conjunctive adverbs or transitional
expressions followed by a comma.
Moon-dawg, my man! I want to write some
righteous lyrics for an awesome song, but, of
course, one must have perfect grammar if one
expects one’s tune to climb the charts.
I noticed you listed of course and in fact
as transitional expressions to be used
between two independent clauses.
Well, I thought of course and in fact were
parenthetical expressions to be used
as interrupters in the middle of one
independent clause.
Dude, lay an explanation on me!
PASS GUM 3.2.b.19.
Use a semicolon between independent clauses
joined by conjunctive adverbs or transitional
expressions followed by a comma.
They can be
both. Look:
sub.
verb
Olivia, of course, wants to sing.
sub.
verb
sub. verb
Olivia likes singing; of course, she likes surfing
also.
sub.
verb
Olivia ,in fact, enjoys all sports.
sub. verb
sub. verb
Olivia plays basketball; in fact, she is the best player
on her team.
PASS GUM 3.2.b.19.
Use a semicolon between independent clauses
joined by conjunctive adverbs or
transitional expressions followed by a comma.
Now you write two sentences, each with a conjunctive adverb or
transitional expression preceded by a semicolon and followed by a
comma.
1.__________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2.__________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
PASS GUM 3.2.b.42.
Use ’s to make a singular noun possessive.
Definitions and Examples
1. ’s – apostrophe s
2. Singular – one
3. Noun – person (friend); place (school); thing
(book); idea (frustration, happiness)
4. Possessive – show ownership
Ex: Singular noun – friend
Singular possessive noun – friend’s phone
PASS GUM 3.2.b.42.
Use ’s to make a singular noun possessive.
Olivia’s weights / Liz’s skis / Gidget’s racquet
Make your own sentences using the possessive form
for the following singular nouns: wrist / Ms. Jones
1.______________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
2.______________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
PASS GUM 3.2.b.42.
To make a plural noun ending in –s
possessive, add an apostrophe.
Definitions and Examples
1. ’s - apostrophe s
2. Plural - two or more
3. Noun - person (friend); place (school); thing
(book); idea (frustration, happiness)
4. Plural noun ending in -s - friends; schools;
books; ideas (attitudes, goals, possibilities)
5. Possessive - shows ownership
Ex: Plural noun ending in –s - students
Plural possessive noun - students’ grades
PASS GUM 3.2.b.42.
To make a plural noun ending in –s
possessive, add an apostrophe.
Look at the musicians.
Look at the musicians’ guitars!
Look at the graduates.
Look at the graduates’
gowns!
Make your own sentences using the possessive form
for the following plural nouns: singers / teachers.
1.singers_________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
2.teachers________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
PASS GUM 3.2.b.44.
Use an apostrophe and –s to form the
possessive of a plural noun not ending in –s.
adj.
possessive adj.
sub.
verb
-------prep. phrase---------
The children’s desks sat in straight rows.
Bye!
It’s a snow day
for me!
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