History of Project Management
Farrokh Alemi, Ph.D.
Lee Baliton
Chris Smith
1
Ancient History

Examples:






The Great Pyramids of Giza (2,550
B.C.)
The Great Wall of China (221 B.C. - 206
B.C.)
Exceptional planning
Coordination
Allocation
Hundreds of thousands of workers

Paid and Slave labor.
2
Course on Project Management
Ancient History





Examples of ancient projects: The
Great Pyramids of Giza (2,550 B.C.)
and the Great Wall of China (221
B.C. - 206 B.C.)
Exceptional planning
Coordination
Allocation
Hundreds of thousands of workers

Paid and Slave labor.
3
Course on Project Management
Ancient History





Examples of ancient projects: The
Great Pyramids of Giza (2,550 B.C.)
and the Great Wall of China (221
B.C. - 206 B.C.)
Exceptional planning
Coordination
Allocation
Hundreds of thousands of workers

Paid and Slave labor.
4
Course on Project Management
Ancient History





Examples of ancient projects: The
Great Pyramids of Giza (2,550 B.C.)
and the Great Wall of China (221
B.C. - 206 B.C.)
Exceptional planning
Coordination
Allocation
Hundreds of thousands of workers

Paid and Slave labor.
5
Course on Project Management
Ancient History





Examples of ancient projects: The
Great Pyramids of Giza (2,550 B.C.)
and the Great Wall of China (221
B.C. - 206 B.C.)
Exceptional planning
Coordination
Allocation
Hundreds of thousands of workers

Paid and Slave labor.
6
Course on Project Management
Ancient History

Similar basic elements of project
management:
Managing resources
 Maintaining a schedule
 Coordinating different groups


All are used in today’s modern
project management practice

No evidence that they used
optimal scheduling
7
Course on Project Management
Ancient History

Similar basic elements of project
management:
Managing resources
 Maintaining a schedule
 Coordinating different groups


All are used in today’s modern
project management practice

No evidence that they used
optimal scheduling
8
Course on Project Management
Ancient History

Similar basic elements of project
management:
Managing resources
 Maintaining a schedule
 Coordinating different groups


All are used in today’s modern
project management practice

No evidence that they used
optimal scheduling
9
Course on Project Management
Ancient History

Similar basic elements of project
management:
Managing resources
 Maintaining a schedule
 Coordinating different groups


All are used in today’s modern
project management practice

No evidence that they used
optimal scheduling
10
Course on Project Management
Ancient History

Similar basic elements of project
management:
Managing resources
 Maintaining a schedule
 Coordinating different groups


All are used in today’s modern
project management practice

No evidence that they used
optimal scheduling
11
Course on Project Management
Ancient History

Similar basic elements of project
management:
Managing resources
 Maintaining a schedule
 Coordinating different groups


All are used in today’s modern
project management practice

No evidence that they used
optimal scheduling
12
Course on Project Management
Ancient History

Similar basic elements of project
management:
Managing resourcesProject
Management
 Maintaining a schedule
was not really
 Coordinating different groups


the same
All are used in today’s modern
project management practice

No evidence that they used
optimal scheduling
13
Course on Project Management
The Early Years:
Late 19th Century




PM emerged in the growing
complexity of commerce
Seen in transportation, to
manufacturing
Large scale projects caused
large scale management
decisions.
Example is the 1862
Transcontinental Railroad
14
Course on Project Management
The Early Years:
Late 19th Century



PM emerged in the growing
complexity of commerce
Seen in transportation, to
manufacturing
Large scale projects

Example is the 1862
Transcontinental Railroad
15
Course on Project Management
The Early Years:
Late 19th Century



PM emerged in the growing
complexity of commerce
Seen in transportation, to
manufacturing
Large scale projects

Example is the 1862
Transcontinental Railroad
16
Course on Project Management
The Early Years:
Transcontinental Railroad





First large scale project management
Officially started after President
Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad
Act
Authorized to build a railway and a
telegraph line
Granted funding and land
Union Pacific to build west from
Omaha, NE; Central Pacific east
from Sacramento, CA
17
Course on Project Management
The Early Years:
Transcontinental Railroad





The Transcontinental Railroad
considered first large scale project
management
President Lincoln signed the Pacific
Railroad Act
Authorized to build a railway and a
telegraph line
Granted funding and land
Union Pacific to build west from
Omaha, NE; Central Pacific east
from Sacramento, CA
18
Course on Project Management
The Early Years:
Transcontinental Railroad


The Transcontinental Railroad
considered first large scale project
management
President Lincoln signed the Pacific
Railroad Act




Railway
Telegraph line
Granted funding and land
Union Pacific to build west from
Omaha, NE; Central Pacific east
from Sacramento, CA
19
Course on Project Management
The Early Years:
Transcontinental Railroad





The Transcontinental Railroad
considered first large scale project
management
Officially started after President
Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad
Act
Authorized to build a railway and a
telegraph line
Granted funding and land
Union Pacific to build west from
Omaha, NE; Central Pacific east
from Sacramento, CA
20
Course on Project Management
The Early Years:
Transcontinental Railroad




The Transcontinental Railroad
considered first large scale project
management
Officially started after President
Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad
Act
Authorized to build a railway and a
telegraph line
Granted funding and land


Union Pacific
Central Pacific
21
Course on Project Management
The Early Years:
Transcontinental Railroad
Transit party for running Lines - Salary per mo.
1 Principal Assistant
$250
1 Transit man
$150
2 Chainmen, each $50 $100
2 Axemen, each $40
$80
2 Flagmen, each $35
$70
1 Stakeman
$35
For running Levels.
1 Leveller
2 Rodmen, each $50 $100
1 Axeman
$35
For running test Levels.
1 Leveller $80
Party for taking Trigonometrical Observations of points along the line
tracing up streams, rivers, &c.
1 transit man
$100
1 Rodman $45
1 Axeman $35
$100
Miscellaneous.
2 Tape men, each $40 $80
For sketching Topography.
1 Topographer $100
1 Draughtsman $100
2 Hunters, each $40
$80
2 Teamsters, each $50
$100
2 Wagons and Horses
–
1 Steward or Commissary $75
1 Cook
$50
22
Course on Project Management
Source: Wikipedia: Theodore Judah http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Judah
The Early Years:
Late 19th Century

Mid-19th century business
leaders faced with task of
organizing labor in
manufacturing and assembly
23
Course on Project Management
The Early Years:
Late 19th Century

Mid-19th century business
leaders faced with task of
organizing labor in
manufacturing and assembly
Coffee break
before and now
24
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1900-1950 – Henry Gantt

Modern project management






Construction
Engineering
Defense
Henry Gantt forefather of project
management
Known for planning and control
techniques
“Gantt” chart keeps track of project
schedule.
25
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1900-1950 – Henry Gantt


Modern project management came
from construction, engineering, and
defense
Henry Gantt forefather of project
management


Known for planning and control
techniques
“Gantt” chart keeps track of project
schedule.
26
Course on Project Management
Source Gantt Charts at http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html
Modern Project Management
1900-1950 – Henry Gantt


Modern project management came
from construction, engineering, and
defense
Henry Gantt forefather of project
management


Known for planning and control
techniques
“Gantt” chart keeps track of project
schedule.
27
Course on Project Management
Source Gantt Charts at http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html
Modern Project Management
1900-1950 – Gantt chart
28
Course on Project Management
Source Gantt Charts at http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html
Modern Project Management
1900-1950 – Gantt chart
29
Course on Project Management
Source Gantt Charts at http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html
Modern Project Management
1900-1950 – Gantt chart
30
Course on Project Management
Source Gantt Charts at http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html
Modern Project Management
1900-1950 – Gantt chart
31
Course on Project Management
Source Gantt Charts at http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html
Modern Project Management
1900-1950 – Frederic Taylor


Work breakdown
Piecemeal work
32
Course on Project Management
Source: Fredrick Taylor entry in Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Winslow_Taylor
Modern Project Management
1900-1950 – Frederic Taylor
33
Course on Project Management
Source: Fredrick Taylor entry in Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Winslow_Taylor
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond



Pre-1950’s ad-hoc project
management
Gantt charts and other informal
techniques were used
Early 1950’s modern project
management
34
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond



Pre-1950’s ad-hoc project
management
Gantt charts and other informal
techniques were used
Early 1950’s modern project
management
35
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond



Pre-1950’s ad-hoc project
management
Gantt charts and other informal
techniques were used
Early 1950’s modern project
management
36
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - PERT


Two mathematical scheduling
methods
“Program Evaluation Review
Technique” or PERT
Analyzes the tasks
 Identifies minimum amount of time

37
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - PERT


Edwin Booz


Two mathematical scheduling
methods
“Program Evaluation Review
Technique” or PERT
Analyzes the tasks
Identifies minimum amount of
time
38
Course on Project Management
Source: The Story of Consulting: 1920-1939
http://www.agcon.com/HTML/site_content/page_episode_2_en.html
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - PERT


Two mathematical scheduling
methods
“Program Evaluation Review
Technique” or PERT
Analyzes the tasks
 Identifies minimum amount of time

Edwin Booz
39
Course on Project Management
Source: The Story of Consulting: 1920-1939
http://www.agcon.com/HTML/site_content/page_episode_2_en.html
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - PERT
40
Course on Project Management
Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Image%3APert_chart_colored.gif
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - PERT
Duration

Optimistic
 4 Most likely  Pessimisti
c
6
41
Course on Project Management
Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Image%3APert_chart_colored.gif
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM



The “Critical Path Method”
developed for plant maintenance
projects
Algorithm for scheduling project
activities.
A CPM diagram based on the
following project elements:



List of all activities required for project
Length of time for each activity
Dependencies between the activities.
42
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM



The “Critical Path Method”
developed for plant maintenance
projects
Algorithm for scheduling project
activities.
A CPM diagram based on the
following project elements:



List of all activities required for project
Length of time for each activity
Dependencies between the activities.
43
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM



The “Critical Path Method”
developed for plant maintenance
projects
Algorithm for scheduling project
activities.
CPM diagram



List of all activities required for project
Length of time for each activity
Dependencies between the activities.
44
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM



The “Critical Path Method”
developed for plant maintenance
projects
Algorithm for scheduling project
activities.
CPM diagram



List of all activities required for project
Length of time for each activity
Dependencies between the activities.
45
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM



The “Critical Path Method”
developed for plant maintenance
projects
Algorithm for scheduling project
activities.
CPM diagram



List of all activities required for project
Length of time for each activity
Dependencies among the activities
46
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM



The “Critical Path Method”
developed for plant maintenance
projects
Algorithm for scheduling project
activities.
A CPM diagram based on the
following project elements:



List of all activities required for project
Length of time for each activity
Dependencies among the activities
47
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM

CPM diagram of a construction project
48
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM
49
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM
50
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM
51
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM
52
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM
53
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM
54
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM
55
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM
Critical Path Method allowed the
selection of a path that would minimize
the time to end of the project. This
allowed project managers, for the first
time, to optimize the sequence of
scheduling project tasks
56
Course on Project Management
Modern Project Management
1950 and beyond - CPM
A lot of
misunderstanding
57
Course on Project Management
This lecture continues in a
separate set of slides
Part two of this lecture focuses on
recent history of project management
58
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History of Project management