History of Computer First, why should we spend time on recounting the events of the past Why we not talk about what is happening today and what will happen in future.? Why? If you do not learn from the history, you may repeat it. Recounting the events of the past provides an excellent opportunity to: learn lessons discover patterns of evolution, and use them in the future If we learn from history well, we will: neither repeat the mistakes of the past nor would we waste time re-inventing what already has been invented Vacuum Tube - 1904 John Fleming, an English developed the very first one Physicist, These tubes have now been almost completely replaced by more reliable and less costly transistors ABC - 1939 Attanasoff-Berry Computer John Attanasoff & Clifford Berry at Iowa State College World’s first electronic computer The first computer that used binary numbers instead of decimal Helped graduation students in solving simultaneous linear equations Harvard Mark 1 - 1943 Howard Aiken of Harvard University The first program controlled machine Included all the ideas proposed by Babbage for the Analytical Engine The last famous electromechanical computer ENIAC – 1946 Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer World’s first large-scale, general-purpose electronic computer Built by John Mauchly & John Echert at the University of Pennsylvania Developed for military applications 5,000 operations/sec, 19000 tubes, 30 ton 9’ x 80’ 150 kilowatts: Used to dim the lights in the City of Philadelphia down when it ran Transistor - 1947 Invented by Shockly, Bardeen, and Brattain at the Bell Labs in the US Compared to vacuum tubes, it offered: much smaller size better reliability much lower power consumption much lower cost All modern computers miniaturized transistors are made of Tubes replaced mechanicals Transistors replaced tubes What is going to replace the transistors? Floppy Disk - 1950 Invented at the Imperial University in Tokyo by Yoshiro Nakamats Provided faster access to programs and data as compared with magnetic tape Compiler - 1951 Grace Hopper of US Navy develops the very first high-level language compiler Before the invention of this compiler, developing a computer program was tedious and prone to errors A compiler translates a high-level language (that is easy to understand for humans) into a language that the computer can understand UNIVAC 1 - 1951 UNIVersal Automatic Computer Echert & Mauchly Computer Company First computer designed for commercial apps First computer that could not only manipulate numbers but text data as well Max speed: 1905 operations/sec Cost: US$1,000,000 5000 tubes. 943 cu ft. 8 tons. 100 kilowatts Between 1951-57, 48 were sold BASIC - 1965 Beginner All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code Developed by Thomas Kurtz & John Kemeny at Dartmouth College The first programming language designed for the General purpose The grand-mother of the most popular programming language in the world today – Visual BASIC Computer Mouse - 1965 Invented by Douglas Englebart Did not become popular until 1983, when Apple Computers adopted the concept ARPANET - 1969 A network of around 60,000 computers developed by the US Dept of Defense to facilitate communications between research organizations and universities Intel 4004 - 1971 The first microprocessor Microprocessor: A complete computer on a chip Speed: 750 kHz Altair 8800 - 1975 The commercially available 1st PC Based on the Intel 8080 Cost $397 Had 256 bytes of memory Cray 1 - 1976 The first commercial supercomputer Supercomputers are state-of-the-art machines designed to perform calculations as fast as the current technology allows Used to solve extremely complex tasks: weather prediction, simulation of atomic explosions; aircraft design; movie animation Cray 1 could do 167 million calculations a second; the current state-of the-art machines can do many trillion (1012) calculations per second IBM PC & MS DOS - 1981 IBM PC: The tremendously popular PC; the grand-daddy of 95% of the PC’s in use today MS DOS: The tremendously popular operating system that came bundled with the IBM PC Apple Macintosh - 1984 The first popular, user-friendly, WIMP-based PC Based on the WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointing Device) ideas first developed for the Star computer at Xerox PARC (1981) World Wide Web -1989 Tim Berners Lee – British physicist 1989 – At the European Center for Nuclear Energy Research (CERN) in Geneva 1993 - The 1st major browser “Mosaic” was developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Deep Blue -vs- Kasparov 1997 In 1997 Deep Blue, a supercomputer designed by IBM, beat Gary Kasparov, the World Chess Champion That computer was exceptionally fast, did not get tired or bored. It just kept on analyzing the situation and kept on searching until it found the perfect move from its list of possible moves Continue.. It could analyze 300 billion chess moves just in 3 minutes. Can Computer Think? Mobile Phone-Computer A small computer, no bigger than the hand set of desktop phone Can do whatever an Internet-capable computer can plus can function as a regular phone First consumer device formed by the fusion of computing and wireless telecommunication What is he next major Milestone? 1. Mechanical computing 2. Electro-mechanical computing 3. Vacuum tube computing 4. 5. Transistor computing (the current state-of the-art) Quantum computing QUANTUM MECHANICS is the branch of physics which describes the activity of subatomic particles, i.e. the particles that make up atoms Generation of Computer First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation First Generation(1945 – 1956) • Main processing device : Vacuum tubes First generation computer Advantages : . It was only electronic device . First device to hold memory Disadvantages : . Too bulky i.e large in size . Vacuum tubes burn frequently . They were producing heat . Maintenance problems . Cooling is required . Not portable. (Because of Bulky Size) . Very Expensive To Bulky in Size Vacuum tubes burn frequently Second Generation Computer (1956 – 1963) • Main processing device : Transistor Second Generation Computer… Advantages : . Size reduced considerably . The very fast . Very much reliable Disadvantages : . They over heated quickly . Maintenance problems . Cooling was still required. . Although size was reduced but still not portable. . Expensive Third Generation Computer(1964-1971) Main processing device : IC (integrated circuit) Advantages : . ICs are very small in size . Improved performance . Production cost cheap Disadvantages : . ICs are sophisticated Fourth Generation Computer(1971-upto Now) Main processing device : ICs with VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) Fourth Generation Computer… Advantages : . It is a compact . Less power consumption . Production cost is cheap . Portable Disadvantages : . No artificial intelligent. Fifth Generation Computer(present & future) • Main processing device : ICs with parallel processing Fifth Generation Computer… Voice recognition Artificial intelligence Quantum computing Bio computing Nano technology Learning Natural languages Question Can we live with out Computer?