History of Computer



First, why should we spend time on
recounting the events of the past
Why we not talk about what is happening
today and what will happen in future.?
Why?


If you do not learn from the history, you may
repeat it.
Recounting the events of the past provides
an excellent opportunity to:
 learn lessons
 discover patterns of evolution, and
 use them in the future

If we learn from history well, we will:
 neither repeat the mistakes of the past
 nor would we waste time re-inventing
what already has been invented
Vacuum Tube - 1904


John
Fleming,
an
English
developed the very first one
Physicist,
These tubes have now been almost
completely replaced by more reliable and
less costly transistors
ABC - 1939

Attanasoff-Berry Computer

John Attanasoff & Clifford Berry at Iowa
State College

World’s first electronic computer

The first computer that used binary numbers
instead of decimal

Helped graduation students in solving
simultaneous linear equations
Harvard Mark 1 - 1943

Howard Aiken of Harvard University

The first program controlled machine


Included all the ideas proposed by Babbage
for the Analytical Engine
The last famous electromechanical computer
ENIAC – 1946







Electronic
Numerical
Integrator
And
Computer
World’s first large-scale, general-purpose
electronic computer
Built by John Mauchly & John Echert at the
University of Pennsylvania
Developed for military applications
5,000 operations/sec, 19000 tubes, 30 ton
9’ x 80’
150 kilowatts: Used to dim the lights in the
City of Philadelphia down when it ran
Transistor - 1947



Invented by Shockly, Bardeen, and Brattain
at the Bell Labs in the US
Compared to vacuum tubes, it offered:
 much smaller size
 better reliability
 much lower power consumption
 much lower cost
All modern computers
miniaturized transistors
are
made
of

Tubes replaced mechanicals

Transistors replaced tubes

What is going to replace the transistors?
Floppy Disk - 1950
Invented at the Imperial University in Tokyo
by Yoshiro Nakamats
Provided faster access to programs and data
as compared with magnetic tape
Compiler - 1951



Grace Hopper of US Navy develops the very
first high-level language compiler
Before the invention of this compiler,
developing a computer program was tedious
and prone to errors
A compiler translates a high-level language
(that is easy to understand for humans) into
a language that the computer can
understand
UNIVAC 1 - 1951








UNIVersal Automatic Computer
Echert & Mauchly Computer Company
First computer designed for commercial apps
First computer that could not only
manipulate numbers but text data as well
Max speed: 1905 operations/sec
Cost: US$1,000,000
5000 tubes. 943 cu ft. 8 tons. 100 kilowatts
Between 1951-57, 48 were sold
BASIC - 1965




Beginner All-purpose Symbolic Instruction
Code
Developed by Thomas Kurtz & John Kemeny
at Dartmouth College
The first programming language designed for
the General purpose
The grand-mother of the most popular
programming language in the world today –
Visual BASIC
Computer Mouse - 1965


Invented by Douglas Englebart
Did not become popular until 1983, when
Apple Computers adopted the concept
ARPANET - 1969

A network of around 60,000 computers
developed by the US Dept of Defense to
facilitate communications between research
organizations and universities
Intel 4004 - 1971



The first microprocessor
Microprocessor: A complete computer
on a chip
Speed: 750 kHz
Altair 8800 - 1975

The commercially available 1st PC

Based on the Intel 8080

Cost $397

Had 256 bytes of memory
Cray 1 - 1976




The first commercial supercomputer
Supercomputers are state-of-the-art machines
designed to perform calculations as fast as the
current technology allows
Used to solve extremely complex tasks:
weather prediction, simulation of atomic
explosions; aircraft design; movie animation
Cray 1 could do 167 million calculations a
second; the current state-of the-art machines
can do many trillion (1012) calculations per
second
IBM PC & MS DOS - 1981


IBM PC: The tremendously popular
PC; the grand-daddy of 95% of the
PC’s in use today
MS DOS: The tremendously popular
operating
system
that
came
bundled with the IBM PC
Apple Macintosh - 1984


The first popular, user-friendly,
WIMP-based PC
Based on the WIMP (Windows,
Icons, Menus, Pointing Device)
ideas first developed for the Star
computer at Xerox PARC (1981)
World Wide Web -1989



Tim Berners Lee – British physicist
1989 – At the European Center for Nuclear
Energy Research (CERN) in Geneva
1993 - The 1st major browser “Mosaic” was
developed at the National Center for
Supercomputing Applications at the University
of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Deep Blue -vs- Kasparov 1997
In 1997 Deep Blue, a supercomputer
designed by IBM, beat Gary Kasparov,
the World Chess Champion
That computer was exceptionally fast,
did not get tired or bored. It just kept
on analyzing the situation and kept on
searching until it found the perfect
move from its list of possible moves
Continue..

It could analyze 300 billion chess moves
just in 3 minutes.
Can Computer
Think?

Mobile Phone-Computer



A small computer, no bigger than the hand
set of desktop phone
Can do whatever an Internet-capable
computer can plus can function as a regular
phone
First consumer device formed by the fusion of
computing and wireless telecommunication
What is he next major
Milestone?
1.
Mechanical computing
2.
Electro-mechanical computing
3.
Vacuum tube computing
4.
5.
Transistor computing
(the current state-of the-art)
Quantum computing

QUANTUM MECHANICS is the branch of
physics which describes the activity of
subatomic particles, i.e. the particles
that make up atoms
Generation of Computer





First Generation
Second Generation
Third Generation
Fourth Generation
Fifth Generation
First Generation(1945 – 1956)
• Main processing
device : Vacuum
tubes
First generation computer











Advantages :
. It was only electronic device
. First device to hold memory
Disadvantages :
. Too bulky i.e large in size
. Vacuum tubes burn frequently
. They were producing heat
. Maintenance problems
. Cooling is required
. Not portable. (Because of Bulky Size)
. Very Expensive
To Bulky in Size
Vacuum tubes burn
frequently
Second Generation Computer (1956 – 1963)
• Main processing
device : Transistor
Second Generation Computer…










Advantages :
. Size reduced considerably
. The very fast
. Very much reliable
Disadvantages :
. They over heated quickly
. Maintenance problems
. Cooling was still required.
. Although size was reduced but still not portable.
. Expensive
Third Generation Computer(1964-1971)

Main processing device : IC
(integrated circuit)






Advantages :
. ICs are very small in size
. Improved performance
. Production cost cheap
Disadvantages :
. ICs are sophisticated
Fourth Generation Computer(1971-upto Now)

Main processing device : ICs with VLSI
(Very Large Scale Integration)
Fourth Generation Computer…







Advantages :
. It is a compact
. Less power consumption
. Production cost is cheap
. Portable
Disadvantages :
. No artificial intelligent.
Fifth Generation
Computer(present & future)
• Main processing device : ICs with
parallel processing
Fifth Generation Computer…







Voice recognition
Artificial intelligence
Quantum computing
Bio computing
Nano technology
Learning
Natural languages
Question
Can we live
with out
Computer?

Descargar

Slide 1